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1^ g PROPERTY Or 

mwsiM 






Midmh 




ARTES SCIFNTiA VERITAS 




Pi;lpit Rock, Cape Sen Ah 



•v. 



THE 



ABORIGINES OF. YICTORIA: 



WITH 



NOTES RELATING TO THE HABITS 



OF THS 



^ix&vt% 4 ^te i^rt» 4 ^tt^tralm mi tomania. 



OOHPILKD FBOH VAIUOOB •0CBCE8 FOR 



THE GOVERNMENT OF VICTORIA 



BT 



E.'BEOUGH SMYTH, 



F.L.8., F.O.S., ASSOC. INST. C.S., MEM. OBO. 8O0. OV FBANCE, HON. COSR. MEM. 80C. OF ABT8 AND 
SCIENCES OF UTBECHT, BOSTON 800. OF NAT. HIST., ISIS SOC. OF DBB8DBN, 

ETC., ETC., ETC. 



VOL. II. 



JOHN FERRES, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 

PUBLISHED ALSO Bf QBOBOE BOBERTSON, LITTLE COLLINS STREET, MELBOURNE. 

LONDON : 

TRUBNEB AND CO., 57 AND 59 LUDOATE BILL; AND GEORGE ROBEBTSON, 

17 WARWICK SQUARE. 



Shi 
v/ 3 



t 



) 



I 



CONTENTS-VOL. II. 



LiBT OF Illustrations 



PAGK 
V 



Languaqe. — OnomatopoBia. — Words formed after the advent of the whites. — Sign- 
language. — Sanscrit roots. — ^Words resembling English. — ^Languages named after the 
negative. — ^Tables illnstrative of the languages spoken by the natives of Victoria. — 
Pronouns. — Numeral adjectives. — Comparison of the language spoken in Victoria 
with the- dialects of More ton Bay, Dippil, Kamilaroi, Bulloo Creek, Lake Macquarie, 
Comu tribe, Adelaide, Fort Lincoln, Croker Island, Adelaide Biver, King George's 
Sound, Swan River, &c. — Sameness of personal pronouns. — ^Numerals. — ^Interjections, 
cries, terms of abuse, &c. — ^Language of the natives of Lake Tyers in Gippsland — 
Lake Wellington, Gippsland — Brabrolong, Gippsland — Lake Hindmarsh — ^Western 
district. — Lists of words compiled by the Local Guardians of Aborigines. — In- 
flections. — ^Vocabularies. — YarraYarra and other tribes. — Native names of trees, 
shrubs, plants, &c. — Native names of localities and natural features in Victoria - 1 

Appendices, — A, Notes and Anecdotes of the Aborigines of Australia, by Philip Chauncy, 

J.P., District Surveyor at Ballarat - - - - - -221 

B. Traditions of the Australian Aborigines on the Namoi, Barwan, and other 

Tributaries of the Darling, communicated by the Bev. William Bidley, M.A., &c. 286 

C. Is[otes on the Natives of Australia, by Albert A. C. Le Souef - - - 289 

D. Notes on the Aborigines of Cooper's Creek, by Alfred W. Howitt, F.G.S., P.M. 

and Warden, Baimsdale ........ SOO 

E. Notes relating to the Aborigines of Australia, by the late John Moore Davis - 810 

F. Notes on the System of Consanguinity and Kinship of the Brabrolong Tribe, 

North Gippsland, by A. W. Howitt, F.G.S., P.M. and Warden, Baimsdale - 323 

G. Notes on the Language and Customs of the Tribe inhabiting the country known 

as Eotoopna, by William Locke --.--.. 338 

H. Hunting the Blacks, by the late A. F. A. Greeves . . . - . 336 

I. The Crania of the Natives, by Professor Half ord, of the Melbourne University - 340 

The Aborioinbs of Tasmania. — ^Physical character. — ^Mental characteristics. — ^Numbers. 
— Birth, &c.— Marriage. — Death and burial. — ^Encampments, &c. — Food. — Diseases. 
— Dress and ornaments. — Weapons.— Implements. — Canoes. — Stone Implements. — 
Fire. — ^Language ...-.-- -- 379 



Lndj£x -.---_---.-- 436 



308740 



mta^mSinaaim 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.-VOL. II. 



Pulpit Book, Cape Sghanck (Frontispiece). 

PAGE 

King George's Sound, 1846 -...-. to face page 221 

MimyongSy ontlet of Lake Connewarreu --.... 233 

NatiTe of King George's Sound (male) ---...- 236 

Natires of King George's Sound (woman and child) ..... 237 

Eertamaroo (King John) ........ 246 

Mocata (King John's wife) - - - - - - - - 247 

Natives of King George's Sound ----•... 248 

War danceandacorrobboree(No. 1) - - - - - - 267 

Mimic war dance, hunting scenes, &c. (No. 2) - - - - - - 257 

Groups of squatters -------.- 258 

Letter - - - - ... . . . to face page 261 

Head of a native with ornaments (Cooper's Creek) ..... 302 

Adze or gouge ----.---.- 304 

Hand (sign) --.--.--.- 308 

Hand (sign) _-.--..-.. 308 

Hand (sign) -----.-... sos 

Hands clasped (sign) ......... 393 

Hand (copy of ) marked on rock ........ 309 

Diagram, showing method of flguiing skulls - - - - to face page 341 

■ 

Skull of Australian (A)— 

Front view ....--... 343 

Side view ......... 343 

Posterior view ... ....._ 345 

From above ....... 345 

Inferior view .-----.-. 347 

Skull of Morgan, the bushranger (European), (M) — 

Front view ......... 349 

Side view ...--.-.. 349 

Posterior view ..--...._ 351 

From above -.-----.- 351 

Inferior aspect ----...-.. 353 

Skull of a Chinese ---..-..- 355 

Skull of Australian (probably female), (B) — 

Front view ...... . _ 357 

Side view .-.-.--.- 357 

From above -..-.. -. 359 

In&rior aspect ..-..--. 359 

Skull of Australian (C)— 

Front view .--.--.-. 351 

Side view ----..... 351 

From above -- -....,. 353 

Inferior aspect ........ 353 



VI 1LLU8TEATI0NS. 

Skull of Anstralian (D)— ^agb 

Front view -._.--..- 3^5 

Side view - - . . . .... 865 

From above - - -- - - - - - 867 

Inferior aspect -----.-_ 357 

Skoil of King Jimmy, of the Mordialloc Tribe (E)~ 

Front view -----..-_ 359 

Side view -.-_._... 359 

Upper view ---.-...- 371 

Posterior aspect - - - - - - - - 371 

Section .-- -.-..-_ 373 

Section, with base lines, chords, angles, &c. - - - - 373 

Necklace of shells ----..,_. 399 

Stone implement -.--_..-_ 495 

Stone implements .... ..... 405 

Stone implements --....... 407 

Map of Australia, including Tasmania ...... £nd of vol. 



Sangttajgt. 



It is not possible for any one who has not lived for a long period with the 
natives to undertake any snch task as that of writing a grammar of the native 
tongue. The number of dialects in Victoria alone would require careful inves- 
tigation for many years before it would be practicable to give any trustworthy 
account of them ; and it appeared to me that I would best serve the interests 
of philology by collecting information from gentlemen who have had the most 
favorable opportunities of making themselves acquainted with some of the 
dialects. 

In addition to the native words and phrases which occur in other parts of 
this work, there are now given here the following papers, namely : — 

1. Language of the natives, by the Bev. John Bulmer, of Lake Tyers, 

Gippsland. 

2. Language of the natives, by the Bev. F. A. Hagenauer, of Lake 

Wellington, Gippsland. 

3. The dialect of the Brabrolong and neighbouring tribes, by A. W. Howitt, 

F.G.S., Ac, &c. 

4. Language of the natives of Lake Hindmarsh, by the Bev. A. Hartmann. 

5. Language of the natives of Lake Hindmarsh, by the Bev. F. W. Spieseke. 

6. Words and sentences in the native language, by Charles Gray, Esq., 

Wickliffe. 

7. Some words of the native language of the Western tribes of Victoria, 

by N. Thomly, Esq. 

8. Sentences in the native language, written down by Mr. Joseph Shaw, 

Lake Condah. 

9. Vocabulary of the language spoken by the tribes inhabiting the country 

about the Bivers Crawford, Stokes, lower parts of the Wannon and 
Glenelg, compiled by the late C. J. Tyers, Esq., in 1842. 

10. Lists of words, English-Native, compiled by the Guardians of Abori- 

gines in the Colony of Victoria. 

11. Declension of noun, use of possessive pronouns, &c., by the Bev. Mr. 

Hartmann, Ijie Bev. Mr. Bulmer, the Bev. Mr. Hagenauer, and Mr. 
John Green. 

12. Vocabulary, remarks on the structure of the language, &c., by Mr. John 

Green, Coranderrk, Upper Yarra. 

^ . VOL. 11. A 



^ THE ABORIGINES OF YICTORIA: 

13. Succinct sketch of the Aboriginal langaagej by the late Wm. 

ThomaSy Esq., Guardian of Aborigines. 

14. Language of the Aborigines of the Colony of Victoria (arranged anew), 

by the late Daniel Bunce, Esq. 

15. Dialect of the Ja-jow-er-ong race, by Joseph Parker, Esq. 

16. Words in the dialects of the natives of (Jeelong, Colac, Groulbum, 

Murray, and Campaspe, and in those of the Witouro, Jajowrong, 
Knenkoren-wurro, Burapper, and Ta-oungurong tribes. 

1 7. Native names of trees, shrubs, plants, &c. 

18. Native names of localities in Victoria, by the Local Guardians of 

Aborigines. 

19. Native names of localities in Victoria, from papers furnished by the 

Surveyor-Gteneral of the colony. 

20. Native names of several hills, rivers, Ac, by the late C. J. Tyers, Esq., 

1840. 

21. Native names of places in Victoria, by Gideon S. Lang, Esq. 

22. Native words and names, Kerang, Lower Loddon, by H. Tavemer, Esq. 

23. A list of words compiled by Henry J. Withers, Esq., Berrembeel, 

Wagga Wagga, New South Wales. 

The papers contributed by the Bev. John Bulmer, of Lake l^ers in Gipps- 
land, the Bev. A. Hartmann and the Bev. F. W. Spieseke, of Lake Hindmarsh, 
Mr. Joseph Parker, of the Loddon, and the Bev. F. A. Hagenauer, of Lake 
Wellington in Gippsland, are of great value. I obtained from some of these 
gentlemen short stories and phrases in the native tongue, written down exactly 
as the natives speak, with the corresponding English words below ; and I 
believe these will assist the philologist more than if I had given merely state- 
ments and opinions relative to the grammar and structure of the language. 

The sounds of the letters that are used in writing English do not convey 
the sounds of the words of the native tongue. It is often impossible to write 
down correctly any word beginning with B. It is frequently sounded like P. 
Boorp (Loddon) is written Poorp (Lower Murray), and Baramul is in like 
manner written FaramuL D is so sounded as to perplex the enquirer. One 
word will suffice to show this : — 

/ DyaA - - - - Upper Bichardson. 

Tyar - - - - Lake Hindmarsh. 

TAa - - - - Birregurra. 

Tcha - - - - Glenelg. 

Jah - - - - Hamilton. 

JOjak - - - - Glenorchy. 

Utehar - - - Murray. 

Char - - - - Lower Loddon. 

Yar - - - - Horsham. 

D has its proper sound in such words as Bidderup (dead), Turdenden (new), 
Urdin (straight), &c. 



Ground 



LANGUAGE. 8 

An examination of the words in the vocabnlaries shows that there are 
numerous equally remarkable dialectical transitions of consonants. 

H is sounded clearly and sharply at the end of a word, often like R, as in 
LaA and Lar (a stone), and Wdk and War (a crow). 

In such words as Kcrak^ DraSj and Merang^ the sound of B is rough, 
rolling, and strong. 

Ng has a nasal sound, which it is not easy for Europeans to imitate. 
There are no sibilants in the native tongue ; no articles ; and, it is supposed, 
no distinctions in gender (with certain exceptions noticed by Mr. Threlkeld).* 
There are dual forms of speech. 
There are interrogative pronouns. 

The plural is usually formed by placing a numeral before the substantive, 
the substantive not chauging its form except for euphony. This, however, is 
not the rule in all dialects. 

The numerals are "one" and "two," other numbers being expressed by 
combinations of the words expressing "one" and "two;" but this rule again 
is not of universal application. In some dialects it is said that there are 
distinct and separate words for " three," " five," and " seven." 
Suffixes are used. 

There are no terms to express abstract ideas. 
A great many words are onomatopoeic in their origin. 
Sign-language is used. 

Words originating in sounds which the words themselves are intended to 
imitate are probably very numerous in all the languages and dialects, but the 
changes which the several tongues have undergone during a long lapse of time 
may prevent the discovery of the origin of many of these roots. 

A few words which are undoubtedly onomatopoeic will suffice to show that 
a thorough examination of the Australian languages would result in valuable 
acquisitions to philology : — 

Crow - - - Wa-dk or WattgK 

Magpie - . - Koorabatikoolcu 

Mopoke - - - Wookrook. 

Dove - - - Koorookookoo. 

Plover - - - Petereet or PerrethperreL (English, Pewet.) 

Oat - * - UrUj or Yumy or Yoam. 

Thunder - - - Woonrduble^ or Drumhullabulj or MuTiHUer^ or 

Mooroobri. 
Laugh . • - Kinka. (English, Kink.) 

Teeth - ^ - Leah or Teera. 
Tongue - - - Tallang. 

* Hr. Balmer, who is a keen obflerrer and well acguainted with the laogiiagef spoken on the 
Murray and in Gippsland, informs me that in one of the dialects of the Murray the blacks will say 
to a man Purragia (*<yoa lie"), and to a woman Purragaga ("you lie**). Will the peculiarities of 
the dialects eyer be known ? 



THE ABORIGINES OF YICTOBIA: 



Battle - 
To whistle 
To blow - 
To sneeze 
Stone plover 
Frogs 
The emu - 



- Moorrdr-moarrd. 

- Whee-ree4eu. 

- Bo(Hroo-knin. 

- Chee^koomrder. 

- Waoloo-looL 

- Kong-homg. (So called from the noise they make.) 

- Kong-hhrcng. (So named from the noise it 

makes.) 

When the white settlers brought their horses, cattle, and sheep, and many 
appliances of civilization to Australia, the natives were compelled to coin 
several new words, in order to make themselves understood. Some of these 
are expressive, and in their formation highly instructive. I wUl quote a few 
examples : — 

- Chiehrckmk. 

- Pig-pig. 

- Yeep or Eti^^. 

- Kirt-kirt-tar-nuk or KtU-kut-tamook (many vessels). 

- KocHTOO-nCn. {Kor-ror is the word for kangaroo.) 

- Karl (from the noise he makes when he snarls). 

- Wckhroo-kTiee^hal'loop (the mouth of the mussel). 

- Tar-Tiook (the native name for the wooden vessel 
used by them). 

- Doom-^omre-bur-ar-mul. (Having reference to its 
shape, like an emu.) 

- Boorp-e-lar (the head of the house). 

- Marfnrbull (that is to say " fat "). 

- Drumrbullalnil (thunder). 

- Bul^li-to Kocron (large canoe). 

- Wye4H> Kooron (small canoe). 

Sign-language is used more or less throughout Australia. Men ignorant 
of each other^s language manage to communicate their ideas by making signs 
with the hand. 

Mr. Alfred Howitt, in his paper on the Natives of Cooper^s Creek, gives 
a description of the gesture-language of the people of that oountry, and the 
subject is mentioned also by Mr. Samuel Ghkson. 

The hands and fingers are often used by the natives when they find they 
have no words to express their meaning — ^as, for instance, when they desire to 
convey the idea of numbers exceeding those in their vocabulary. A native will 
hold up his hands, spread out his fingers, and open and shut them rapidly, 
when he wishes to give a notion of the great numbers of kangaroos he has 
seen, or great numbers of blacks. 

It is believed that they have several signs, known only to themselves, or to 
those amongst the whites who have had intercourse with them for lengthened 
periods, which convey information readily and accurately. Indeed, because of 
their use of signs, it is the firm belief of many (some uneducated and some 



Barn-door fowl 

Swine 

Sheep 

Horse 

Cattle - 

Dog (introduced) 

Spoon 

Pot or kettle - 

Bottle - 

Boof 

Candle - 
Gun 
Ship 
Boat 



LANGUAGE. o 

educated) that the natives of Australia are acquainted with the secrets of 
Freemasonry. 

Mr. Samuel Bennett, in his valuable work on Atistralian Discovery and 
Colonization^ gives some words of the Australian tongue which in sound and 
meaning are allied to words used by the Aryan race. They are as follows : — 

Gin or Gunj a woman ; Greek, yvvri {gun£) ; and derivative words in 
English, such as generate, generation, and the like. 

t7(?^aman; Persian, Jw^; 'hdXvs^.yjuven-is. 

Gibber J Kibba^ or Kepa, a rock; Arab, kaba; Moorish, ffiber, as in 
Gibraltar ; Hebrew, kefas. 

Cobbera or Cobray the head; English, cob; Spanish, cobra; German, 
kopf. 

Tioray land or country ; Latin, terra; French, terre; English, territory, 

HielemaUj a shield; Saxon, heilan; English, helm or helmet (a little 
shield for the head). 

Moray or Murry^ great, large, or much; Celtic, mor or more; English, 
more^ the comparative of much. 

Gnara^ a knot or tangle ; English, gnarhd (ftill of knots). 

Kiradjeej a doctor; Greek, x^H^^py^* Persian, khoajih; English, mr- 
geon; Old English (obsolete), chirurgeon, 

Cabohn^ good, true, great. Words of the same or similar meaning, of 
which "bon" is the root, are found in most of the European (Latin) 
languages. 

Yarraj flowing; WaHo^arra, the beard (hair flowing from the chin). 
The names of several British rivers, such as the Yare, the Yarrow, and 
others, as well as many Australian streams, as the Yarra-yarra (flow- 
ing-flowing), seem to have had a common origin. The word ^^hair" is 
perhaps another form of the same word ; as well as " arrow," the bolt 
shot from a bow. 

Mar-reyj wet; Mer or Mar^ water. This root occurs in the names of 
numbers of waters, streams, and rivers in Australia, as well as in 
Europe ; in the latter generally applied to the sea or a large body of 
water, as in Boulogne-sur-mer ; Weston-super-mare ; Windermere, 
&c.; Hebrew or Phoenician, mara; Latin, marcj the sea or a great 
river. 

Bo'ye or Bogy^ a ghost or an object of terror ; English, bogy^ bugaboo. 

KalavMiy a reed, the rod or staff of a spear; Greek, vaXafcoc; Latin, 
calamus; Hindostanne, callum. 

Gunyay a place for shelter ; Persian or Arabic, gunn. 

Mah, to strike ; Hindostanne, mah. 

Pilar, a spear ; Latin, pilum (plural, pila), 

Pidna, the foot ; Latin, ped; and English derivative words, as pedes- 
trian. 
Mr. Bennett says that "many other words might be added which afford 
traces of resemblance between the languages of the Australian Aboriginal 
tribes and the tongues spoken by the various Aryan nations. But whether 



6 THE AB0EIGINB8 OP VICTOEIA : 

ihey indicate a common origin, or merely suggest the probability of a small 
infusion of words of Sanscrit derivation through the occasional visits of Arabs 
or Malays, it is difficult to say. The latter supposition appears not improb- 
able." 

Mr. Threlkeld, quoting from a paper furnished him by W. A. Miles, Esq., 
gives the following comparisons : — 

Aiifltralian. Sanscrit. 

i^a^^^9a^, a canoe ..... iVae, a ship ; Persian, nod. 
Murri natmaiy a ship .... Necya^ naval. 

Makoro . - . - ^ • . Matsyah^ a fish. 
Wonruii ----... Yuvana^ a young person. 

Maiya *.-..- ^ Persian, moTy snakes. 

Maraij spirit ----.. ifora, death. 
Yuring --.---- Jri^ a radical, to go, 
Nukung .-.---- Adgwna^ a woman. 
Murrakeen --.--- Kanya^ a girL 
Wakun^ from the cry - - - - - Ka^ kay a crow. 
Wah-TvakHnxik .--.-. Waka^ a crane. 
Punnul .•-.... Bhanuy the sun, 
Kui -*•*•-.. OoOy to sound. 
Boy to be one's self . - • - . Bhu^ to be. 
Yammaj to stop from harm, to guide, to lead * YamcLj to stop. 
Yinal, sop ; Yinalkuny daughter - «. - Yauwanot^ youth. 

Mr. Taplin says he made a collection, some time since, of those words of 
the native language which most resemble English words, or words of lan- 
guages from which English is derived. The words he has given are, he adds, 
pure native, that is, Yarildewallin* 

I here quote a few of these words from Mr. Taplin's work, with additions 
showing the derivations : — 

Mr. Taplin^ Derivations. 

^ ^ 

YuH ... Boon • , . - soon - . - Moeso-Gothic, iufui Anglo- 
Saxon, 9ona. 
Kurrin - - enqoiring « . « enquiring; Latin, 

quaren9 

MuUuwarrin - beconiing many or much muliu», multiply- 
ing 

Poke ... a small hole- - - pock •* - Anglo*Sazon,/H>c; DutchyjHiA. 

Wirrangi - - bad .... wrong - - Anglo-Saxon, wringan, wrmt- 

gen, twisted from the right. 

Trippin - - drenching ... dripping - - Anglo-Saxon, dripan; Dan- 
ish, dryppe. 

Throkhm - - putting ... throwing - - Anglo>Saxon, thrawiMn. 

El " " ^ will .... will ... - Gothic, toilja; Anglo-Saxon, 

wiUa; Dutch, wil; Slayonic, 
wolia,wola: Greek, /SovX^. 







LANOTTAGIL 


7 






Mr. Taplin — 






Derivations. 


KatiTeworda. 


MeMiiiigt. 




which they reMmble. 


Mtrippiu 


Lippin 


. cutting 


- 


ripping 


' Anglo>8azon, ripan. 


Nowa^f Tamo 


- negatiye 


- 


no 


- Gothic, fie, nt; Danish, net| 












Greek, v^. 


Itye - 


- 


- 8rd personal pronoun, 


it 


- Moeso-Gothic, ita. 






he, she, it 








Ngo . 


m 


- go ... 


m 


go . 


- Anglo-Saxon, ga^ gan. 


Ngia - 


- 


• here! (imperatlYe) 


- 


nigher 


- j Gothic, nehwa; Swedish, 

- ( ndra ; Icelandic, na. 


Ngai . 


- 


- here - - - 


- 


nigh - 


LfUi - 


" 


- 80, thus 


•• 


like - 


- Gothic, leik$; Icelandic, likrs 
Greek, Unkot. 


Tremtin 


" 


. tearing 


" 


rending 


man, trennen. 


Tampin 


«B 


«- walking 


- 


stamping 


- Danish, stampe. 


CrTawtovn 


- 


- burying in the earth 


- 


ground 


• Gothic, gntndus. 


WurH - 


- 


- wet - 


- 


wet - 


- Anglo-Saxon, wat^ hwet. 



The late Mr. William Hull^ at one time Member of the Legislative Conncil 
of Victoria, was, I believe, one of the first to direct attention to certain appa- 
rent resemblances between some few words in the Australian tongues and the 
Sanscrit. Snch resemblances are curious, and invite enquiry; but it is, to say 
the least, doubtful whether they have a philological or ethnological value.* 

* In a communication to the Athenatm (So, 2545, 5th August 1876), entitled ** Pre-HUtorie 
Names for Man and Monkey," Mr. Hyde Clarke states "that in Eastern Australia, as in Europe, 
the names for extinct races are applied to ghosts and fairies; hut further in Australia, such a name 
is exhumed and applied to a new race. Thus wunda, a name of thousands of years, is applied to 
the newly-come Europeans. Mahoron is only another word of the same kind, being koro, a man. 
Wunda is, howeyer, a root having wider relations, and so are micrrt and koro. These words, and 
others used for man, serre not only to name man, hut monkey, lizard, and frog — all four-footed or 
four-handed. In making some c<Hnpari8onB of animal names of Bribri, Tiribi, &c., of Costa Rioa, 
Central America, which correspond with the African, as do such American names generally, it 
appeared that lizard, frog, and monkey interchanged. I had long suspected that monkey names 
were related to those for man, but the eyidenoe was not strong until the group now pointed out 
was got together." — [Here follow the examples.] Mr. Clarke goes on to say that one " thing is 
certain, that the Aryan languages are the languages of blacks, as are most of the languages of the 
world ; and the words supposed to represent an Aryan dvilization are those of the ciyilization of 
the pre-historic blacks and sarages. Looking to the fkcts, the differences between the languages 
of the Aryan stock are not all due to phonetic degradation. One chief point on this head is that 
roots were independently selected; and as the yariations of pronunciation are found in the pre* 
historic languages, the probability is that some of these have been transmitted. Thus the Aryan 
languages are not to be regarded as the descendants of one Aryan stock, but as the languages of an 
amalgamation of yarious tribes, which haying been brought together, haye been subjected to what 
we understand as Aryan influences. Whether this was effected by the influence of white men in 
yarious black or mixed tribes assembled is a matter to be inyestigated. At all events, white men 
learned their languages from black men, and f^om them acquired their primitiye mythology. With 
regard to the words wunda^ &c, the question will naturally be put by some, what bearing they 
have on the Lemurian doctrine, so strongly advocated for ethnology by Frol Huxley, philological 
arguments in favor of which were brought forward by the late distinguished scholar. Dr. W. H. 
Bleek. The fiusts here brought together, which form only a smaU part of the mass, showing how 
the names of animals, weapons, tools, and tribes are conunon to the old world and the new, well 

illustrate the early stages of language The community of name of man with those 

j ^nitnala here mentioned extends very much further among four-footed beasts ; and birds were 
named from beasts. We have thus the probable origin of totems and totem-worship, as likewise 
in pre-historic philology we have the verbal origm of tree, serpent, and other kinds of worship, as 
I have shown in my late paper on Sibu and Siva worship." Mr. Chirke's paper ia very curious and 
interesting. 



8 



THE ABOBiamES OF VICTORIA: 



A great many of the languages of Australia are named after the word ^^no." 
The late Mr. Bance states that the Melbourne people used, to designate their 
language, the words N"*vther galla — N^tUher meaning " no." 

The late Mr. E. S. Parker corroborates Mr. Bunce's statement. He says — 
''The natives distinguish the different talle or languages by their negations. 
Thus there is the Burapper dialect, spoken by the Mallegoandeet ; the Utar 
dialect, on the Murray and Lower Goulburn. These words Burapper and Utar 
being respectively the negations of each language ; and so of others." 

This system of nomenclature appears to prevail in the eastern and southern 
parts of the continent. 

The Bev. W. Bidley, M.A., eminent amongst the philologists of Australia, 
says — ^''The following are the names of some languages spoken in the in* 
terior: — 1. Kamilarai; 2. Wolaroi; 3. Wiraiaroi; 4. Wailnmn; 5. Kogai; 
6. Pikumbul; 7. Paiamba; 8. Kingi. The first five of these are named after 
their negatives. In the first, Kamil signifies ' no ;' in the second, Wol is 'no ;' 
in the third, Wira is 'no ;' in the fourth, Wail is ' no ;' in the fifth, Ko is 'no.' 
In Pikumbul^ on the other hand, Piku means 'yes;' so that the Australian 
Aborigines, in this instance, named their language on the same principle on 
idiich the French acted in distinguishing the dialects of France, as Langue 
dOe and Langue ^OyV 

Some thirteen years ago I obtained from a number of gentlemen resident 
in Victoria short vocabularies of the language spoken in their several localities 
(now printed in this volume). An examination of the lists, when arranged 
geographically, is very interesting. Thirty words, as spoken in each district, 
have been selected for comparison, with the following results : — 

BIVER MUBBAY. 





TMMpMntlg]j|«lg» ^ 


BarnawwthA, 


Echnca, 


Oanbower, 


COtllik. 


(KlewB BITOT), CTpiwr 


(Indigo Creek), Upper 


jnnetUm of Gampeipe 


Keer Mount Hope, 




Komj' 


ICnmjr. 


aad Momy. 


BlTer Hnrnj. 


Hia - • - 


Gknee 


Mung 


Moanit 


Coolie 


WonBfln 


Giree 


BeUgera - 


Layarnt 


Lnbra 


Ffttfaer 


Kamgah 


Mamah 


Kaiya 


Mamook 


Hotber - - 


Bigah - - 


Gunee 


Kana 


Pabook 


Held - - - 


Booaw 


Cumbngong 


Mwongery - 


Moonmoook 


HaJr ... 


Booew 


Hnran 


Boko 


Nnrranncook 


Bye - - - 


Mee 


MiU 


Kaa 


Mirinook 


Eat - - - 


Mirimbfth - - 


Hatha 


Marrmo 


Wirrinnboolook 


Month 


Deinh 


Erang 


Eotta 


Chixbook 


TongiM 


Tienh - - 


Tuning 


Tallye 


Chalinook 


Teeth ... 


Teem 


Tenth 


Derra 


Leanook 


Hand ... 


Mnrnh 


Murrah 


Peeyin 


Mnnnnoook 


Finger 


Toullon 


Tellon 


Teechera - 


Mmmnoook 


Foot ... 


Teyrah 


Jennong - 


Tchinna 


Chinnnook 


Blood - - . 


Koroo 


Gornjah - 


Mowa 


Koorkook 


Bone . - . 


KieeU 


Thnbal 


LUlima 


Mirdirook 


Sun ... 


Koonda 


Neera 


Tongya 


Mooree 


Moon ... 


Tow-warra - 


Cobadong - 


Yongwida - 


WiewiU 


8t«r - 


Jiemba 


Jemba 


Trnttra 


Toort 



LANGUAGE. 



9 



BIYER MUBRAT. 





Tang«TnT»lMiga 


BamawarthA, 


Edwea, 


Oonbower, 




(Kiewa Biver), Upper 


(Indigo Creek), Upper 


Junction of Campeepe 


Near Mount Hope, 




Humor. 


Mnrxaj. 




Blver Mnrrej. 


Night - . - 


Tooma 


Burandong - 


Bona 


Boorin 


Day ... 


Koonda 


Brah - - 


Wongda 


Karook 


Fire . - - 


Knrraw 


Wanga 


Bickya 


Wannnp 


Earth- 


Merre 


Towarah - 


Wokka - 


Chnrr 


Stone . . - 


Poongah - 


Wniong - 


Eeoga 


Larr 


Tree ... 


Wondah - 


Wonder 


Tainya 


Beeal 


Wood- 


Tau-wa 


Kegel 


Mootta 


Beeal 


Snake- 


Tneyon 


Thoro 


Kona 


Goomwin 


Eagle ... 


Warrimoo - 


Weramn - 


Hwammery- 


WirbiU 


Crow . - - 


Berontha - 


Wargon 


Warkil - - 


Waa 


Kangaroo - 


Boodgoo - 


Murray 


Kyemery - 


Cooray 




Enlkyne, 


TjiAjnAjv, 


MUdura, 


Telta, 


TEngHaTi 


Lotrer Mumy. 


Lower Mumj, 


Lower Mniraj. 


Janetian of the 
Darling and Mnrrej. 


Man - - - 


Wotnngi - 


Wortongie - 


Wir - . 


Maarlee 


Woman 


lio 


Lionr 


Ck>ormmp - 


Nongo 


Father 


Moftml 


Mamie 


Bait 


Kambia 


Mother 


Faapie 


Baboo 


Acka 


Naamagh 


Head ... 


Dnmt-boopi 


Poorp 


Tnrt 


Therto, Kokoro 


Hair - . - 


Kint-carangie 


Gneningin - 


Moor-il 


Boorlkee 


Bye - . - 


Mai 


Mimoo 


Me - - 


Maykee 


Ear ... 


Mnral-wimpoli - 


Wimmpoolen - 


Mnral 


Uree 


Month 


Dhnck-chapie - 


Woorinen - 


Tnrk - - 


Telka 


Tongne 


Maat 


Tchilinen - 


Maita 


Therlinya 


Teeth - 


Bnmo-leang 


Leangin 


Bnrck 


Nandee 


Hand ... 


Wnin 


Mnmnngin 


Whia . - 




Finger 


Mnnangi - 


- 


Ak-a-qnim - 


Merra 


Foot - . - 


Jahn 


Ghinangin - 


Thina 


Thinna 


Blood - - - 


Knroc 


Jinkar^jinka 


Coorook 


Kandara 


Bone - - - 


Beagim 


Calwe 


By-imp 


Pma 


8nn ... 


Nung 


Nowie 


Nunk - - 


Yhnk-ko 


Moon ... 


Bait - - 


Meatiaa 


Pyte 


Pytoa 


Star - 


Narre-bil - 


Toort 


Bool 


Boorlee 


Night - - - 


Biangri 


Tolkine-nowie - 


Wangry 


Ton-kon-ko 


Day ... 


Beiannng - 


Keely-nowle 


Bay-a-nauk 


Minki 


Fire . . - 


Neic-wnnapi 


Wanup 


Mick 


Nan-day-lee 
Koon-ega 


Earth- 


Teangi 


Tnngie 


Nat-ya 


Memdi 


Stone ... 


KotaU 


Mndde 


Thank 


Temda| 


Tree ... 


BnUot-bnllandi - 


Boorongie - 


Bnmell 


Yarra 


Wood ... 


T^i^TUMf* • . 




Bonp 
Thoke 


Vatta 


Snake ... 


Kamie 


Cannie 


Tooroo 


Eagle ... 


Maundil - 


Ferrit-perrit 


Maw-an-dil 


Bilyarra 


Crow ... 


Waak - - 


Wangie 


Walk - - 


Wankoo 


Kangaroo - 


Bnlokone-quangi- 


Koorangie - 


Bn-ln-cool - 


Bool-oolye 



The words in the foregoing 
tribes inhabiting the banks of 



tables illnstrate the language 
the River Mnrray, The first 



spoken by the 
place named — 



VOL, II. 



10 



THE ABOEIGINES OP VICTOEIA: 



Tangambalanga — is distant only twenty-two miles from Bamawartha ; Bama- 
wartha is about one hundred and three miles from Echuca ; Echuca is twenty- 
seven miles from Gunbower; Gunbower is about fiftynseven miles from 
Kulkyne; Kulkyne is eleven miles from Tjmtyndyer; Tyndyndyer is about 
one hundred miles from Mildura ; and Mildura is sixteen miles from Yelta. 
The distance, in a straight line, between Tangambalanga and Yelta is not less 
than three hundred and thirty miles. 

Comparing the first two in the list — ^Tangambalanga and Bamawartha — 
it is apparent that eight words in the list may be regarded as identical, and 
eight more, at least, as having the same roots ; that is to say, sixteen words at 
least out of the thirty coincide. Comparing Tangambalanga with Yelta, it is 
seen that there are no two words in the list exactly alike, but fourteen at least 
have the same roots. 

It will be observed that pronouns are in some cases tacked to the words in 
the tables, but the reader will find no difficulty in recognising these in the 
places where they occur. 

WDCMERA DISTRICT. 



lengHrti, 


Laka Wfn^""i'**i 


Honham. 


Otanorchy. 


Upper Bklardfloa. 


Mul - 


Wutyo 


Wootcha - 


Coullee 


Watcha 


Wommn 


Leirock - - - 


Lynrock - 


Bibagon 


Biang-Biango 


Father - 


Mahm ... 


Marmie 




Mamie 


Mother- 


Bap . - - - 


Barpee 


Banppee - 


Fapie 


Head - - 


Bnrp- - . • 


Boorpeck - 


Bonrp 


Boorp 


Hair - - 


Nanahnip 


Ngrah-boorap - 


Gnarra 


Niabook 


-Eye - 


Mir - - - - 


Mirrh - 


Mirkk - - 


Meer 


Bar - - 


Winnbnll - - - 


Worlmboll - 


Wearbonll - 


Wrimbool 


Month - 


Tyarp - - - 


Jarp . - . 


Wonrrongh 


Woora 


Tongue 


TyaUe - - - 


Chally 


Tchallee - 


JalUe 


Teeth - 


Ua - - - - 


Lear - - - 


Leah 


Leah 


HaDd - 


Manja 


Munya 


Mnnyah - 


Manyah 


Fmger- 


YnUap-ynllnp-manja- 


Watchip-watchip 


Wingerapp 


Bap Wanyah 


Foot - 


Kinna ... 


Jinna 


Jinna 


Gmah 


Blood - 


Gnrk - - - 


Kormck - 


Ooork 


Gooak 


Bane - 


Kalk- 


Kaalk 


Onlke 


Gallac 


Son - 


Kyaa-we - - - 


Nyowee 


Qhnarwee - 


Nyawie 


Moon - - 


Mitjan - 


Mitchen - 


Ten - - - 


Teen 


Star - 


Tnrt- 


Dorht or Torht - 


Donrt 


Doort 


Ni«^t - - 


Bnrroin ... 


Borenn 


Bonroin 


Booring 


Day - - 


Nyan-we - - - 


Nyoiree 


Ghnarweeynn - 


Beirip 


Fixe - . 


Wan-7^[i ... 


Wanynp - 


Wee - 


Wee 


Euth - 


Tyar- - - - 


Tar . . . 


Djak - - - 


Dyah 


Stone - 


Knt-yap - - - 


Eochnp 


Langh 


Lach 


Tree - 


ITalV . - . - 




Cnlke 


Galk 


Wood - - 


Kalk- - - 


Kaalk 


Galk 


Snake - 


TTa-Tang-knk-naUnck 


Knrnwill - 


Conrnemille 


GoorinmiU 


Eagle - 


Wirp^Ul ... 


WerarepU - 


Gnarraille - 


Warpil 


Crow - 


Woa - - - - 


Wah - 


Waagh 


Wiaa 


Kangaroo - 


Min-70 ... 


Koray 


CkMrah 


Gooia 







TiANGIJAGB. 


11 




WIMMERA DISTBIOT. 










Upper Loddon, 


Lower Loddoo, 


TtngHmh. 


Avoca. 




Dayleaford. 


BoorL 


Man - - - 


Kbo-lie - 


^ 


Eoolee ... 


Wootho 


Woman 


Too.ra 


- 


Tonroi ... 


Larook 


Father 


Mar-mook - 


. 


Marm ... 


Marmoke 


Mother 


Bar.poop - 


. 


Barp 


Barbook 


Head - 


Boor-kook . 


. 


Boorp . - - 


Boonrbook or Youyourook 


Hair - 


Kar-boor-kook - 


- 


Gnerra ... 


Narranyoke 


Bye - - - 


Myn-ook - 


- 


Ma ... 


Min-nook 


Ear - - - 


Wynt-bool-look - 


- 


Weimbnl - - - 


Weembnlloke 


Month 


Woor-nk - 


. 


Wooroo . - - 


Cherbook 


Tongne 


Tar-lee 


. 


ChaUe 


Charlinyook 


Teeth - 


Lee-are 


. 


Leear ... 


Leeanyook 


Hand ... 


Mnn-nar - 


- 


Mima ... 


Manamynke 


Finger 


Won.in.ninn.nar 


. 


- - - - 


Wathep-wathep manamynke 


Foot ... 


Tee-nar - 


m 


Jinna ... 


Chinarayook 


Blood - 


Eoor-kook 


m 


Gourk . • . 


Goorkgook 


Bone . - - 


Earl-kook 


- 


Kolk - - . 


Oarlgook 


Snn . 


Nar-wee - 


. 


Gnowee - - - 


Gnarwee 


Moon - - . 


Yean 


. 


Yem 


Waingwill 


Star - 


Tonrt 


. 


Toort ... 


Doort 


Night - - - 


Boo-run . 


. 


Boorinen ... 


Fooroon 


Day ... 


Ear-pnl - 


. 


Gnoweeu . - . 


Parrep 


Fire - - - 


Wee 


- 


Wee .... 


Wannop 


Earth - 


Eap-pen - 


- 


Jaa - - - - 


Char 


Stone ... 


Lar . - - 


- 


La - . - - 


Lar 


Tree - 


Knlk - - 


. 


Knlk . . - 


Carlk 


Wood , ^ . 


Moo-tnk - 


. 


Knlk " - - 


Carlk 


Snake ... 


Knl.mU - 


- 


Knnmil . * . 


Coonwill 


Eagle ... 


Wear-pil - 


^ 


Waa-pil - 


Warepill 


Crow ... 


War 


. 


War . - . - 


Warr 


Kangaroo - 


Eor-ror 


- 


Goura ... 


Coored 



The River Wimmera, the River Richardson, the River Avoca, and the River 
Loddon, are all within the southern basin of the River Murray, and drain a 
generally very level country, not thickly wooded, except in the parts occupied 
by Mallee scrub. It is about twenty-five thousand square miles in extent ; and 
communication between aU parts of it is comparatively easy. It is not neces- 
sary to comment on the obvious inferences to be derived from a mere glance 
at the words in the tables. The dialects throughout this area present no such 
striking differences as those of the River Murray. The explanations given 
by my correspondents show how alterations in the dialects have occurred, 
without preventing the people of the several tribes from being intelligible to 
each other. 

It may be said indeed that throughout this area there was but one language, 
• — or, perhaps, to state the case more accurately, one dialect : the differences 
being no greater than are found to occur when we compare the vocabularies of 
the people inhabiting different counties in England. 



12 



THE ABOBIGINES OF YIOTOBIA: 



WXSTBBN DISTBICT. 



English. 


BalmoniL 


Sandford. 




PorUaad. 


WamambooL 


Man- 


Cooly - 


Koomongmorang 


Colae 


. . 


Mhara - 


. 


Maar 


Woman - 


Bang-bang-go - 


Nooranygoulk - 


Bangbango 


Tnnomba 


- 


Tonambool 


Father - 


Marmnke 


Fapie 


Mammj 


r . 


Fepint - 


- 


Tebach 


Mother - 


Fapnke - 


Noorong - 


Fappy 


- 


Nemng - 


- 


Nerra 


Head 


Boorpnke 


Coolan - 


Boorup 


- 


Fim 


- 


Pirn 


Hair- - 


Gnerraboorp - 


Kullong - 


Nahra 


- 


Narat - 


- 


Aran 


Eye - 


Meumok - 


Mooning - 


Mareh 


- 


Ming - 


- 


Meir 


Ear - 


Wroom-bolok - 


Hooaung - 


Brimbo] 


L - 


Wing 


- 


Wum 


Month 


Worro - 


Mnllong - 


Cone 


- 


Olung 


- 


Knoolong 


Tongne - 


Chal-innke 


Talline - - 


Charle 


- 


Talian - 


- 


Tuline 


Teeth 


Leanuke - 


Tungung- 


Layha 


- 


Tongon - 


- 


Tongon 


Hand 


Manya - 


Murrong - 


Monyah 


L - 


Murmng- 


- 


Merra 


Finger 


Babmanya or 
Griting 


Gridding - 


Kyup 


m «• 


Eiapork - 


•» 


Mem 


Foot- 


Ginna 


Dinnnng - 


Chena 


- 


Youk - 


mt 


Jinnnng 


Blood 


Gork 


Carmarrow 


Boark 


- 


Ghereek - 


- 


Kemi 


Bone 


Calk - - 


Bnrgine - 


Calk 


- 


Bnckin - 


- 


Pnckine 


8nn - 


Nyawi - - 


Tnrmng - 


Nowe 


- 


Norinng - 


- 


Unna 


Moon 


Yem 


Dangitt - 


Yaen 


■• M 


Torro 


- 


Yer-yer 


Star- 


Dort 


Barite-barrite - 


Toort 


«» « 


Minkil - 


- 


Pnnjell 


Night 


Boroinn - 


Booron - 


Borrine 


- 


Boron 


- 


Borone 


Day - 


Nyawi - 


WoommDurrong 


Belpa 


- 


Nnnnng - 


•• 


Teem 


Fire- 


Wee - - 


Ween or Goonda 


We- 


- 


Wein - 


- 


Ween 


Earth 


Tcha 


Maring - 


Jah- 


- 


Mering - 


- 


Merring 


Stone 


La - - - 


Moorie - 


Lah- 


- 


Mnrrai - 


- 


Merri 


Tree- 


Calk 


Farliep - 


Galk 


- 


Wanmt - 


- 


Wooroot 


Wood 


Calk - - 


... 


We- 


. 


Wein - 


- 


Ween 


Snake 


Coomwel 


Coorong - 


Coomweel 


Corang - 


- 


Coorang 


Eagle 


Wrappel - 


Neeyangarra - 


BappU 


- 


Nennghur 


- 


Eanger 


Crow 


Wa - - 


Wamg - 


Woa 


- 


Warl 


- 


Wah 


EAngaroo- 


Cur-re - 


Eoorang - 


Goora 


- 


Corang - 


- 


Koroit 


SngllBh. 


WlcUUb. 




Gamperdown. 


Colac. 


Man- 


Cooley - 


^ 


Kohnoit - 


^ ^ 


Ummodthe - 


Mondel 


Woman - 


Lubra - 


- 


Koimoit-bap 


«net - 


Unnodthe 


Noodnuwetk 


Father - 


Marmae - 


- 


Fittong - 


- 


Fepie - - - 


Maahma 


Mother - 


Parpae - 


- 


Ynttong - 


- 


Nerong - - - 


Paahpa 


Head 


Caubra w Foorp 


eck 


Moork - 


- 


Fiematnin 


Moranyenoc 


Hair- 


Marah - 


. 


Knir-moork 


- 


Harat - - - 


EaenmorackfBnnc 


Eye - 


Macinyarack - 


- 


Mere 


- 


Merang - - - 


MrinyeduG 


Ear - 


Bimbool - 


- 


Worn - 


- 


Weiringnatnin 


Weinyeduc 


Mouth 


Learangerack- 


- 


Wora - 


- 


Wooroonangtin 


Woronyeduc 


Tongue - 


Taleangerack- 


<■ 


Glannen- 


- 


Talgamangtin 


Talanyeduc 


Teeth 


- - . 


- 


Lea 


- 


Tonganantin - 


Meerinyeduo 


Hand 


Munyangarack 


- 


Mama - 


- 


Moraangtin - 


Macnyinnc 


Finger 


Munyangarack 


- 


Wonmama 


- 


Eittiemoraangtin - 


Lerinyinne 


Foot- 


Klnneyangeraek 


- 


Jenir 


- 


Dinangtin 


Kenaeyennc 



LANOUAGR 



13 



WESTERN DISTRICT. 



EngUelL 


WicUlfla. 


Carngham. 


Gamperdown. 


Go]ac 


Blood 


Ckwkyangerack 


Gorrick . - - 


Qnroeantnin 


«■ ^ 


Korockyennc 


Bone 


Calleyangerack 


Nal - - - 


Pnghine- 


- 


Yeebringyenac 


Sun - 


Nowie - - - 


Maira . . . 


Eherne . 


. . 


Naah 


Moon 


Yen - - - 


Yaan 


Borangnatin 


- 


Paartpnt 


Star- 


Tatinowie 


Torpormm - 


Whythurb 


- 


Earrankaran 


Night 


Pooroin - - - 


Morkalla 


Booroon - 


- 


Pooroonna 


Day . 


Perpoamin - 


Morrayail 


Hulogetin 


- 


WooremoUeen 


Fire- 


Ween or Wee 


Weeing ... 


Whean - 


. 


Weeing 


Earth 


Ya- - - - 


Yoruockjaa - 


Merrin . 


«b ^ 


Tha or Moora 


Stone 


Lah . . . 


Law - . - 


Merri - 


. 


Drae 


Tree- 


Peeal - - - 


Car ... 


Woorot - 


- 


Coorlong 


Wood 


Poort . 


Wing ... 


Boarb - 


. 


Ealerack 


Snake 


Knmwill 


Conmoit. 


Koorang 


. 


Eaanlang 


Eagle 


Yannnl . - - 


Mairompial - 


Keroolet 


. 


Orlimerick 


Crow 


War - - - 


Waa - - - 


Waang . 


. 


Eaiwaicrook 


Kangaroo - 


Cnrah ... 


TfRiTHft ... 


Qaoorie - 


- 


Eorak 



The places named in the above table lie to the south of the great spur of 
the Main Dividing Bange, and all the waters run directly to the sea, or to 
inland lakes. The area is about fifteen thousand square miles, of which 
nearly eight thousand consist of wide^ open^ level plains. There are no natural 
barriers separating the tribes. 

The distance from Balmoral to Colac in a straight line is about one hundred 
and thirty miles* 

THE YARRA AND WESTERN PORT. 





TarraYarxm. 


Wettern Port 


Engllflh. 


TamTarra. 


Weatem Port. 


Man - 


Eoolein - 


Eoo-lin 


Bone- 


Neelong - 


Neyln 


Woman 


Baggarkmk - 


Bag-rook 


Sun - 


Nawin - - 


Ner-wein 


Father 


Mamaneek 


MftrnrniTi 


Moon 


Meneam - 


Myn-e-am 


Mother 


Babaneek 


Parpun 


Star . 


Dart pirram - 


To-pi-ram 


Head. 


Eawanng 


Eow-nng 


Night 


Booren - 


Bo-mn 


Hair - 


Yarrie 


Yar-ra 


Day - 


Yalingboo 


Yel-lin-wa 


Eye - 


Merrlng - 


My-ring 


Fire - 


Wein 


Wee-en 


Ear . 


Werring - 


Wer-ring 


Earth 


Yearmoobeek - 


Beek-beek 


Mouth 


Wooroong 


Nnng-bilbnn-nk 


Stone 


Lang 


Lang 


Tongae 


Jellang - 


Tallaog 


Tree. 


Treang - 


Ter-rung 


Teeth 


Leeung - 


Lee-nng-er 


Wood 


Ealk - - 


Eolk 


Hand. . 


Mamung- 


My-rong 


Snake 


Eaan 


Earn 


Finger 


Woonmoonmlllrt 


Mun-ung 


Eagle 


BnndjeU - 


Pun-gil 


Foot - 


Jeenoong - 


Tee-nan 


Crow 


Waang - 


Warng 


Blood- - 


Eurruk - 


Eul-mul 


Kangaroo - 


Eooem - 


Eo-em-ko-em 



The dialects of the Wooeewoorong or Wawoorong tribe (River Yarra) and 
the Boonoorong tribe (Coast) are the same. Twenty-three words out of thirty 



14 



THE ABOBIOINES OF VIGTOBIA: 



are, making allowanoea for differences of spelling and pronunciation, identical ; 
five have evidently the same roots, and only two are widely different. It will 
be observed that only a veiy few words coincide with words of the same 
meaning in the dialects of the Gippsland tribes. 

The people of the Yarra and the coast were separated from the Gippsland 
tribes by the waters of Western Port, and by dense scrubs extending from the 
inlets northwards to the southern rim of the Tarra basin. East of Western 
Port there is a tract of wild country — debatable ground — ^which was the scene 
of many battles in former times. It is said that it was held sometimes by the 
Western Port blacks and sometimes by the tribes inhabiting Western Gipps- 
land. 

GIPPSLAND. 



IRwyH^h, 


Bufaj Puk, OlnMlBad. 


lAke W6Uii«toii, Otppdaod. 




liaa - - - 


Gnn-na - 


„ _ 


Kanny « - - . 


Brah 


Woman 


Woo-gut 


- 


Wookatt 


Woorcat 


Father ... 


Mun-gunn 


- 


Moonkan ... 


Mung-gan 


Mother - 


Year-kunn - 


. 


Yackan ... 


Yackan 


Head - - . 


Foo-mk 


- 


Brook .... 


Pnrk 


Hair ... 


Leet - 


. 


litt - - . - 


lit 


Bye - 


Myree - 


- 


Mooeh .... 


Mre 


Bar ... 


Woor-ring 


- 


Wring . - . - 


Wring 


Mouth ... 


Eart 


. 


Gad or Gaad 


Kaat 


Tongue 


Tallan - - 


. 


Tyelling 


Jelline 


Teeth . 


Unduk - 


- 


Ngirmdock ... 


Nemdack 


Hand ... 


Breet - 


- 


Pritt .... 


Bret 


Finger - - - 


Laa-ra-breet - 


- 


Pritt .... 


TsgaraBret 


Foot - . - 


Tey-jran -. 


- 


Tyain . - , - 


Jaran 


Blood - - 


Krook - 


- 


Krook .... 


Kamdobara 


Bone - - - 


Bymg - 


« m 


Pring .... 


Bring 


Sun 


Woo-run 


- 


Wurring . . - 


Wurrin 


Moon ... 


Nger-run 


- 


Ngirrang . . - 


Nerran 


Star . 


Free^el 


. 


BreeU .... 


Brayel 


Night . - - 


Pook.knn 


- 


Padd-kallack - - - 


Bookang 


Day - - - 


Woo-run 


. 


Wurring . - - 


Wurrin 


Fire . - - 


Tow-war-rar - 


. 


Towr - . . - 


Towera 


Barth . * - 


Turm - 


T . 


Wrack .... 


Wark 


Stone - 


WooUun 


- 


Walloong , . . 


WalluDg 


Tree - • - 


KuUuk - 


. 


Talk . , - - 


Nappnr 


Wood ... 


Kulluk - 


« * 


Mritt . . . - 


Kanby 


Snake .... 


Too-roo - 


- 


Toorroong ■? 


Kalang and Thurmng 


Bagle • 


Poen<4rung - 


r . 




Quomamero 


Crow - . - 


Kar-ruHiuon - 


« m 


Ngarroogall , . - 


Waygara 


Kangaroo - 


Tir-rer - 


. » 


Tyirra . • . . 


Jirrah 



The dialects of the Gippsland tribes show closer affinities with those of the 
Upper Murray than with those of the Lower Murray ; and it may be presumed 
that Gippsland was peopled from a stream coming either across the 'Alps or 
coastwards from the north-east — ^and not from the stream that followed the 



LANGUAGE. 



15 



Biver Darling southward to Telta — southward to the heads of the Wimmera, 
southward to the heads of the Glenelg; and westward to Oolac. Speculations 
of this kind are, however, at present of little value, and yet not altogether 
worthless if they set one to examine evidence more closely. There were once 
several separate peoples in Gippsland, differing much in appearance ; and it is 
possible, nay probable, that some part of Gippsland was peopled from the stream 
that flowed southward and westward along the banks of the Gt)ulbum, and 
thence across the Dividing Bange, or southward from the Murray along the 
banks of the Ovens or the Kiewa. 







Pronouns. 












LAEB TYEHS, GIPPSLAND. 










First person. 










Singnilar. 






Plaral. 


Nom. 


Ngio 


- - L 




Wema 


- 


- we. 


P088. 


Ngeial 


. mine. 




Nindethana 


- 


- ours. 


Objec. 


Ngio 


- me. 




Wema 


m 


- ns. 






Second peraon. 








Nom. 


Mangee 


- then. 




Onoufo 


- 


- ye or yon. 


POBS. 


Koodioula 


thine. 




Ngingal 


- 


- yonrs. 


Objec. 


Nungoo 


- thee. 






- 


- you. 






Third person. 








Nom. 


- JUfy 


- he. 




Mandha 


- 


- they. 


P0I8. 


Nungcd 


- - his. 




Thanal 


- 


- thdra. 


Objec. 


Nwmga 


- - him. 






- 


- them. 




No pronouns— Feminine gender. No prononns— Neater gender. 


My 


- - - - 


Ngetal, 




Who 


• 


Nan (also expresses 


Thy 


- 


Ngingcd. 








"what"). 


His 


- 


Ngungal, 




Which - 


- 


TTiiiiiiiaii. 


Her 


- 


[no feminine.] 




What - 


- 


Nanmti, 


Our 


»••«<. 


Nindi Thanal. 




That 


• 


Ketchoon, 


Tour 


- 


Ngwana Thanal, 











The Bev. Mr. Bnlmer adds, in a recent communication, the following: — 
Murray — I, Natoa; you, Nindoa, Gippsland — I, Ngio; you, Nirulo, Maneroo 
— I, Ngiimba; you, Nindege, 



LASB HINDMARSH. 





Singular. 






Plnral. 


Ngan 


* 


- 


I. 


Ngo 


- we. 


Ngeck 


- 


- 


mine, my. 


Ngan-dack 


ours. 


NgSr^in - 


m 


- 


me. 


Nganrdank 


ns. 


Ngar 


- 


- 


yon, thon. 


Ngat 


- yon. 


Ngin 


- 


- 


yonrs, thine. 


Ngo-dack - 


- yonrs. 


Ngan^nung 


- 


- 


yon, thee. 


Din 


- yon. 


Ngait 


- 


- 


he, she, it. 


Ngatts - 


- they. 


Ngvck - 


- 


- 


his, hers, its. 


NgeSn^ack 


- theirs. 


Ngun 


- 


- 


him, her, it. 


Ngin 


them. 



Who, Win^garg which, TFtn-yo-fucA; what, Ngan. 



16 



THE AB0BI6INBB OF TICTOEIA: 



NUIOERAL ADJEcnyxs. 



LAKE TTXBS« QWFSLASD^ 



LAKE HQTDMABSH. 



One - 
Two - 



Four - 



Bcoloomam boAa 



One 

Two 

Three 

Four 

Fire 



PwOtL 

PattetKe-fU^, 
PmBei-pmaeL 
PmlUt^lUi 



I have compared the words in these tables with omneroos vocabularies 
firom other parts of Australia^ and the ooinddences are striking and instmo- 
tive: — 



Montoa Baj. 



^e 


- - MOh - - 


- Jfaff (Baraawartha> 


Blood 


- - KaJkke ' - 


- Gooak (Upper Bichafdeon). 


Tongue - 


- TaBaiM 
Bteth tide of HvralOB Btj, 


- ToUkm (Baodford). 


Ea^Mu 


tlMDM fiowBrti Wld« B«j and 
Banet DMriet. 


▼tetarla. 


•~" 


iDipp«') 


^— 


Stone 


- JTttta 


- Kutjfop (Lake Tfindmarsh). 


^e 


. ^ Mi - . 


- Jfo* (Knlkyne). 


Blood 


- - KuU - - 


- Gooak (Upper Biobaideon). 
CTKri (Lake Hindmanh). 
Koorkook (ATOca). 


HeJr 


- - DkeOa - - 


- yor-ro (Western Port). 


Heed 


- Kaar 


- XmiwR^ (Weetem Fbrt). 


Vg^^OA. 


BtfooMlUTen; Urapool FlalM, 
Upper Hontcr. 


YModk 


Fire 


- ' Wi - . 


- Wee (Glenorchy, Hamflton, &e.). 


Day 


- - Yerada - - 


- Erak (Baniawartha). 


U411 


- Gimar 


- Gtrree (Tkngambalanga, Upper Hnna; 
Wir (MUdara» Lower Mnnay). 


Hand 


- MMITO - 


- Mwmk (Upper Mnrray). 


Eye 


- . Mil - - 


- Jfiff (Bamawartha). 


ToBgne - 


. TuOf 


- Tulme (WarmaiBbool). 
TyaJie (Lake Hindmanh). 


SntflMi« 


Balloo Greek, 
Horth of DtafUng «id Wamgo. 


Yktoris. 


Sun 


- Tumi 


- UwML (Waimambool), 


Hood 


- Kein 


- Fea (WickliiEe). 


Day 


• JVotroo 


- Woonm (Bnshy Park, GippaUmd, &c.). 


Flze 


- ' Wu - - 


- Wee (Olenorchy, &c.). 


Month - 


• MuMHUfTOh - • 


- Worn (Balmoral). 


Hand 


- Murra 


- Mwrrah (Tangambalanga). 


Eye 


- MonoTOO 


- Mimoo (Tyntyndyer). 


Tongne - 


- T««;^-tor2Ma 


- Tierah (Tangambalanga). 
ITierUnya (Yelta). 


Teeth 


- TujfaU,DuraU - 


- Lea (Qlenorcfay). 



Kangaroo - 



- Koolar 



Derra (Echnca). 
Korror ( ATOca). 







LANGUAGE. 


EngUah. 


Lake Kaeqiiarie, N.8.W. 






Victoria. 


Hoon 


- 


YeUena 


- 


- 


Yem (Upper Loddon). 
Yen (Glenorchy). 


Tree 


• m 


Kottai 


- 


- 


Kulk (AYOca). 


Fire 


• 


Koi-yvng 


" 


~ 


Koonega (Yelta). 
Goonda (Sandford). 


Night 


. 


Tokoi 


- 


- 


Tolkine (Tyntyndyer). 


Man 


- 


Kare 


- 


- 


Gerree (Tangambalanga). 


Tongue - 


- 


TuUm 


-_ 


- 


TvUne (Warrnambool). 


Ear 


- 


Ngureung 


- 


- 


Wring (Lakes, Gippsland). 


EngliBh. 


GonaTribo, 
Xorth of Biyer Darling. 






Victoria. 


Sun 


- 


You-ho 


- 


- 


Yhuh-ho (Yelta). 
Yougga (Echuca). 


star 


- 


Poor4i 


- 


- 


BoorUe (Ifelta). 


Day 


- 


Mum^e 


- 


- 


Minki (Yelta). 


Night 


- 


Tunka 


" 


" 


Ton-fum-ko (Yelta). 
ToUtine (Tyntyndyer). 


Head 


m * 


ThirtOrwaUa 


- 


- 


7T6«rto (Yelta). 


Mouth 


- 


Yelka 


- 


- 


Yelka (Yelta). 


Hand 


- 


Murrah 


- 


- 


Mera or Mawbanna (Yelta). 


Eye 


- 


Maki 


- 


m 


Maykee (Yelta). 


Tongue 


- 


Tarra-langi - 


- 


- 


Tkerlinga (Yelta). 


Teeth 


- 


Mindi 


- 


- 


Nandee (Yelta). 


Ear 


- 


UrS 


- 


- 


Uree (Yelta). 


Foot 


- 


Txdudk 


- 


- 


Tliinna (Yelta). 


Hair 


- 


Tartar-burJke 


- 


- 


Boorlkee (Yelta). 


Blood 


- 


Qumdarah - 


- 


- 


Kandarah (Yelta). 


Englltb. 




Adelaide Tribe, 
Soutli AnstnOla. 






Victoria. 


8un 


^ M 


Tindo 


. 


- 


Koonda (Tangambalanga). 


Moon 


m mt 


Kakifup-Piki - 


- 


- 


Pgte (Mildura). 


Star 


- 


Purle 


- 


- 


Boorlee (Yelta). 


Stone 


- 


Pure 


- 


- 


Poongah (Tangambalanga). 


Tree 


- 


Wirra 


- 


- 


Woorot (Camperdown). 


Man 


- 


Megu 


- 


- 


Maar (Warrnambool). 


Head 


- 


Mukarta 


- 


- 


Moork (Carngham). 


Hand 


» i» 


Marra 


- 


- 


Merra (Warrnambool). 


Eye 


- 


Mena 


- 


- 


Mimoo (Tyntyndyer). 


Tongue - 


- 


TadJanga 


- 


- 


Tkerlinga (Yelta). 


Blood 


- 


Kano 


m 


- 


Koroo (Tangambalanga). 


EngUsh. 


Parnkalla, 
Port Unooln, Boath AnBtnlta 


m 




Victoria. 


Father 


- 


Pappi 


<. 


- 


Papie (Sandford). 


Mother 


- 


Ngammi 


- 


- 


Naamagh (Yelta). 


Hand 


- 


Mqxtol 


- 


- 


Merra (Warrnambool). 


Eiye 


- 


Mena 


- 


- 


Mimoo (Tyntyndyer). 


Tongue 


- 


Yarli 


•■ 


- 


CkaUe^ &c (Upper Loddon, &o.). 


Engllih. 




Croker Ijglaiid, 
Korth Australia. 






Victoria. 


Sun 


- 


Muri 


- 


- 


Mooree (Gunbower). 


Hand 


- 


Yegen 


- 


- 


Wuin (Kulkyne), 


VOL. II. 






c 







17 



18 



THE ABOBIGINES OF YICTOBU: 



Ei«llab. 






▲d«lAlde RiTcr, 
Voitti AuitnUa. 


Father 
Hand 


- 


- 


- Man-eiue 


Eye (or 
Teeth 


■ee) 


- 


• Ma 

^ Ya 


EofUfk. 






m 

KJof Ownie't Boimd, 
WMUrn AustnlU. 


Hand 


• 


. 


- Marhra 


Eye 

Tongue 

Teeth 

Foot 


«• 


»« 


- Kaufngur Mel 

- Dtakmidyl - 

- Nalgo 

- Jinna 


Blood 


- 


- 


- Barre$ 


V-w^Umtif^ 






SwaaBiTO', 
WMUrn AucUmlia. 


8nn 

Moon 

Ground (or land) 

Father 


- Ngangga 

- Mega, Miki - 

- Budjor 

- Mamman 


Hand 


- 


- 


- Marhra 


Eye 

Tongue 

Foot 


- 


m 


- Mel, 

- Dtallang 
' Jinna 


Hair 


- 


- 


- Kaltamangara 



" Pepit (Cunperdown). 

- Mamya (Bahnoral). 

- Ma (Upper Loddon). 

- Lagha (Hamilton). 



TIetocla. 

Murrah (Tangambalanga) 
Mill ( Bamawartha). 
Tulling (Bamawartha). 
Lia (Lake Hindmanh). 
Jtaaa (Honham). 
Burrabee (Bamawartha). 



Ytetorte. 

Yongya (Echuca). 
Meatian (Tyntyndyer). 
Jaa (Upper Loddon). 
Marman (Melbourne). 
Murrah (Tangambalanga). 
Mill (Bamawartha). 
TaUang (Western Port). 
Jinna (Horsham). 
Yar^a (Westem Port). 



The word for " Head " at Popham Bay, North Australia, is Koala (Koolie, 
Gunbower, Victoria) ; " Opossum " at Wellington Valley and at Regent's Lake, 
Lachlan, is Willee ( WillCj Lake Hindmarsh) ; ^^ Fire," at Karaula, in lat. 
29° S., is Wi ( WeBj Wimmera district) ; and " Crow," at Byrne's Creek, near 
the Lachlan, is Wa^igan ( WangaUj Bamawartha). 

A number of similar coincidences might be given, and it is not far wrong 
to say that, in the dialects of Victoria, the words for Head, Hair, Tongue, 
Teeth, Eye, Hand, Foot, Blood, Bone, Night, Snake, Crow, and Sun coincide ; 
and that throughout Australia the words for Eye, Tongue, Hand, Teeth, Blood, 
Sun, and Moon are the same, or nearly the same. There are exceptions, it is 
true ; but these are explained by the habits of the natives and the probability 
of errors having crept into the vocabularies.* 



u 



* Mr. John MacgilliTray, in the narratiye of the Voyage of H,M,S. Rattletnake^ refers to the 
difficulty of framing so apparently simple a document as a Tocabulary, and particularly to show 
how ono must not fall into the too common mistake of putting down as certain every word he gets 
from a sarage, howeyer clearly he may suppose he is understood." He adds that he got at different 
times and from different individuals for the '' shin-bone " words which, in the course of time, he 
found to mean respectively the ** leg/' the " shin-bone," and ** bgne " in general. 

Though great care has been bestowed on the vocabularies in this work, it would be unreasonable 
to suppose that, in all cases, the exact equivalents of the English words have been taken down, or 
that the lists are free from errors. 



LANGUAGE. 



19 



Further evidence of the unity of the languages is afforded by the sameness 
of the personal pronouns, and the constant recurrence of one, at least, of the- 
numerals — ^the word for "two." It is only necessary to give a few examples : — 





L 


Thou. 


He. 


Victoria 


Ngio - 


Mangee^ 


Jilfy 




Ngan - 


Ngar - 


Ngait 


Moreton Bay ------- 


Atta - 

1 


Inta 


Ungda 


Qaeensland (Dippil) 


Ngai - 


Nginna 


Unda 


Namoi, liyerpool Plains (Kamilaroi) - « 


Ngaia ^ 


Nginda 


Ngenna 


Lake Macquarie, New South Wales . - - 


Ngatoa 


Ngintoa 


NintDoa 


Narrinyeri, South Australia - - - - 


Ngap - 


Nginie - 


Kitye 


Pamkalla» South Australia .... 


Ngai - 


Ninna - 


Panna 


King George's Sound, West Australia - 


Adjo, Vgo - 


Nginni- 


Bal 


Swan Biyer, West Australia .... 


Ngadjo- 


Nginni - 


Bal 



TWO. 

Victoria Boohoman, PuUet, 

Moreton Bay --------- BuUae. 

Kamilaroi ^--rr. .... Btiiar, 

Earaula (lat. 29** S.) - Buldr, 

WeUington Valley, New South Wales - - - . Bulla. 

Wollondilly Biver, New South Wales - - - - PuUa. 

Bulloo Creek, north ol Darling and Warrego - - - Barkah. 

Adelaide tribe, South Australia . • . - i Purlaitye, 

It would appear, from the scanty vocabularies that have been printed, that 
the native words for " two," " twice," " both," and " four"-^<5ommon in nearly 
all the dialects of the eastern and a great portion of the southern parts of Aus- 
tralia — are different or greatly modified in the language of the districts west 
and north-west of the Great Bight. But they are used in the central parts of 
the continent. The Dieyerie tribe say for " those two," Boolyia. 

A comparison of all the words in the tables for Victoria with words in 
vocabularies for other parts of the continent seems to show that the language 
spoken by the tribes of the River Murray and the Western districts of Victoria 
have closer affinities with the languages of the other parts of the continent than 
the dialects of the Yarra Yarra, Western Port, and Qippsland tribes have. 
Indeed the dialects of the Gippsland tribes appear to have been originally 
either greatly diflBerent, or they have been modified since the tribes settled in 
these parts. From their geographical position, these tribes are in a measure 
isolated, and any influences that might have affected the dialects of the Murray 
and the Western districts would not necessarily have extended to them ; nor 
would changes in the language of the people thus situated have spread west- 
ward or north-westward. 

There are many causes in operation which, in course of time, lead to altera- 
tions in the dialects ; tending, however, rather to the introduction of new words 
and the disuse of old words than to any change in the structure of the language. 
From the information supplied by those best acquainted with the habits of this 
people, it appears it is a custom— -common, if not universal — ^that when a 
person dies whose name is the same, or has the same sound, as any word of the 



20 THE ABOEIGINBS OF VICTOEIA: 

dialect of the tribe, that word thenceforth is never need, or certainly not again 
resumed until the dead person is forgotten by all but near relatives. In this 
manner the dialects are in time slightly altered. 

Again, new words and phrases would be introduced, and some peculiar modes 
of expression arise, in consequence of a son-in-law being prohibited from speak- 
ing to or using the name of his mother-in-law. A man with two or three wives 
would not seldom be placed in some dilBOiculty ; and if possessed of more than 
ordinary capacity, might, in extricating himself, make perhaps no trifling addi- 
tions to the vocabulary. 

A powerful man — ^a warrior, a priest, or a dreamer — ^would in like manner, 
even if he did not coin new words, greatly influence the mode of speech in his 
tribe. His peculiarities would be imitated by the young persons, and perhaps 
new substantives would be woven into verbs, and new suffixes given to parts of 
speech. 

Indeed it is surprising that there should be a sameness in the structure of 
the languages throughout Australia, and no greater diversity in words. Having 
no signs or symbols whereby a word or a sentence could be flxed, without having 
direct communication with each other ; and some tribes, though not far distant, 
being altogether separated, and being influenced by different physical aspects, 
different forms of vegetation, and different climates — ^it is astonishing that the 
original tongue from which the existing languages and dialects have proceeded 
is yet vital, and exhibits its character and method in so many almost unvary- 
ing aspects throughout such an immense tract. 



Interjections, Cbies, etc. 

The well-known call Coo^e^ used when the i^atives hail each other in the 
bush, is universally adopted by colonists, and this speaks strongly in its favor. 
It would be difficult, indeed, to utter any other sound which would be as clear 
and as soft, as significant, and be carried as far in the forest as this Cfiill. 

The drumming or droning noise made by the men when engaged in the 
corrobboree, and the grunting sounds they utter, are appropriate to their 
action. 

When a warrior is speaking, and he is interrupted, he cries Wati-h! Wati-h 
has a number of different meanings, varying with the tone in which it is uttered. 
It has as many meanings as ^^ Hear I hear I" in our assemblies. Those words 
may be spoken scornfully, or encouragingly, or — ^ai^d this happens with Waur-h 
— ^when nothing else can be said. Hie native of Australia is not wanting in 
skill when engaged in argument, and his Wau-hj like our "Hear! hear I" is 
often used to disconcert an opponent. 

Waughl is also equivalent to " Behold 1 " « Look out I " " Hollo ! " « Stop I " 

When the natives express satisfaction, or when anything strange is pre- 
sented to their view, they cry Ko-ki ! If strongly impressed by a startling 
statement, they %d^j KaMi! — equal to "My word!" and when they wish to 
express their acquiescence they say Naa ! 



LANGUAGE. 21 

''Yes/' in the dialect of the Lake Hindmarsh people^ is Nyei; in that of 
the Yarra Yarra tribe, Ngie ; in that of the Coast tribe, Umrum ; but in that 
of the Upper Loddon it is Yeor-yea. 

"No," is Wur-rag at Lake Hindmarsh ; on the Yarya it is Td-goong ; at 
Western Port, N'^tUker ; and on the Upper Loddon, Law-nee-rong. 

" Hark 1 " in the dialect of the Yarra natives is Ngarmgak. 

" Hush ! " " Hark 1 " is Ur I Ur ! amongst the Melbourne people. 

" Hark 1 " " Listen 1 " is Thooamee 1 in the dialect of the Coast tribe ; and 
" Behold 1 " " Be still 1 " is Nochgee ! A hoot — a shout of contempt — is, in the 
language of the same people, THhee noaugh ! and when they call to each other 
" to come on," " to follow" — as an invitation — they say N'ya-alingo ! I have 
heard this call in the bush, and the sound is musical an4 clear. 

" Wait 1 " " Stop 1 " at Western Port is Burra ! 

When sorrowful, they express their sorrow by a sound like Yah ! 

When highly delighted, I have heard old men utter a prolonged sound like 
Ng^-ng. 

In the north-western part of Victoria " Listen 1 " is Goorrongyf " Stop I " 
"Hark! "is Tyerrickee! and "Ahl" "Ohl" Nyoo! 

Li the Western district "Wait I" or "Stop a bitl" is Warmn! or 
Detpaf 

Mr. A. W. Howitt, in reply to enquiries, gives the following information: — 
When pleased, the natives cry Ko-ki (Gippsland), and Ki (Cooper's Creek). 
Grief is expressed by a shrill howl like Eaw. It is almost impossible to 
convey an idea of the sound by any combination of letters. Mr. Howitt says 
he has heard it at Cooper's Creek and also in Gippsland. 

When joyftJ, they say Yackatoon (Gippsland), a word which Toolabary a 
native of Gippsland, could not translate. When slightly hurt, as when a finger 
is cut or bruised, they cry K(hki ! (Gippsland). 

They call to each other thus : Yajigi ! (I say ! Hollo !) (Gippsland) ; the 
reply being Bow! (Ay I ay!); or (at Cooper's Creek) Copperawl which is 
equivalent to " Come here I " the answer being Abbo. The latter word is also 
used as a token of assent. The term Gow, of the Cooper's Creek blacks, is 
used as a salutation, and may be equivalent to the term " AU right," or the 
"Welly good" of the Chinaman. 

" Yes," is Nga; and " No," Ngatbun (Gippsland). 

"Yes," at Cooper's Creek, is Gow or Abbo; and " No " is Watta. 

An interjection of assent to a speaker is MvJtr-tOrtang^ " Talk again;" and 
one of dissent may be MvJtrjeUbollany " Talk lies," or Ngatbun^ " No." 

Wukundcu-dontchvia is equal to " My word 1 a fine fellow ! " 

Wurmoo-bvJb-kwn has no precise meaning, but is i;sed to express surprise at 
a great number. For instance, when a black sees a very large mob of cattle 
coming towards him, he cries Wurmoo-bvitr-kan ! 

Mr. Ghkson says that, at Cooper's Creek, Koopia is used in calling a child, 
equivalent to " Come, child ! " that Kulie signifies " That's enough, I have said 
it, that's sufficient ;" and that Choo is an exclamation used to draw attention 
to an object. 



22 THE ABOEIGINES OF VICTOEIA: 

The Bey. Mr. Bolmer tells us that a mother's cry of Lathi! when a daughter 
is carried off by a warrior, is peculiarly sad, and sufficient to awaken sympathy 
in any bosom. 

The Rev. Mr. Taplin says that "the Narrinyeri often utter inarticulate 
sounds, in order to express their feelings and wishes. These answer to our 
interjections, such as ^ Oh I Ah I ' Ac, only it is not easy to express them by 
letters. Their method of saying ^ yes' and * no ' is very difficult to write down. 
A sort of grunt, which may perhaps answer to the letters ng^ pronounced in an 
affirmative tone, means ^yes;' the same sort of grunt, which can only be 
written by the same letters, but uttered in a negative, forbidding tone, means 
* no.' Their expressions of surprise are the following : — Kaij hat ! This is a 
pure interjection, and only means sudden astonishment. Porluna; this means 
^ Oh I children,' and is a conmion expression of wonder and amazement. Tyin 
ernbe! is an expression too filthy to be translatable ; nevertheless it is a very 
common interjection of astonishment amongst the old blacks. The word Koh 
is used to attract attention, or to caU out to a person to come. It is uttered 
long, and the o very round. The same word Koh^ uttered short, is a sort of note 
of interrogation, and is used in asking a question. The h is strongly aspirated. 
A sort of cry, used to attract attention, may be written Ngaaaah^ the h strongly 
aspirated. It must be understood, however, that in all these cases our letters 
only give an approximation to the sound ; it must be heard in order to be 
understood. Some of the old women, by way of salutation on meeting a friend, 
will say, KaWj kah-kakj kah. It sounds very much like an old crow. All the 
natives, old and young, when they are hurt, cry out Nangkai, nanghai, vanghai! 
— 'My father, my father, my father 1' or else, Nainkorca^ nainkoTvay nainkawaf 
— ' My mother, my mother, my mother 1 ' Males usually say the former, females 
the latter, although not invariably so. It is ludicrous to hear an old man or 
woman with a grey head, whose parents have been dead for years, when they 
hurt themselves, cry like children, and say Nanghaiy or Nainkoway as the case 
may be. The Narrinyeri are skilfol in the utterance of emotion by sound. 

After I had finished the burial service, to which they 

were all very attentive, they proceeded in native fashion to raise a loud lamen- 
tation over the grave. First of all, old Kartoinyeri i^nd Winkappi uttered a 
keen wail in a very long, high note, gradually lowering the tone; this \^as 
joined in by all the women present. Then the rest of the men uttered a long, 
loud, deep-bass groan. As that rolled away, the keen wail of Kartoinyeri and 
Winkappi, and the women, broke in ; and as that began to lower in tone, the 
deep groan of the men was heard. This was continually repeated for about ten 
minutes As an expression of grief by sound, it was perfect." * 

A correspondent of Mr. Alfred Hewitt's says that a word like Nin-ki — the 
last syllable much prolonged — seems to be a usual way of arresting attention 
amongst all the blacks of South Australia. 

These brief notes afford material which will be of assistance in ftiture 
researches. 

• The Narrinyeriy pp. 96-6. 



LANGUAGE. 23 



Tebms of Abuse. 



The terms of abuse used by the natives are strong. I have made careM 
enquiries respecting these, and the results show that in abusing each other the 
Aborigines are at least the equals of Europeans. Mr. John Green collected for 
me several of the phrases used by the natives of the Yarra. One will say to 
another Booqurring mane-mane ngabedejew nggi mila Booqurring kianto ngalimr 
ngalim bomgarboanr-'' Ths^t fellow over there is very sulky with me for nothing. 
It is himself that is in fault." One will tell another that he is " a liar" {Mer-- 
rinam moom); a ^^ great liar" (MaraTigi); a "rascal" (Keem); a "terrible 
rascal" (Tagaraktorong) ; and the reply may be possibly "You big eye" 
{Taong-gala); "You crooked eyed" {Wdntarra mrring); "You big-headed, skin 
and bone fellow, you!" {Tanggoola hdong tewrong kalk kalk homen torong 
enerop warr karwan); "You big dirty devil!" (Torong koo-nog Ngarrong 
torrong) ; or, "Look at that fellow, he is like a dog ! " {Werre neen mcme tonda 
Yerrangano). 

A woman will accuse another of unchastity : she will say, " Tagilla narrd- 
moomr or, " Karin na bibol Tnane boormoonto ;'*'* and she could say nothing 
worse if she were giving evidence in a police court against an enemy. 

The Eev. Mr. Buhner, in reply to my enquiries, writes thus : — ^^ When the 
natives were angry, and abused each other, they used epithets similar to those 
of the very lowest class of Europeans ; not so bad on the side of blasphemy, 
but worse on the side of filth. No doubt the reason of this is that the 
Aboriginal has no superior spirit to blaspheme. As you desire specimens of 
the epithets used, I give them, as, no doubt, it is necessary, in writing of the 
Aboriginals, to give both sides of their character. In their mild way of 
scolding, when the cause of quarrel is not very serious, they generally confine 
themselves to calling nick-names, or they refer to some peculiarity of person, 
whether deformity or otherwise. It is amusing to hear them conmience at the 
head of the person they are scolding, and end at the toe-nails. Thus they will 
call a person Poork gatti (big head) ; Barrat poork (bald head) ; Barrat mree 
(squint eye) ; Barrat bimdang (bad arm) ; Barrat jerran (bad leg) ; Booloon 
gatty (belly big) ; Barrat jane (bad foot) ; Karlo tooloot (crane neck) ; 
Barrat nark (crooked back) ; and so in like manner refer to all the members 
of the body. I may remark with regard to the word Barra^^ — ^which I have 
translated 'squint,' 'bad,' and 'crooked' — ^that it 'is used by the blacks in aU 
these senses, and may perhaps be equivalent to ' deformed.' " * 

There are other forms of abuse : — 

Itemque saepissime, ut narrat Bev. J. Bulmer, de membris pudendis 
loquuntur ; et rationibus vituperandi tetterrimi foedissimique sunt. 

In rem longius procedunt quum aliquid de re gravius agitur. Tunc quidem 
onmem colluviem ex memoria collectam in adversaries sine pudore sine 

* The natires of the islands of the Pacific abuse each other much in the same terms. One wiU 
teU another that he is nglj, has cross eyes, has a big month, &c. ; and an antagonist will retaliate 
by calling out "big eyes/' ''crooked legs," and the like. — See Wild Life eunongst the Pacific lelandere, 
by Lament, p. 809. 



24 



THE ABOEIGINBS OP VICTOEIA: 



dabitatione congemnt. Femineeque procal dubio pejores si id quidem potest 
qaam ipsi homines. Ut in albis hominibus ^' damn " ant ^^ proh I fidem '^ ant 
^^ Dii immortales " ita apnd eos verba obscflenissima andiri potest. 

Ne parentes qnidem se retinebnnt qnominns liberos parvos sermone 
pndendo alloqnantnr ; liberisqne coram dissemnt ea qnaa nnnqnam impnberibns 
dici fas est. Matresqne semper pene liberis dant nomina nostris anribns 
fcBdissima prce illomm sententiis innoxia et pnra. Pner sepe nominant Dango 
Willin (lappa). Hoc nomen extremnm difficile expressn significat nt lappa cni 
affigat hserebit ita homo cni nomen ^^ lappa " sit in deliciis veneris inhaerebit. 



LANGUAGE OF THE NATIVES. 

(Bt thb Bay. Johh Bulmbb, or Lake Ttbbs, 6ipPSLAin>.) 

1. In what way is the article expressed and nsed in the Aboriginal tongne? 

{See Remarks.) 

A hooBe ..-..- Mangu keiehoon. 
The tree «...-. Gingin ngUppur, 

2. Is snch a thing as gender known in the Aboriginal language? If so^ how 

is it used? — {See Bemarks.) Give the equivalents of — 

stone ------- WeUloong. 

Male kangaroo ----- Brangolo jirrah. 

Female kangaroo - - - . Booyangan jirrah. 

And the male and female designations of other animals if there appear to 
be any regolarity in forming tiie feminine from the masculine. 



3. How is the plural formed? Give examples, 

Kangaroo - - Jirrcih, Men - 

Kangaroos- - (No plural form.) Tree - 

Man . - - Bra, Trees 



- Ngleppur, 

- YclH ngUppur. 



4. How are the adjectives used? Are there degrees of comparison, and, if so, 

how are they formed or expressed? Give examples — 

A tall man - - - - ' - Wreekil kani. 

A taller man - . . - Onooh urekil kani. 

The tallest man - - - - Mack gnoolo wrekil kani, 

5. Personal pronouns — 

I - - - - Ngio. 

Thoa - - . Mangi, 

He- - - - Gindi. 

She - - - 

It - - - - 

Is gender known in respect of the personal pronouns? — {See Remarks.) 
Are there cases ? If so, give equivalents — 



We 


- 


Wtrtta, 


Ye or you 


- 


- Ngoortana 


They - 


— 


" Thana. 



I - 


. 


. 


m 


We- 


- 


- 


- WenuL 


Mine 


- 


- 


- Ngeta!. 


Ours 


- 


- 


- yinde thana. 


Me - 


- 


•• 


- Ngio, 


Us - 


- 


- 


- Wtma. 





TiANGUAGE. 








- Mangee, 

- Koothoula 
• Nungoo. 


> 


Te or you 

Tours 

Ton 


»■ 


- Gnowo, 

- Ngingai. 


- JUfy. 

- NungaJU 

- Noonga, 




They 

Theirs 

Them 


" 


- 


' Thanal, 


• 




They 

Theirs 

Them 


- 


- 


- 


(No:. 


feminine pronouns.) 









25 



Thou 
Thine 
Thee 

He - 
His- 

mm 

8he 

Hen 

Her 



It - - - - They - - - 

Its - - - - Theirs - 

It - - - - Them - - - 

(No neuter pronouns.) 

6. Belative pronotinfl — 

What ... Nanma, 

That ... Kemhoon, 

Give one or two short sentences showing how the relative pronouns are 
used. — (See Bemarks.) 



Who - Nan (also expresses " what **). 
Which- Wunman, 



7. Possessive pronouns — 






My - Ngetai, 

Thy - Ngingal. 

His - Ngungal. 

Her - (No feminine pronouns.) 


Our 
Tour 
Their - 


- Nindi thanal 

- Ngwana thanai. 



State how they are expressed and osed^ and give short sentences hj way 
of illostration. — {See Bemarks.) 



8. Distributive pronouns— 

Each ... Bremba. 
Erery - - - Ngurtana, 



Either 
Neither 



State how they are e:q)ressed and used, and give a few short sentences by 
way of illustration. — (See Remarks.) 



9. Indefinite pronouns — 

Some ... Prqxfretha, 



Other 
No - 
None 



- Ngaiko, 

- Naatbun, 



Are they declined, and, if so, how? — 



10. Adverbs — 

Here 
There 
Where - 
Hither - 
Thither • 
Whither - 
VOL. II. 



Tintaka, 

Manana. 

Woonman, 

Bootjee, 

Thoondho. 

Wool. 



One 


- 


Kooiook, 


Any 


m 


Nappan. 


AU - - 


- 


Girtgan, 


Such 


- 




(See Bemarks.) 






Backward 




Ngrow. 


Forward - 


- 


Ngoolo, 


Homeward. 


- 


MeUagan, 


Hence 


- 


Mooh. 


Thence - 


- 




Whence - 


a 





26 



THB ABOBIOINSS OF YICTOSIA: 



10. Adverbs — 














Only - 


- 


- 


- 


Ferhape - 


- 




Alone 


- 


- 


- NgaJqwan, 


Mach 


- 


• Wageoat. 


Solely 


- 


- 


- 


LitUe 


- 


* JpfgooptUm 


Again 


- 


- 


• BOTTOi, 


Enough 


- 


- Mocmdkama, 


How - 


- 


- 


- Wa^krat 


Often 


- 


- Mai&ran, 


Why - 


»• 


- 


- 


Seldom 


- 


. PlakooL 


When- 


- 


- 


- Nora. 


Sometimes - 


- 




Wherefore 




. 


- 


Nerer 


. 


- 


Whether 


. 


- 


- 


Once 


- 


- Kooteganmm 


Very - 


- 


- 


- Mamhdigran, 


Twice 


- 


^t^ ** w *** *^yy *^*^** 


Together 


- 


- 


- Karobran, 


Thrice 


- 


- 



Are there eqaiyalents in the natire language for the above, and how are 
they nsed. — (See Bemarks.) 



11. Prepositions.- 


-How 


are prepositions placed? Give a 


few short sentenoee 


flhowing how 


they are nsed, and give equivalents of— 






- 


Ahore 


- 


- Booloot, 


Into - 


• 


- 


H^oRgwa. 


Ahont 


. 


- Paroneta, 


Near - - 


. 


- 


Jotuma. 


After - 


. 


- KendooHO, 


Nigh . - 


- 


. 




Against 


- 


- Heeraatbo, 


Of - - 


- 


• 




Amidst 


. 


• Booth, 


Off - . 


- 


• 


Piakoma. 


Among 


« 


- Kara. 


On - - 


- 


- 




Around 


- 


- MaUinga. 


Orer - 


- 


- 


Boobotika, 


At . - 


. 


- Noondkana, 


ftound 


. 


mm 


■J/g/gfitjML 


Before 


- 


. Nulla. 


Through - 


- 


- 


Moohanga, 


Behind 


- 


- Oamdu, 


Throughout 


- 


- 




Below 


m 


- Thanga, 


TUl - - 


- 


- 


MamaJ\ 


Beneath - 


- 


m 


To - . 


- 


. 


Keekala. 


Beside 


- 


" Thinana, 


Towards - 




• 


JUiianga, 


Between 


- 


• Booth. 


Under 




- 


Thanga-'ihamga 


Beyond 


- 


- Moonda. 


Underneath 




- 


Thanga. 


By - - 


- 


- 


Until - - 




• 


Keehaia. 


Down 


- 


- T%anga. 


With . - 




• 


Thooh. 


For - 


- 


• 


Within 




- 


Woolhae. 


From - 


- 


- Mangy. 


Without - 




- 


MoonoHmga. 


In - - 


• 


m 











12. Conjunctions. — How are they used? 
example. Give equivalents of— 



Give one or two sentences by way of 



Although 


- 


- 


- 


Neither 


- 




And - 


- 


- 


- 


Notwithstanding 




As - 


- 


. 


• 


Nor . 


- 




Because 


- 


• 


- WakanaL 


Or - 


* a 


- Kmnaguani. 


Both - 


- 


• 


- Boola. 


So - 


- 


- 


But - 


. 


- 


. 


That - 


- 




Either 


- 


- 


• 


Than - 


M • 




For - 


- 


- 


• 


Though 


■i m 




If 


- 


• 


- Wooihamalkanu, 


Unless 


- 




Lest - 


« 


. 


m 


Yet - 


. 





13. What are the common interjections ?- 

Kooki. I 

Kanii (equal to *' my word "). | 



Yay (to express sorrow). 
Naa (to express agreement). 



LANGUAGE. 27 



Beicabes. 



1. It is a most difficult matter to get the articles ; in fact I do not think 
they have any^ for in order to express the definite article they wonld say ^^that 
man;" and for the indefinite article, ^^ another man;" or in their own tongue, 
Preppa kanu 

2. In expressing the masculine or feminine they say, Brangolo jirrah 
(that is, male kangaroo); or sometimes they will say, Jirrah waUy (a big 
kangaroo); and a female kangaroo is Booyanga jirrah (a kangaroo with an 
ovary); but in describing other animals they say, for females, Yackan (mother) 
— ^thus, Tackana koola (a female or mother bear). 

3. In expressing the plural they make no difference where they place an 
adjective before it. Thus — '"one kangaroo" is Kooto jirrah; "two kangaroos," 
BoolooTnana jirrah; but to express a large number of kangaroos they alter 
the termination of the noun. Thus, they say, Yaail manda jirrowa (many 
kangaroos), or Taail manda koolona (many native bears) ; but this is done 
merely for the sake of euphony, as there seems to me no particular rule on the 
subject ; for they say Kootopana kani^ that is, "one man ;" or Boolooman kaniy 
"two men;" and to express many men they say, Yaail manda hani — ^the 
termination of the noun not being altered at all. So I think we may conclude 
that they only alter the noun when it would sound abrupt without some affix* 
They have no way of expressing the plural as we have. They cannot express 
"trees": they say Gullepur^ or Yaail gvllepur^ or, for "one stick," Kallack; and 
Yaml manda hallowa, for "many sticks." Indeed the blacks have no word to 
express " tree." The word Gullepur may mean a tree, or merely a piece of stick, 
or even a pipe to smoke with. In just the same way, they have no word for 
"fish" or "bird." All are distinguished by their proper names, as, for instance, 
a stringybark tree is Yangooraj and an ironbark, Irrick. So, in like manner, 
fish are known by their proper names, as Kine (bream), Tamboon (perch), 
Krinyang (mullet), &c., &c.; but the whole is known as Yamda jaeka (meat 
which is in the water). 

4. I find it difficult to express how they compare. In comparing, for 
instance, "big," they say Quarrail gree (big canoe); for one bigger, Maek 
qtiarrail gree (which means a very big canoe) ; but to express a bigger one 
still they say Afach quarrail gatty gree — that is to say, " a very big, big canoe." 
And in comparing the word " tall," they say, Wreckil hani (a tall man), Ghiolo 
wreckil hani (a taller man), and Mack gnolo wreckil kani (the tallest man). 
To express " good," " better," " best," they say — Laan fnanda kani (a good 
man), Mack laan manda kani (a very good man), and Bremmanda kani (the 
best man). 

5. I have found it very difficult to get the pronouns, and I may state that 
they have no gender. ^ 

6. To show how the relative pronouns are used, I give an example or two. 
For instance, "Who goes with me?" is — 

Nanmja gegan thtUo roanga neeta? 
Who goes with me? 



28 THE ABOEIOINES OF TICTOBIA: 



And "Which is your camp?" ii 

Woonmanda baang ma gningalocng? 
Which or where camp of yours ? 



And " What are yon carrying in yonr hand?" ii 

Nanma kertbato man braa guinga? 
What carry in hand yours? 

7. To express the pronoun " my," they say, " for my spear," Waal ma gnetcU 
(spear of mine) ; " thy spear " is Waal ma gningal (spear of thine) ; and " his 
spear " is Waal ma gnungal (spear of his). 

8. The distributive pronouns I have found very difficult, as it is hard to 
make the blacks understand what is meant. I give you one sentence to show 
the way the pronoun " each " is used. " I will give each of you a spear " is — 

Bremba gegnanatha tvaal ma gnurtagnangTiO. 
To each give I spear and to all of you. 

I suppose equivalent to our expression '^ I will give to each and all of yoa 
a spear." 

9. The indefinite pronouns are not declined. 

10. The adverbs, also, I have found difficult to obtain. The word " home- 
ward" I have given as Mellagan; but this merely expresses "to return," and is 
mostly used to express returning to one's settled home, or to home for the 
time being. The words I have not given I have &iled to procure. I do not 
think their equivalents exist in the language. 

11. Of the prepositions I have given you all I could get, and I add a few 
sentences to show how they are used. To express " between " — as, for instance, 
" I was between two kangaroos," they say — 

Moona booth jirrona. 
I was between kangaroos. 



" Put that rug over the camp " if 

Kifuma marook munana moola booloboolotAa baanga. 
Put rug that way over camp. 

" I will go with you " is — 

Kiekanat thoolo uanga nindo. 
Gk) I there ^qUi you. 

And " I was under the tree " is — 

Thangana kallacka thin ma gnat. 
Under tree was L 



LANGUAGR 



29 



Native Words and thbib Meaninos in English. 



T%vnuna ngipandan. 
Going to I strike. 



7%tfn«fia 



an togd jacka. 



I nunutui na\ woornnan toga jacna 
Going to X ' seek nest bird. 

T^ntma ngi bdndan. 
Going to I sleep. 

T^uniffia not UthagenganJacL 
Going to X chew meat. 

T^ununa ngi keppeun. 
Going to I scold her. 

7%ununa ngi pertgana jack tpm. 
Going to X catch meat Ime. 

7%«nvfia ngi batgejan gvfian. 
Going to X cut axe. 

Tkununa ngi mStng gwan ngunga, 
Gkkingto X to watch mm. 

TV^MiVfiii not jibban not kdUacK 
Going to I bnm^ I stick or wood. 



Thununa ngi leckin nganatha yam* 
Going to I pour out I water. 

Thunvna ngi voanjani. 
Going to I take it. 

Thununa nai tai tat greletha. 
Going to I keep to myself. 

JTiununa ngi jeUan boorka ge jenat 
Going to I to sharpen by myself. 

W8l ma ngetalung. 
Spear of mine. 

Manjilbf panda ngan poorko. 
He hit me head. 

Tarlo jack thialan. 
Small meat eats. 

Wulginga bundando khlango. 
How sting (or bite) snake. 

Nemdowa wocna dthal. 
Teeth of his. 



Kinnaigan yarrowa, 

I am nghtable (I was angry). 

[Mr. Bnlmer gives a ftirther explanation of these phrases in a letter to me. 
He says that he has used the word Jack for " bird" as well as for "meat," and 
this is the way the blacks always use it when they speak of birds. Tarlo jack 
is "little meat." If they were going to hunt kangaroo, they would use the 
term Woamgarui jacka, meaning thereby that they were going to get " meat." 
He says he has &Lled to render one sentence, because he could not get it satis- 
factorily translated. It is this : — " I am going to sharpen my spear." The 
term ffe jenat he thinks — ^he says he is almost sure — ^is as he has rendered it. 
JS^at at tlie end of the word Gejen is a personal pronoun, first person singular ; 
and, he supposes, is used to render the sentence emphatic. He finds that the 
blacks commonly use pronouns in this manner. To translate some sentences 
literally is nearly impossible — ^the corresponding English words would appear 
to be without sense. For instance, the sentence " I am going to burn a stick 
(or wood) " would be " I am going I bum a stick" — the Tiffi being, like not, a 
pronoun^ first person singular.] 



Present teiue. 
Wang^Snat . . - 
Wang^Sn nungSang 
WSng^Sn thand 



Thb Vkbb. — ^To Heab. 

UmiOATIYB MOOD. 

Future tense* 
Wang^Snd tha oarko - - IwiUhear. 
Wdng-gSngard - - - he will hear. 
JDoorowSl wangSn - - they will hear. 



I hear, 
he hears, 
they hear. 



Conqtound present tense^ 



Wdngani - - > 
^ung-gdn gard wangSn - 
Wangdnd quoU 



xmpbrjltiyb. 



Wangan 



I am hearing, 
he is hearing, 
they are hearing. 

Hear. 



30 



THB ABOBIGINES OF YICTOBIA: 
To LOVB. 

nrDIOATIYB MOOD. 

iVef en/ tenn. 
Woorunydnai -------- I lore. 

Woonoi ySn numgSng - -he lores. 

Woorun ySn kSro w6rQ -.--..- thej lore. 



To Gk). 



Pre»9iit feiue. 
Yon gam not' 
Yan gan nungSng - 
Yarn birtam - - - . 
Yan gan wert 



Plapa not gar a 
PlapSn - 
NgSndd kindan 



IVDICATITX MOOD. 

Future ten$€. 
Thun uni yBn gSn at 
Yan gan gSrd 
Blangajindan « - , 



I go. 
he goes, 
thej go. 
we go. 



I wOl go. 
he will go. 
thej will go. 



Compound present tenee. 



Plapa, 



I am going, 
he is going, 
thej are going, 

go. 



Thialanll jirah thin butha karik. 
Eat kangaroo in the sc^ab, 

KanawcUha waU, bal ngatm^kina. 
Giro me mj spear, will I kill. 

Eml^ T** } ®'' ^ ^^® ^^®^ ^™' 

Jibban wert bal wert thSng, 
Boast it all it eat. 



KootopanS kani mul wangd kewita. 
One man will go to creek. 

KoolepiuUi kani mul u>ang4 karika^ 
One man will go to scrub. 

Kooiopand kani mul wangd wdroin. 
One man will go to forest. 

Nundeing md wanga thungundkd^ 
Meet at the water-hole. 



Wango ga il kinedd. 
Where plenty fish. 

Wudhd mat kanu kdmding bal wert kang keekaUng mookd nungia. 
If he coo-ee then we will go to hioi. 

Wudhd mal kano wert horapa merat wrdthun kani. 
If one of us eaten the strange man. 



Kana watha wdOung - - - 

Ud waUung ma nungo - - - 

Ucand jinnd gam - - - - 

Man gal ucana^d yam ma ngingo - 

Kana wathd laekie - ^ - - 

Ucand jinna ngleppur - ▼ « 

Waekd ucan wem i^ ngleppur ma ngingo. 
We giro will not stick to jon. 

Dindhd ma breth ba ngethdl. 
This is hand of mine. 

WatbiUmba. 
Sing you a song. 

Wunmand mungan ma nginalungf 
Where is father of yours? 



Gire me a stone. 

Gire him a stone, 

I gire him some water. 

I will not giro water to you. 

Gire me some bread. 

I will glre you stick. 



Dindhd ma mung-gandan. 
There is father of mine. 

T%ibnd mung^an ddnd. 
He is father of mine. 

Wackdjinand mung-gan douna. 
This not father of mine. 

Boohoman, Kootopan, 
Two. One. 



Kana watha lack bal nat thang, mack mremanat^ 
Giro me bread for me to eat, Tery hungry I, 



LANGVAOE. 



31 



"Three" would be expressed thus : — 



« Four" thus :— 



Booboman baiha kootook. 
Two and one. 

Boohoman hatha boolung. 
Two and two. 



And SO they go on repeating as far as they can. All the numerals they 
have are " one '' and " two.*' 



Ban yal thangha yam. 
We drink water. 

Wreckil bimdang ma nai-kidha. 
Long arm has my brother. 

Wreckil mandkd bowetn dowhan. 
Long is sister of mine. 

BooKthganda lathe kani ma/t. 
Two children man that. 



Kinnama kaUack bal ngin pandd baan. 
Take stick and yon strike dog. 

Thapijakani pandando kaBow baan, 

Tne man beat (or struck) with stick dog. 

Tata kandd vfoorin, 
Binng is the snn. 

T^prd woorin. 
Set is the son. 



T%»prd naran waregando. 
The moon is risen. 



vm 


3LENSI0N OF ^UBHTAlH^n 


HES 


AND l^KflONAL rRONOOT 


rS; WITH JiJXAMPLES 






OF THB Dual. 






Stngoltr. 




I>iial. 


FlnnL 

1 


Nom. 
Gen. 


• Kani, a man 

- Wa kanif of a man 


" 


Boohng kani, two men . 

Wa boohnga kani, of two 
men. 


Womba kani, men. 

TTiungo wanga kam, of the 
men. 


Dat. 
Ace. 
Voc. 


- Mo kani, to a man 
• Kani, a man 

- Wagrato kani, man - 


- 


Kinna boohnga, to two men . 

Boohng kani, two men 

Wagrato boohng kani, two 
men. 


Thuhna kani, to the men. 

Womba kani, men. 

WakratgU kani, the 
men. 


AbL 
Exat. 


- Kinanga kani, by a man 

- T^ingo wangona kani, from 

aman. 


Kinanga boolcnga, by two men 
Wanga boola, with two men - 


TTiana kani, by the men. 

Wanga thana kani, firom 
the men. 


Brgat. 


- Kikana thulona kani, with 
aman. 


ThtUa wanga boola 


TTUtana woma kani, 
with the men. 








First person. 






StngiUar. 




DaaL 


Flnnd. 


Kom. 

Aoc. 

Cans. 


- Ngio, I . - - 

- Ngat, me- 

- Ngioma, by me - 


- 


Ngah, we two ... 
Ngah, us two ... 
Ngango, by us two - 

Second person. 


Nango, we. 
Nango, us. 
Wema, by us. 




Blngnlir. 




DittL 


Flvnl. 


Kom. 
Aoc 
Voc 
Cans. 


- Jdana, thou 

- JUani, thee ... 
. Wakrai denana, thou 
. Nindoma^ by thee 


m 


Ngoogara, you two 
Ngoogara, you two 
Kanug€ura gno, you two - 
Boolangara, by you two 

Third person. 


Ngurtana, you. 
Ngurtana, you. 
Wakrat ngurtana, you. 
Thai ngurtana, by you. 




Stngalar. 




Diial. 


PIuxmL 


Kom. 


. JUU, he ; Mahe, she { 




Boolagano, they two . 


Thinana, they. 



Ace 
Cans. 



jaanaaa, n 
Ngunga, him 
Kanu ngunga, by him . 



Boolagano, they two - . T^monOy them. 
Thanouraganu, by them two - Thana, by them« 



32 



THE ABORIGINES OY YICTOBIA: 



The two men went away - • .... Fhpa booiung kanL 

Go two men. 

The names of the two men ...... Thara boolung kanu 

I gare a spear to the two men - . - . . Ukaiho wcuU booiung kani. 

Gave I spear two men. 

I speared the two men ...---. Pandatho booiung kanu 

Speared I two men. 

I slept with the two men ...... Baandathan wanga byJUa. 

Slept I witii two. 

I ran away from the two men ..... WindatKani tkungo wanga bnSa. 

Ban I from the two. 

The two men canght me ...... Loorapa btitta gnan. 

Cangnt two me. 

I canght the two men - - Loorapa gnio buQa, 

Caught I two. 

I saw the tracks of the two men - - - . . Tacka gnio bulla wanik. 

Saw I two tracks. 

I go ---------- Babiai yanimg. 

We two go--------- Yangan gnai. 

We go ---.------ Pitman worL 

Yon go---------- Yan imba. 

Yon two go -.-.--..- Pkqnmb baook. 











Nouns and Ysbbs, Qippsland. 












irouvs. 








TXBB8< 


» 


Sleep - 


. 


- 


- 


Baimdan, 


To sleep 


. 


- 


. 


Bairndamwfet 


A knot 


. 


- 


- 


Tkidwiba. 


To net or knit 


- 


- 


Krendamg, 


Acnt - 


. 


- 


- 


Bowga, 


To cut - 


. 


- 


. 


Batgejan. 


A fight 


. 


- 


- 


Pandean, 


To fight - 


- 


- 


- 


Yarrak. 


Growth (enlargement] 


I- 


Berngan, 


To grow - 


- 


- 


. 


Bemgan. 


Lore (aiEection) 


- 


- 


Wooringan, 


TolOTC - 


- 


- 


- 


Wooringan, 


AcaU - 


. 


- 


. 


Kamdan. 


To call - 


- 


- 


- 


Kamdogan, 


A blow 


. 


. 


. 


Pandan. 


To beat - 


- 


- 


. 


Pandean, 


A cleft 


. 


. 


. 


Tarregan, 


To cleaye 


- 


- 


. 


Taramban, 


A smear 


. 


. 


. 


Maneba. 


To smear 


- 


- 


- 


Kartaban, 


A spear 


. 


- 


- 


Waal, 


To spear 


- 


- 


- 


Krindha, 


Speed - 


. 


- 


• 


Minamit, 


To hasten 


- 


- 


- 


Wutherama, 


Death - 


. 


- 


. 


NowooU 


To die - 


- 


- 


. 


Tirtygan, 


Himting (sport) 


- 


- 


WarranguMuu 


To hnnt - 


- 


- 


- 


Womgan, 


Sweat - 


- 


- 


- 




To sweat or 


perspire 


- 


Blanda bkmda. 


life - 


- 


- 


- 


Bagwan. 


ToUye - 


- 


- 


- 


Warrapanana, 


Best - 


- 


. 


- 


Owandohan, 


To rest - 


- 


- 


- 


Gwandoban. 


n have 


lobta 


ined 


tl 


lese words from 


bhe Bey. Mr. Bulmer, to show the relat 



that exists between nouns and verbs. They afford some hints as to the modes 
in which words have been formed, and the reader can easily add largely to the 
list by an examination of the vocabularies in this work.] 



Nativb Stoby. — ^English — Bundah Wark* 

Two blacks, a man and a woman, named Paddy and Kitty; the two went from Lake Tyers, 
Bolung kani^ bra il woorcat, thSrbla Paddy badui Kitty bulla plapa mungi WSmungaity, 

to, get some swans' feathers and opossum skins for sale. There was no fiour at the station, 

* wumalla mum mundSrrd bathd mSruk uaUa, Ndtbd lack munga buHagan, 

So the two went awaj for one month, promising to return when the flour came. 

Plapa bulla ma kootealla waneda, buUa meUagaHihSL mal ngaUa belligalitha lack. 



LANGUAGE. 



33 



The two went down the Lakes with other two blacks. 
Kicka Mid tkuUd yak muUo jgttah muUo wanga preppd huLlung gdna. 



One day the two 
Mai plapa bulla 



camp to ffo and hnnt hj themselyes, and were never seen again. 



w>o 



left their 

thvngo kooto brun tkuho woomgdlld ngal quanS buUa, nandha kang barratha mrakandha, 

6ne day the blacks were hunting in the scrub near some water, when one man picked np a bone. 
Woomgan kani wrak thundho karika dundho yara ySrnda, kootoapa kani ma muwa bring. 

He thought it was a kangaroo bone. He looked again and found it was the bone of a black. 
Kaang koonganu ngal yal bringa jirowa, Kaang barrath Jungarra kaang bringa kani. 

Some more blacks came up and took away the mud and found the body of Kitty. 
BSrrath batha kaang preperwitha kani ma kina mtdla yeneUa tackan kani mackta. 



All the blacks knew the body, because she had a lame leg. 

Kani tkungo wango, ma kirtirra maiko, 

one had murdered her. 

jebnbandho kani, ^^— ^— 



All the blacks said some 
Tkun garra kani mal 



Native Stobt. — BundaA Wark — ^English. 

Boolung kani, bra il woorcat, thSrbla Faddy batha Kitty, Bulla plapa munga WSmungatty 
Two blacks, man and woman, named Paddy and Kitty. Two went from Lake Tyers 

wumaUa mum mundarra batka mSruk, ualla. N&tba lack munga bullagan, Plapa buUa 

to get swan feathers and opossum rug, to give away. No flour at the station. Went the two 

ma koote alia waneda. Bulla mellagalitka mal ngalla belligaliiha lack, Kicka buUa tkuOa yak 
for one moon. To return when comes flour. Went the two to the west 

muUo jettah, MuUo wanga preppS buUung gdna. Mal plapa bulla tkungo kooto brun, 

by the sea beach. Went with them other two men. Went the two one day. 

Tkuh woomgaUa ngSl guana bulla. Nandha kaang barratha mrd kandka, Woomgan 
To hunt by themselyes the two went. Never seen were their faces again. Hunting were 

kani wrak tkundo karika, thundo yara ySmda. Kootopa kani ma mutba bring, 

the blacks in a place where was scrub, where was also water. One black picked up a bone. 

Kaang koonganu ngal yal bringa jirowa. Kaang barrtith jungarra kaang bringa 
Then thought he this is a bone of a kangaroo. Then looking again found there the bone of 

kani. Barrath batha kaang preperwitha kani ma kina mulla yeneUa tackan kani 

a black. Looked another there more blacks and they got by lifting and saw a black's 

mackta, Kani tkungo wang-a ma kirtirra matko. 7*hungarra kani mal jdmbandko 

body. Blacks knew when she was lame. Knew blacks that she had been tomahawked 

kani, 
by blacks.* — 



Native Language, Gippsland and Murray. 

BngUih. NUiTa. 



What name yon ? 



Where is the track ? - 



Where are the other blacks? 



- (G. L.) Wun-man tkari gnina f 
(M.) Wingi a nimba f 

- (G. L.) Wanick indra f 

Track where is it ? 

(M.) Windarra vutherof 
Where is the track ? 

- (G. L.) Wunman preppa kanif 

Where are other blacks ? 

(M.) Windarra karo waimbiaf 
Where are other blacks ? 



* In The History qfBdgan, in this work, Mr. Alfred Howitt gives a similar account of the flnding 
of poor Kitty's bones. 

VOL. II. E 



34 



THE ABORIGINES OF VICTOBIA: 



Engllah. 



I lie - 



You lie, &C. 



I am hwngty, &c. 



Hungry 



Our father, &c. * 



Mjcamp 



Where is the meat ? 



No meat 



Afraid, &c. 



FfttfT6« 

(G. L.) Jatt bolato. 
lie L 

(M.) Purragia ajtpa* 
Lie 1 

(G. L.) Jate bokmdo. 
Lie 70U. 

(M.) Purraffia imba* 
Lie jon. 

Yaton. pwrrdffitL 
He lies. 



(M.) 
(M.) 



Purragia gndHet 
Lie we. 



(M.) Purragia urta. 

lie all (or, you all lie). 

(G. L.) Gaau^anaf. 
Hungrj I. 

(M.) TTtTfta lottt appa. 
Hungry 1. 

(G, L.) Nindo ganuganooJL 
Tou hungry. 

(M.) Wilka wilkimba. 
Hungry you. 

QL) YeUtm wilka wilk anna* 
He is hungry. 

(M.) Wilka wUk urta. 

Hungry all (or, all are hungry). 

(G. L.) Mungan aura* 
Father our. 

(M .) JVtfintfi kambia. 
Our father. 

(M.) Kam6e 1. Nanmarri. 
Father my. Mother my. 

(G. L.) Muck gnetal gambanja. 
My camp. ^ 

(M.) Yappen. 

Camp (or, my camp). 

(G.L.) Wudkajackf 
Where meat ? 

(M.) Windarra manbat 
Where meat ? 

(G. L.) Natbunda Jack. 
No meat. 

(M.) Naika manba, 
No meat. 

(G.L.) Jer-ag anat. 
Afraid L 

(M.) Gno-yal nappa. 
Afraid I. 

(G.L.) Jcr-ag ando. 
Afraid you. 

(M.) Gno-yal nimba. 
Afraid you. 

(G. L.) Natbunda jer-ag anat. 
Not afraid I. 

(M.) Ilia gno-gal nappa. 
Not afraid 



r 



LAN0T7A0E. 



35 



EngUdi. 



Cat a canoe to get meat for all - 



Go 



» » 



Where is my canoe Btick f - 



Bathe - 



I go to another comitry or place 
What do yon think ? ftc. - 



Ton do not speak ^ 
Who stole my bread ? 



I speak not to yoa 
Ton spoke to me 



Native. 

(G. L.) Panda gnin oura gri tour iatanga. 
Cut you for all canoe meat, 

(G. L.) Pangat panning. 
I go. 

(G.L.) Yan imba. 
Go you, 

(G.L.) Yan ga noL 
Gro we two. 

(M.) Paddy toappa. 
Go I. 

(M,) Paddy waimba. 
Go you. 

(M.) Paddy urta. 
Go we. 

(M.) Paddy walie. 
Go we two. 

(G.L.) Wunman gendook muck gnetalf 
Where is canoe stick of mine ? 

(M.) Yakake uxmpa. 
Bathe u. 

(M.) Yakakt waimba. 
Bathe you. 

(M.) Yaton yakake wanna. 
He bathes. 

(M,) Yakake walie. 
Bathe we two. 

(M.) Paddy wappa • karo kara. 

Go I another country (or place). 

(M.) Minna wring nindo f 
What think you ? 

(M.) Uring ato. 
Thiii L 

(M.) Yaton vri wanna. 
He thinks. 

(M.) lUa parel go rimba* 
Do not speak you. 

(M.) Winjea kammia manif 

Who stole bread my ? 

(M.) /22a ku^tera notama. 
Not speak I to you. 

(M.) Nindo kidpera gnana, 
Tou spoke to me. 



Mr. Bulmer adds this note : — " I thought it best to give you specimens of 
both languages — Gippsland and Murray — so that you might see the construc- 
tion of both. I think we may safely venture to say that the constraction of all 
the native languages, which must have originally come from the same source, 
is the same. One thing I have observed with regard to the language — ^it is a 
double language. They have two words to express everything. This is very 
convenient to a people who have occasionally to disuse a word, on the death of 
a friend whose name sounded like the word they lay aside. For instance, when 



36 



THE ABOEIGINES OP VICTOEIA: 



I first went among the Murray blacks they used the word Murra for the hand. 
A man died who was called Murra muto (or bad hand), having only one finger 
on each hand. The blacks then changed the word Murra for Mam hanya^ 
This very practice would no doubt much assist, in the course of years, to change 
a language, while its construction remained the same." 



KngUsb. 

Wind 

Summer - 

Winter - 

Star 

Son 

Moon 

Gum-tree - 

Wood 

Fire 

Water 

Stone 

Rain 

Clouds - 

Sky - - 

Old man - 

Widower - 

Widow - 

Blackfellow - 

Earth 

Egg 

Camp 

To-day - 

Yesterday 

I see 

To Ue - 

To steal - 

Come 

Be quick - 

Where 

Oood 

None 

Tes 

No 

Small quantity 

Plenty - 

News 

Sun-down 

Bad 

Wait 

Spirit or shadow 

Father - 

Mother - 

To die - 

To perspire 

Gire me - 



Vocabulary. 

Maznj. Olppslwid. 

Yarto ----- Krow-o^o, 

Buckara ..... Jelamdook. 

KoUya ..... Merbuek. 

Burley - - - . . Brael, 

Yhucko ..... Wurrin, 

Pitoa ----- Norman, 

Bemarra .... - YHuro, 

Yarrara .... - MriU 

Nandahf ..... Towera, 

Nucko ..... Ycun, 

Yamda WaUung, 

Mockera ..... WiUohg. 

Ninda . - . - . Note<, 

----- Warrun. 

Wirto . - - - . Boredine. 

Yctckea ..... Marra walack, 

Mamhanya pumo ... WoKMi-lacA. 

Waimbia ..... Keua-ni, 

Murtufy ..... Wrack, 

Purty ..... Bo-yang. 

Yappera ..... Oambanja, 

Kalpo ..... Jiili, 

lUour ..... Boohing, 

Wing-B-ato .... Tin tacka, 

Pwragia ..... Jate boian, 

Kammia ..... Dawan-dowan jaL 

Kawa ••-«•• OnovHtnjy, 

Walked wta .... Woihera, 

Windarra ----- Wunman, 

Kandelka ----- Lane. 

Natha wary .... Naat4>un. 

Gna Ona. 

Mopa . - . - - Gnalko. 

Kate wail yo - - - i 'Tarlitban, 

Ko-ua ----- ya ill, 

Berlko ----- Lewin, 

Hippy yhuko - . - . Kote bUl, 

ThuJriagga ..... Dur<^». 

Bafyarta ..... Tar gut. 

Uri-uri ..... Yambo. 

Kambea ..... jSfira^afi. 

Namarra - . . - . Yaekan. 

Pucka ----- Tirtyga. 

Kangnarra- - - - . Blandonblanda. 

Gnokan donna .... Kana watha. 



Engliab. 

Whose is this ? . - 
Where is the roftd ? - 
Mine . . . . 
Grass - - - - 
Ferns . . . - 
Swan . . . . 
Pelican - - . . 
Black dock ... 
Kangaroo . . . 

Wallaby - - - - 
Bandicoot . . . 
Smu . . . . 
Opossum - . . - 
Native bear . . . 
Eel - - . - 

Spear - - . - 
Clnb-shield - 
Spear-shield ... 
Boomerang ... 
Club - • - . 
Instrument for throwing 

spear 
Eagle .... 
Crow - - - . 
North .... 
South .... 
East . . . - 
West . - . . 
Doctor - . . . 
Tall - . . - 
Short .... 
Blood .... 
Hands . . . . 
Feet . . - - 
Knees .... 
Elbows . . . . 
Mouth . . . . 
Chin - . . . 
Hair . . . . 

Forehead .... 
Ear . . . . 

Teeth .... 
Tongue . . . . 
Throat .... 
Fingernails . . . 
Lirer - - - - 
Fat . . . . 

Cheeks .... 
Stomach .... 
Flesh . . . . 
Eyes .... 
Man . . . . 

Woman - - . . 
Boy . - . . 

Girl . . . - 

Dog . . . . 



LANGUAGE. 

Mamj. 



37 



Olpptland. 



Am akie - . - - . Onana lack a dinda, 

Windcurra yhutero ... Wanick indra, 

Gni0 ..... GnetaL 

Mutho ..... Btm, 

----- G« uan. 

Young ofy - - - - - Gidi. 

Gnang kerO' .... Burran, 

Miralie - ... - Wrang, 

Bui oil a - - - - - Jirrah, 

Marrinya ... - - Tkarogang, 

Boganya ..... Minnaek 

KaUy ..... Miowero, 

Pirlta TFo-^. 

KuUah. 

- • - - . No^yang, 

KdUtro WaU. 

Marraga ..... Marmga, 

Karragttme .... Bamerook, 

Wana . - - . . Wangin, 

Pira ..... KaUack, 

Yttrramba ..... Mirriwan, 

Bifytura ..... Quctrnamerung. 

Wacko OT Wa-ku - - • GntW'HhkaL 

..... Be-ara, 

Tha. 

..... KaT'wi, 

Yack. 

Makega MaUaymdOanq. 

Barlaro ..... WreckeL 

Pimby ..... Tookalapan. 

Kandarra ..... K<im do barra, 

Murra ..... Bret 

Thina ..... Jane. 

Thingee - - - - -Bun, 

Kuppoa ..... JiUung. 

Yelka JTo-o^. 

Wacka . . . . , Yaifu 

Burlky Liu 

Bick ho ' - ' ' ' Nen. 

Ury ..... W'Ting, 

Nandy ..... Gnam-^tack, 

Tar4m-ya , . . - . JUHne, 

Bem-ba TuU-oU, 

Melinya . - . . . Ttigerct-bret, 

Tkanganya ... * Wall-ownUack, 

Mumey .... - Wamewan 

Gncrly ..... Wd'-ang, 

Kumto BuHon. 

Wanga ..... Wor^ a tang. 

Makey ..... Mri, 

Mahf ..... BraJu 

Nongo ..... Woor^cat 

Wifyango ..... Lathe, 

Nongo mote pa ' - ' - Tar I woor^^at. 

Kad defy ..... Ba-an, 



38 



THE ABORIGINES OF TICTOSIA: 



Tbibe^ whose Original Bibsidenob was Lake Ttebs. 


EagUfh Kftine« 


Aborislnal Fame. 


SofUsh STame. 




Aborfgliial NuMi 


Kangaroo - 


- Jir^rah, 


Salt-water grass - 


. 


Loomat~ 


Black wallabj - 


- Thdrogang, 


Kelp - 


- 


Koonthooi, 


Bed wallaby 


- Kinarra. 


Water- 


- 


Yam. 


Paddy melon wallaby 


' - ^owcy(o as in "cow")* 


Saltwater - 


- 


Waring. 


Kangaroo rat 


- Bret. 


Lake - - - 


- 


Wraihmg. 


Bandicoot - 


. Menak, 


J7V 


J 




Common rat 


- Biak. 


Jjtru9, 


Wombat - 


- Naroot 


Emu ... 


- 


Miowera. 


Forcnpine - 


- Kowem, 


Native oompanion 


- 


Kooragan. 


Natiye bear- 


- Koola, 


Crane 


- 


KarJo. 


Dog - - - 


- Baan. 


White crane 


- 


Tirtgerawan. 


Iguana 


- Bathalook. 


Eagle hawk- 


- 


QuamoMeroo. 


Small lizard 


- Keratung. 


Sparrow hawk - 


- 


Tooiooth gwan. 


Bed snake or brown 


- Thurung, 


Fish hawk - 


- 


Be win. 


Black snake 


- Toon yarak. 


Magpie 


- 


Klart. 


Small snake 


- Kbongwan, 


Crow shrike 


- 


Wooryung. 


Wood or constrietor Loowabirri. 


Curlew 


- 


BrSL walagan. 


snake 




PloTer 


. 


Berin-berin. 


Opossum - 


- Wa Jan. 


Bed-bill ploTer - 


- 


Tarlarang. 


Black opossnm - 


- BrtUk. 


Swan ... 


- 


Gidi or babine. 


Water rat - 


- Toora blang. 


Black duck. 


- 


Wrong. 


Platypus » 


- Bariijcm, 


Teal duck - 


- 


Natath. 


Native cat - 


- Brumbin. 


Wood duck - 


- 


YeUan nandik. 


Tiger cat - - 


- Bindhahng, 


Widgeon - 


- 


Koortgan. 


King-tail opossnm 


- BlSang, 


Pelican 


- 


Booran. 


Flying squirrel - 


- WSran, 


Seagull 


- 


Blithhrung. 


liftrge flying squirrel 


- Wamda. 


Small white seagull 


- 


Tarook. 


Flying moose 


- Toan, 


Mutton-bird 


- 


Bralak. 


iMM • y 


«■ 


Cormorant - 


. 


Kamey. 


Fishes J fe. 


Large kingfisher 


1 


Quak. 


Bream- 


- JTt'fM. 


Laughing jackass 


Perch - 


- Tambun, 


Small kingfisher - 


. 


Thoormuryung. 


Flat-head - 


- Brindat, 


Kingfisher with white 


Tanyankaragan. 


Large mullet 


- Pertpiang, 


neck 






Sand mullet 


- Krinyang, 


Black direr with white 


KooTOwera. 


Sea trout - 


- BiUin, 


breast 






Schnapper - 


" Narboogang, 


Mopoke 


- 


Woohook. 


SilTor perch 


- KSry, 


Crow ... 


. 


NgaroogcU. 


Silrer-flsh - 


- Kooey. 


WoDga-wonga pigeon 


I . 


Waakqutigan 


Fish without scales, 


Ngat. 


Bronzewing pigeon 


- 


Tappak. 


known as ''leather jacket" 


Lyre-bird - 


- 


Wooraa. 


Oolden perch 


- Looterah. 


Swallow 


- 


Kibtgan. 


Shark - - 


- Yamri. 


Martin or swift - 


mm 


Koomgan. 


Whale - - 


- Baawang. 


White cockatoo - 


- 


BrSk. 


Seal - - - 


- Bitkowi. 


Grey cockatoo - 


- 


Koran. 


Crab - 


- Krangilang, 


Black cockatoo - 


- 


Nganak, 


Lobster 


- Jkmdang. 


Blue mountain parrol 


# • 


Wattat. 


Shrimp 


- WOat. 


Grass parrot 


«» 


Toon. 


Prawn 


- WertwerUre, 


Satin>bird - 


- 


Bungii wamdowan. 


Oyster 


- Koo-n warra. 


Musk duck - 


. 


Ban. 


Periwinkle - 


- Wra^an. 


Robin redbreast - 


- 


Bululwrang. 


Limpet 


- Yo-ngnan. 


Mistletoe-bird - 




Chirtgang. 



LAHGUAGE. 



39 



BnglUh UTame. 

Small bird with patch 

of red oyer tail 
Small bird like tomtit - 

UCCflM) " — — " 

Snipe - - - - 
Spoon-bill duck - 
Darter or serpent-bird 
Mountain duck - 
Sand-piper ... 
White hawk 
Small grey hawk 
Grey plover - - 
QuaU .... 
Penguin ... 
Water-hen ... 

Insects^ 

Spider- ... 
Tarantula ... 
Maaonfly - . <. 
March fly - . . 
Mosquito . - - 
Cricket ... 
Small moth - - - 
Prog .... 
Bull-frog ... 
Sting-ray . . 
Bulldog ant 
Large-headed ant 
Small black ant - 
Louse .... 
Grass tick ... 
Grasshopper, locust - 
Grub .... 
Large moth- 
Butterfly ... 
Black beetle 
Fly ... . 



Mantis 
Centipede - 



Aborigliud Kame. 
BribatUh, 

Yaramg. 

Nath. 

KHk. 

Wyung. 

Tharwan, 

Kara-gnark, 

Kewet-kewet, 

Soon hoong, 

Troon wagga. 

Bungil bowmdang, 

Ooro hi gnancmg. 

Tarlo bimdang. 

Neerloong, 

4'C. 

MtrvMOndho, 

Waanduna kani. 

Kookoonda miowtra, 

Narrawort 

Newan, 

Ta jerrai, 

Tarh kSmg-kong^ 

Tatelak. 

Blook. 

BSSlangoorIL 

Dibban, 

Purk gatH. 

Woogoot, 

Nin, 

Dango^ 

Bapakan. 

Krang, 

Ba bukan. 

Ngarcuoert, 

Ngoorin, 

Naroon. 

KaangaL 

Bungil towera, 

Ngow'ook thuringa. 



English Kame. 



Scorpion 
Earwig 



Aboriginal Kame. 

- Koongun, 

- Ngarorngara, 



TreeSf 

Ironbark ... 

Box-tree 

White-gum ... 

Mahogany of Snowy 
Biyer 

Wattle ... 

Lightwood ... 

She-oak ... 

Cherry-tree - 

Stringybark 

Mountain ash 

Red-gum . . - 

Tea-tree - 

Tea scrub on hum- 
mocks 

Currant-tree 

Pittosporum undulatum 

Honeysuckle 

Kangaroo apple - 

Musk-tree . - . 

Fern-tree - - - 

Fern, light-green one - 

Nettle- - 

Sow-thistle - . . 

Common grass - 

Grass-tree ... 

Cabbage^tree 

Reed . . . . 

Cutting grass, used for 
making baskets 

Rush grown on swamps, 
with broad flat leaf 

Round rush ... 

White-currant shrub - 

Raspberry ... 

Tall fern-tree 

Short fern-tree - 



4^0. 

Baroin, 
Td'kan. 
Balook. 
Pinnakt 

Mart. 

Yowan, 

B8m. 

BdUat, 

Yangoora. 

Yowat, 

Yooro. 

Bin. 

Nowari. 

Lirra. 

Ban^drL 

Bown. 

Koongang. 

Barri mebbook, 

Kdrak. 

Otewan, 

Mdbun. 

Tkalak. 

Ban. 

Tarndang. 

ThapdIkL. 

Kowai. 

Krowam. 

Toorook. 

Booroot 

Karrowert 

Yailaban. 

Kakawtrt 

Dagal. 



LANGUAGE OP THE NATIVES OP THE PINE PLAIN TRIBE, NORTH WIMMERA, 
AND GENERALLY UNDERSTOOD IN THE WESTERN DISTRICT, THE LODDON, 
AND SWAN HILL. 

{CarefiLUg collected from some very intelligent hlacke from that tribe living at Lake Wellington Mission 

Station in Oippdand,) 
(Bt thb Rby. p. a. Haobnaubb, or Lilkb WsLLnroTOir, Gippslakd.) 

Katlya. 



I am going to strike - 

I am going to find a nest - 

I am going to lie down 



Daak ainyan. 

To strike gomg am I. 

Yaak ginyan laangy-banyee. 

To And going am I (a) nest (of a) bird. 

Goomin ginyan. 

To lie down going am L 



40 



THE ABOBIOINES OF YIGTOBIA: 



Bnglidi. 
am going to chew the meat - 

am going to scold her - 

am going to chop with an axe 

am going to watch liim - 

am going to bom the wood 

am going to ponr oat the water 



am about to take it 



intend to keep it 



am going to ihaipen mj spear 



He hit me on the head 



The bird eats 



How does the snake bite and kill man f - 



With his teeth 
I wasangiy 



Katlra. 

Watys ainyan ngowee. 

To chew gomg am I the meat. 

To scold her going am L 

Taardow ginyan bafye goorook. 
To chop going am I with an axe. 

MaanFmaan tyerry ginywn. 
To watch him going am L 

Wenick ainyan. wanyip. 

To bom gomg am I the wood. 

OcmI ginyan ctMying, 

To pour out going am I the water. 

Gaamrmaan ginyan. 

To take it abont am I (going). 

WoorrpamiU ynootyan. 
To keep it intend L 

Litwoong ginyan ngary baUeck, 

To sharpen going am I my spear. 

Tacking propanpeck. 

He hit me on the head (my head). 

Bany tyeckeiang. 
The bird eats. 

Tyanango goottilang goornmUl hunUnong wootyef 
How does bite the snake to kill man f 

Lee allook. 
With his teeth. 

OooUinan, 
Angry was I. 



Ooongeenon 
Ooongeen 
Goongeena - 



SldgnUnr. 



Thk Vebb "Goongeb." 

TO LOTS, TO GREATS BT LOVB, TO MAKB, TO DO. 

INDICATIYX MOOD. 

Present tense. 



- I lore. 

- Thou loTest. 

- He lores. 



Goongeenan - 
Goongeenat - 
Goongeenatt 



FtimL 



- We lore. 

- You loTe. 

- They lore. 



Gcongeenong 
Goangeeno - 
Goongeena - 



I loved. 
Thon loredst. 
He lored. 



Past tense. 



Goongeenango 
Croongeenange 
Cfoongeenang 



- We lored. 

- Ton loTcd. 

- They lored. 



Goongeenan mala - 
Goongeena maia - 
Goongeena mala - 



Goongeenan nuUana 
Goongeenone malana 
Goongeena malana 



I have loTed. 
Thou hast loved. 
He has loved. 



I had loved. 
Thou hadst loved. 
He had loved. 



Perfect tenm, 

Goongeenango makm 
Goongeenange malan 
Goongeenang malan 

Pluperfect tense. 

Goongenanon malanon 
Goongenange malanan 
Goongeenga malanan 



• We have loved. 

- Ton have loved. 

- They have loved. 



- We had loved. 

- Yon had loved. 

- They bad loved* 



.-_•*"'»■ 



LANOUAaE. 



41 



Blngnlar. 

Goongeengnon nuUeck - I shall lore. 
Oocngeengon malooek - Thou Bhalt lore. 
Cfoangengo malooek - He shall lo^e. 



FlnraU 



Future tense. 

Ocongengnangnon tnaleck We shall lore. 
Goongeengnott malooek - You shall lore. 
Goongeengnott mctloock - They shall lore. 



Future perfect tense. 



Ooongeengnatum maJa 
Goongeengnona mala 
Goongeengnonan moZs 



I shall hare loyed. 
Thou wilt haye lored. 
He will hare loyed. 



Goongeenango malano 
Goongeenang malano 
Goongenango malano 



- We shall haye loyed. 

- Tou shall haye loyed. 

- They shall haye loyed. 



Goonganeeget 
Goongareeget 
Cfoongangeeget 



Cfoonganeget mala 
Goongareeget mala 
Goongangeeget mala 



May I loye. 
Mayst thou loye. 
May he loye. 



POTBNTIAL MOOD. 

Present tense, 

Cfoongareegett 

Goongateegett 

Goongatgeegett 



Past tense. 
Not to he found out ; likely not to exist. 

Perfect tense. 



May I haye loyed. 
Mayst thouhaye loyed 
May he haye loyed. 



Goongareegett malan 
Goongateegett malan 
Chongatyeegett malan 



May we loye. 
May you loye. 
May they loye. 



May we haye loyed. 
May you haye loyed. 
May they haye loyed. 



No Pluperfect tense. 



Gaitoongnoong goonget - If I loye. 
GaUoonga goonget - If thou loye* 
Gattoongoroong goongett If he loye. 



SUBJUNOTiyB MOOD. 

Present tense. 



Gattoonganoroong goonget If we loye. 
Gattoongattoong googet - If you loye. 
Gaitoongcuroong googett - If they loye. 



Goongackt 



mPERAXTTB MOOD. 



Goongackt 



Sentences in English and Aboriginal. 



A kangaroo is feeding in the scrub 
Get me my spear and I will kill him - 



I haye killed him 



Let us roast him 



One of us go down to the creek - 
One of UB will go into the scrub -> 



One of us go into the forest (number of large 
trees) 

We will meet at the big water-hole> where 
the flsh are plentiful 



VOL. II. 



Miyoock goray dyickeling ganyapatta gtdk. 
There kangaroo is feeding thick one scrub. 

Manacke tyarrameck bovann. 

Hand me here my spear him kill I wilL 

Boyeenann, 
Killed him I haye. 

Bovango ba towango. 

Let us roast him and eat him. 

Kiup bangoroock yarrowa parrall. 
One of us go down to the creek. 

Kiup bangoroock yarrowa ganya patta gaJk. 

One of us go into (down) thick one scrub. 

Kiup bangoroock yarrowa goroong goroong ngatta galk. 
One of us go into large large high scrub. 

Weeyonbing yango maago goroongo yaram. 
Meet we wiU at large water^hole, 



yannoong gettyowelly werringaL 
where are plenty fishes. 



F 



42 



THE ABOBIQINES OF TICTOEIA: 



If one of 118 catch the stranger, let him coo-«e Oattocng kiup prengoorrooek garroock gimyotrng 



and we will ran to him 



If 



one 



among na 



him 



catch 



Gire me a stone - - ... - 

Oire him a stone . «. ^^ - - 

I giro 70a some water • . - - 

I will not giye 70a an7 water 

Oiye me some hread . . . - 

We will give 70a a stick . . - 

We will not gire 70a a stick 

Oire me some bread to eat» I am hungry 

This is m7 hand - . . . . 

Shiga song- ...... 

Where is m7 Either ? - . . « 
He is m7 father ..... 



gooUoom-ffOoUoomj gamtalfya bam iyertyngangom 
' stranger, call for (as) ran aU wilL 

Woogageen kiup gooUgappo, 
Give me a stone. 

Woogag kiup goottgapp, 
Gire him a stone. 

Woanamnoong kattgong, 
I give 70a water. 

Bogu wtmnoang wooging kaUgotmg, 
I will not gire water. 

Woogag geen banngimmoo. 
Give me bread. 

Wooging ngang tangoonoong gaiko. 
Gire we iml7oa a stick. 

Woogeeba iangoonocng wannoomg woging gaiko. 
We will 70a not give a stick. 

Woogaggeen banngimmo^ weegcmn, 
Giye me bread, I am hongiy* 

Oiwqta wtanganeck. 
Here is m7 hand. 

Waarrangack gattngaUdk. 
Sing a song. 

Mameek gimpaf 
M7 father where is ? 

jyjgooa mameek. 
He is m7 &ther. 



Father. M7 father. 
Mamen, Mameek, 



M7 father comes. 
ifameek woata. 

Tonr father comes. 
Mamoock woata* 

His or her father comes« 
*Ginio mamoock woata, 

(*CHnio signiHes << that one's.") 
M7 father ii here ... 
Oar father is here ... 



Oar fiither. 
Mamengorooek* 

Oar fkther comes. 
Mtunengorooek woata, 

iToar father comes. 
Mamentatk woata. 

Their father comes, 
Mamentack woata. 

That one'i father comes. 
Ginior mawtooek woata. 



Gimpa mameek. 
Here is m7 father. 

Gimpa mamettgorooek. 
Here is oar father. 



He is not m7 father ..... Ngooat mameek. 

Not is 007 &ther. 

One. Two. Three. Foor. Fire. 

Kiyp, BooUett. BocUett ba Hup, BooOeU ba booUetL BoeXlett ba booU^ ba kxup. 

Six. 
BooUett ba booUett ba booUett. 



A great, great many 
We drink water - 



M7 brother has a long ann - 
M7 sister is ▼er7 tall - 



Gailoopp gaUoopp, 

Goopango kattgoong. 
We drink water. 

Goottangeek [tyowang pattyugorooek. 

My 7oaDger brother a Ter7 long arm has. 

SaaUgeek tgowana goroock, 
7 Bister Tez7 tall is. 



LANGTIAGB, 



43 



He has two ohildren 



Take a stick and beat the dog 
The dog is beaten with a stick 



The ton is rising 



The son is set already 



The moon is risen 



What hare I done to yon ? - 
The day after to-morrow 
Where is yoi|r mother ? •> 
My mother speaks 



Gilla hooiaven boottett piampango. 
He has two children. 

Manacke galk tagack gcUL 
Take a stick beat dog. 

Tackaianctek or gall tackannaek gcUko. 
The dog he is beaten with a stick. 

Prinna ngauoee. 
Is rising snn. 

Ngoommmg ngatkin ngauoee. 
Already is down sun. 

Prinnon nUtfyaaHf 
Risen is moon« 

Nyannon tyam goongin tyoorr mangin 9 
I hare what done to you ? 

Perpeck ngooa ngauoee. 
To-morrow aiter this day. 

Winya bapoock f 
Where is your mother ? 

Bapeck woreeka. 
My mother speal^. 



PEC^:i^SIOiT OP SUBSTANTIVBS AOT) PeESONAL PbONOUNS. 



Norn. 

Gen. 

Dat 

Ace 

Voc. 

AbL 

Ezat. 

Eigat. 



Singular. 

- A man, Wootye r 

- Of a man, Wootyoogitg 

- To a man, Wootyoock - 

- A man, Wootye 

- O man I Wootyoh! 

- By a man, Wootyookal 

' From a man, Wootyenoong - 

' With a man, Wootyell r 



Dnal. 
Two men, Booletye wootye. 
Of two men, Wootyegitg hooUtye, 
To two men, Booletye wootyook. 
Two men, BodUtye wootye. 
O two men I Booletye wootyoh! 
By two men, Booletye wootyookal. 
From two men, Booletye wootyenoong. 
With two men, Booletye wootyooU, 



Plaral. Plnral. 

(The same as dual, only to us^ the word GetytmweU instead of Booletye), like — 



Nom. - Men, OetyonweU wootye. 

Gen. - Of men, Getyonwell wootyegitg. 

Dat. - To men, Getyonwell wootyook. 

Aoc " Men, Getyonwell wootye. 



Yoc. 7 O men I Getyonwell wootyoh I 

Abl. - By men, Cretyonwell wootyookal. 

Ezat. 7 From men, Getyonwell ufootyenoong. 

Ergat. - With men, Getyonwell wootyooU. 



Nom. 

Ace. 

Cans. 



Stngnlar. 
I, Wallooreck 
Me, WaJhonoongeck - 
By me, WcMogalleck - 



First person^ 

Doal, PlanL 

We two, Walloonganook * * We, WaOoongingarack. 

Us two, Walloongoongnock * - Us, WaUogingorack. 

By us two, WalloongnoongnalloQck - By us, WallogaUingorack. 



Nom. 
Ace. 
Voc. 
Cans. 



Second peraan. 
SlngoUur. 
Thou, Walloongin - 
Thee, Walloongin - 
O thou ! WaUoongeen I 
By thee, WaUoogaUet 



Dual. 

You two, BooUt wool. 
You two, Boolet wooL 
O you two/ Boolet woollen t 
By you two, Boolet wooUek. 



The Bev. Mr. Hagenauer states that he could not find out the remainder 
from any of the blacks belonging to the Pine Plain tribe who reside at Lake 
Wellington. They said that the old men knew more, but they had not learnt 
it from them. 



44 



THE ABORIGINES OF VICTOEIA: 



A 8H0BT Aboriginal Stort^ in their own Language^ with the correct 

English below. 

Geo goongeenang mamengortiek meg megy ymnoeey goray perrippen meuuft 

(When) flnt made (the) great father every liying beast, (the) kangaroo mn off (on his) fore 

ha tyinnnllook ngollo gaal; goolloom gooUoowuto mortannin maUodkoom dooUoo wooyarin 

and hind legs like (the) dog ; (but) a strange blackfellow hunted after him until got short 

manninyook, NyattyemenUm! Porannyatta goolloom goolloom dorin, may perrippen 

his fore-legs. Him poor fellow I When at night (the) strange blackfellow slept, (the) ungaroo run o£C 

tyinnallook nimpa yetya. Payoongminaoo torroponen tuinneUlook gimpa tnengoon, 

(on) his hind-legs to this country. Since that time (it) went on hind legs here about till now. 



Collection of Words in the Aboriginal Language. 

(Bbino ths Lamouagb undsrstood in the Wbbtbrit District, thb North- Wbbtbrn District, 
the loddob, ahd swan hill, but bblonoibo b8pb0iallt to thb north-wbflt or thb 
Pine Plain Tribe.)* 



▲borfglDsL 






EngUib. 


Aborlgiiud. 






»wyHrfi- 


Bunn 


m 


. 


ashes. 


Dom-dom pimey 


. 


ressel, pot. 


Boorrinn - 


- 


- 


dark. 


Daaiko . 


- 


- 


good. 


Bopoop 


- 


- 


little boy. 


Daako manye 


- 


- 


a good hand. 


Boiltack - 


- 


• 


to hate. 


Derriboott' 


- 


- 


shore, bank. 


Boring 


a 


- 


smoke. 


Datty oock 


- 


• 


little river. 


Bar . 


- 


- 


and. 


Dennying - 


• 


•■ 


frost. 


Bapen 


- 


m 


mother. 


DaUoH - 


- 


a 


to let. 


Baring 


- 


- 


to cut. 


Danta 


. 


• 


down. 


Bunn 


- 


- 


dirt. 


Danta g<tamparytvik 


- 


to pull down. 


Boott 


- 


- 


grass. 


Daap tap kooya 


• 


to awake. 


Bootety 


- 


- 


both. 


DaUngat - 


• 


- 


new. 


Booletye • 


- 


- 


two. 


Dattuck - 


m 


- 


a young tree. 


Baan 


- 


- 


hole. 


Bilm^iim - 


m 


- 


to crack. 


Booywimga 


' 


- 


to wipe. 


Darn dam 


m 


. 


to rattle. 


Brann 


m 


- 


rivulet. 


DootwiUang 


- 


- 


comer. 


Bootylang - 


- 


- 


to go along with wind 


Damoyhng 


• 


- 


to recover. 








or water. 


Dutt yerrung 


- 


a 


knock together. 


Brama 


- 


- 


to press out. 


Goongin - 


- 


a 


to love. 


Boottarty lang 


- 


- 


fastening. 


Goongin - 


- 


a 


to make. 


Bonbonty lang 


- 


- 


shivering. 


Goongin - 


- 


a 


to create. 


Biggy 


- 


- 


to get up. 


Goortampy 


- 


- 


dissatisfied. 


Borangamda dera 


- 


snoring (great sleep). 


Ganylong - 


- 


a 


shaving. 


Baring 


mt 


- 


road. 


Gaming - 


» 


a 


carrying. 


Baring gy granny 


- 


dray track. 


Gamgam - 


- 


a 


horse. 


Winya pirpa baring 


f- 


whither leads this road ? 


Goorroock - 


- 


a 


magpie. 


Boorrip payoong 


- 


run quick. 


Gaal 


- 


a 


dog. 


Boorripa loga 


- 


- 


fetch it quick. 


Gorya 


• 


- 


kangaroo. 


Doorrt 


m 


- 


star. 


Ga • 


•• 


a 


nose. 


DickeU - 


- 


■■ 


to eat. 


Girrip 


- 


a 


leg. 


Dora 


- 


- 


to sleep. 


Goorm 


- 


a 


throat. 


Dora mameck 


• 


- 


my father sleeps. 


GoorritmiU 


■i 


- 


snake. 



* Mr. Hagenauer states that he has found that the blacks generally have two words to ezpTess 
the same thing — so that words taken down by different writers, or by the same writer at different 
times, may vary very much even in the same tribe. He adds that, in his belief, a word having the 
same sound as the name of any person in the tribe was let drop, and another substituted for it, when 
that person died ; hence the continual change in the language. 



5s; 



Bm 



LANGUAGE. 



45 



AborlglnaL 

Gama ... 

Gfit .... 

Gatyiwee . - . 

GaUa-gaQa goock 

Gotooek . . . 

Galick 

Crimpa ... 

Ginga leermuM » 

GiUa 

Goolk 

Gotyoock . . . 

Goorrack . - . 

Goottyia ... 

Geera ... 

Gimpa mya 
Get mampa ginga 
Gampanyoock - 
Gayoowaa 
Gaol pwmgy nsm 
Ginio . . . 
Gum piptang 
Gy ga galack gimpa - 
Gingma ... 
Gangeek . . . 
Galfy tyerriwat 
Gromack - - . 
Giof' . - . 
Giang ... 
Gampa . . . 
Ginta • . - 
Gorack . . . 
Gam ma - 
Gi-y-nang ... 
Galpa weyoong • 
Gaipa weyanong 
Gaalgoock - • . 
Goofyee - - - 
Goorf goroock - 
Goorrongyl 
Gattye - . - 
GaUye wa^ 
Gadtpawya 

Gaanpap - • - 
Gaalkwill - - . 
GoaJUa - . - 
GooUiarf . - . 
GooUinong 

GooroocA goorroock mo- 
rang 
Galpunga - - - 
Gimpan ma - - 
Gia-gia you wanyoock 
Gina ngaytuih - 
AJ^ry . . - 
Nganye ... 



EnglUb. 

large wallabj. 

little. 

come down 

old woman. 

yonnger brother. 

there. 

here. 

in the camp. 

she. 

blood. 

rock, stone. 

sand. 

dew. 

leaf. 

tree. 

about here. 

perhaps it is here. 

deep. 

stilt. 

I break through. 

that. 

beautifnL 

his own. 

this. 

for me. 

question. 

answer. 

where ? 

they. 

shall. 

certam. 

ours. 

to take upon. 

Tain. 

to understand. 

I understand. 

handle. 

good-natured. 

peaceable. 

listen I hear t 

warm. 

hot summer. 

to rend or split. 

thick. 

rush. 

aogry. 

are you angry ? 

I am angry. 

the clouds are red. 

to break, 
explain yourself, 
he cries, 
on one side, 
duck, 
whiskers. 



AborlgliiAl. 

JNganwe 

NgoMwe - 

NgaUye - 

Ifga - . . 

Ngaranopan 

Nganiyooek 

Nga-paranginon 

Ngyee 

Ngang gimpa - 

NgacA 

Ngarya 

Ngarrang - 

Ngatoock - 

Ngacka 

Ngaipan - 

Ngoorra mllang 

Ngan gooU 

Ngango 

Ngangoporyf - 

Nganwee - 

Ngo geU • 

Ngangy ring? - 

Ngun win - 

Ngofy 

Ngango 

Ngaan 

Ngatta - 

NgiU pa it 

Ngang-ngang inong - 

Nganga gimpa t 

Ngangonong 

Nganginontong - 

Ngailoock-ngaUoock tya 

NgaaM ... 

NjgaSenyoock 

NgaUenyoock 

Ngattya • 

Kattyoong - . - 

Kaoppaia ... 

Kalky pan yoong 

Kutgoorria 

Kooya ... 

Kiak' ... 

Kooyoo watt 

KooUoollum 

Lyeh ... 

Lanangorook 

Larundel - • - 

Lit .... 

Littia . . - 

Liroock ... 

Limoock timoock" 

Lou we4 ying 

Loud yo wa bopoop 

Loom- ... 

Larpelaan . . - noise. 



EngllBb. 

. Bun. 

- Ught. 

- greedy. 

- yes. 

- old man. 

- husband. 

- yes, I am tired. 

- words. 

- to dwell here. 

- haiL 

- she-oak tree. 

- to like much. 

- a piece. 

- to immerse. 

- no. 

- rain clouds. 

- first. 
• how. 

- how many ? 

- day. 

- well. 

- what ? 
. at that time. 

- this one. 

- beginning. 

- place. 

- afraid. 

- thin. 
I forget, 
how is it ? 
I see. 
iw e see. 
large bushes, 
shade, 
enemy 
eril spirit. 

the eyil spirit or devil, 
water, 
to drink, 
white clay, 
not willing, 
thoroughly, 
one. 

sorrowful, 
proud, 
tooth. 

single woman, 
camp, 
top, point, 
sharp, 
woman, 
heritage, 
all done, finished, 
the little boy cries, 
small wood brushes. 



46 



THE AB0BI0INE8 OF TIGTORIA: 



Aborlgliiia. 




EBffUdft. 


Aboriginal. 


EoglUh. 


Mirwy-^tck - 


■» 


fowli. 


Moodyorong 


- I find it. 


Mo-ah 


- 


eye. 


Maranggoock 


- revenge. 


Manpe 


. 


finger. 


Mirma 


- selfish. 


Mark moMife 


^ 


hand (hand or mother of 


Morrang - 


- very dark. 






the finger). 


Moockoy - 


• to rest. 


Mittyan - 


^ 


moon. 


Moock y nan 


- I rest. 


Morang 


- 


Ay. 


Monino 


- louse. 


Ming^ming ylang 


- 


gire me some. 


Moninoyeck 


- I hare lioe. 


Manaeka katping 


- 


gire me lome water. 


Momacky - 


- very little. 


Manacka wongip 


* 


gire me lome wood. 


Maalgoompip 


- nothing. 


Matgmooek 


- 


wife. 


Nanyef •« 


- how ? what ? 


Mamooek - 


1- 


father. 


Nyogoong - 


- willing. 


Mameek - 


- 


my father. 


Ny€U bonn wutbra 


- the rirer upwards. 


Mameck dora - 


- 


my father sleeps. 


Nanyo nayoonf - 


- how is the quality P 


Mafyouwipe 


- 


useless. 


Nangoomaf 


- how bit? 


Malp mawdwa' 


- 


I do not understand 


Nimiyerrwat 


- it isso-eo. 






(never did it hef ore). 


Nyagack - 


- look round. 


Moom weya 


- 


jealons. 


Nyoongin - 


- belonging. 


Moom weya OH - 


- 


I was jealous. 


Nyarrangynan - 


• I know. 


Maleck - 


- 


shall 


Nyanonf - * 


. I what? 


Moom wtyaon mtUeck 


I shall he jealoui. 


Nyanon goongin f 


- what have I done P 


Mittyack - 


m 


rain« 


Nyanon goongin tyoor* what hare I done to 


Maroong -> » 


- 


pine-tree. 


mangint 


youP 


Manacke - 


- 


tohring. 


Nya woa 9- 


- to whom does it belong? 


Mahck - - 


- 


by-and-hy. 


Nyoorr tuma j 


- to lurk. 


MorOOH flMM 


- 


to save. 


NyaOo 


T spring. 


Moroon wun on hotging 


I sare any one from the 


Nyool - T 


* Ah ! Oh I 






water. 


Nyrren yeng non 


- I remember. 


Mamengoroock - 


- 


our great father. 


Nyn nin - 


- satisfied. 


Mametngoroock goongin 


our great father lores 


Nyat woary 


- make room. 






and makes. 


Nyoo nooing ngarwt 


/ - Ah ! this day. 


Mamengorook tyior i 


monk our great father first 


Nap goonga wrroa 


- to stare with the eyes. 


goonging 




m#de the world 


Nyoomahok 


- to find again. 


ba goongi booletyp 


and then he made both 


Nyappa wo unta 


- to accompany. 


wooige 




men 


Noomitimng 


- he cries loud. 


ha Uroock ba gauwe 


fMid women, and beasts. 


Nyangnon 


- I sit 


Mook 


r 


inlet. 


Nyang 


- to sit. 


Mityoock - 


- 


skm. 


Nyantamoock 


- to wait 


Micka - - 


- 


rich. 


Nyoomim - 


- that will do. 


Manaek ganpock gima 


fetch it for me. 


Nyo koong - 


- it belongs to you. 


Mampa 




to think. 


Nanyima - 


- to play about 


Manpanon • 




I thfnk. 


iVtflipo worecka - 


- to sp^ against 


Mang gaeka nfan 




a fine place. 


Neomenyoock ngapo^- sunbeam. 


Moorooek - 




> handle. 


Nyongeek - 


- belong to me. 


Moockin yirr 




beginning. 


Propoock - 


- head. 


Mating 




he takes it up. 


Pattying - 


- knee. 


MannganoH 




• I take it up. 


Poorrap - - 


- calf of the leg. 


Mampg non 




. I am hot. 


Prapa ? ••. 


• slow walking. 


Manpg 




• hot. 


Purpurria - 


- lasy. 


Miya 




• winter, rery cold. 


Prooinga - 


- to cut himself. 


Manacka - 




- to carry. 


Parangyaryf - 


- are you tiied ? 


Modo mo a long - 




- cold, sufibring from cold. 


Paragio - 


- tired. 


Mempynilang - 




• to keep warm. 


Poorrparoock 


- to lie on the ground. 


Marit^marit 




. a cool breeze. 


Poorrpamon 


- I lay down. 


Mameck woata - 




- my father comes. 


Panitya 


- a piece of land. 


Mora 




- little ants. 


Propoock ' 


- hill, head (the same). 





LANGUAGE. 


47 


Aborlgliial. 


Engllslt. 


Abortgima. 


EnglUb. 


Pick - 


- red day. 


Tyerroock ... 


deserted place. 


Pnnffo nimfo 


- to pass by. 


TannpiU - 


cloudy. 


Prapra 


- to build. 


Trinnta ... 


bull. 


PapiUigait' 


- to go on foot. 


Turmy-4urn^ 


liyely. 


Paan- 




Tvmgatto - 


a swollen place or spot 


Paripa 


- ran. 


Tyo yon mack - 


to teach. 


PnpptiUe * 


- bring it Boon. 


Tyat tying- 


to rest. 


PontxyoMoe- 


- to roaat meat. 


Tyanga-iyango - 


take eat. 




- Blow. 


Twrmack - 


on your back. 


Perwooayama - 


- to do it 


TycrmgiUt 


new. 


Pny-pny yama - 


- willing. 


Tyooioock ... 


the end. 


Payueke - 


- to flow. 


Tyerrickeel 


stop ! listen I 


Pawoya - 


- to continue. 


Tratyegat nyaUoonga - 


you come in spring. 


Pumya - *. 


- BwoUen, to swelL 


Tyarryga - - - 


he stands. 


Prantotmoirang - 


- blind. 


Tyalla wook 


not ripe, unripe. 


Poanqwroong 


- shoulder. 


Tyamck'tyamek- 


eyening. 


Pirro 


- sandy place. 


Tarrongo - . - 


stretch. 


Pangoog - 


- a little meat. 


Tarra ... 


white. 


Pahl^ - 


- hark I 


Tarrabunn 


white ashes. 


Pailarang - 


- to bow down. 


TuUengack 


to skin. 


Parpaek nyuwoa ngarwe the day after to-morrow. 


Tyalfy goongaek daUty 


he makes fun about it. 


Proonggoomgy - 


- on one side. 


tya 




Parpaek - 


- to-morrow. 


Tyerry gotip 


let it stand. 


PapoohoiU - 


- flat. 


Tadbtadb! 


easy! easyl 


Poto - 


. shake down. 


Tyerry gaUang goock - 


stop with him. 


PooHapuU - 


- little ones. 


Wygon ' 


to die. 


Perrimggoock 


- taiL 


Wy gonon - - - 


I am dying. 


Pogoock 


- life, spirit, soul. 


Woata 


to come. 


Pytyich - 


- fly. 


Wroagy yet 


nothing more. 


Paring 


- roots. 


WiUa 


wind. 


Pirripa 


- to lead on. 


Woata wiUa 


the wind comes. 


Poorgooek - 


- pull it oil. 


Woata garong a wiUa - 


strong wind comes. 


Pennimaek - 


- to corer. 


Wary 


go. 


PenpeAmy mill - 


- tocoTeritwithablalnket. 


Warynon . - . 


I go. 


Pariya 


- to moTO on. 


Woarrtoock 


outside. 


Tytrrap - 


- mouth. 


Woatapook 


inside. 


TyaSee - 


- tongue. 


Woatyema- 


it clears up. 


Ta^oocA - 


- arm. 


IVoa- - - - 


crow. 


Tyenna - 


- foot. 


Wonyip - . - 


flre. 


7>i>pa - - 


- to swim. 


Wogacky wonyip 


giye me some flre. 


Tyiramga - 


- a long journey. 


Woata non 


I wait 


Toit/ai^ - 


- to walk fsigt. 


Woata non ginio •- 


I wait for him. 


Tan wick wcmyip 


- to split wood. 


Wary wya 


go away. 


Ton wick - 


- to split 


WilfyinywiU - 


birds. 


Tittymee - 


- to close^ 


Winya buUvckneckf . 


how can you say so ? 


7*ooii^a 


- fear. 


Woomylang 


yery miserable. 


Typ/Ki moMoocA 


- your father siHms. 


Wiayaty - 


to loye, to like. 


Turriya - 


- to recoyer. 


Wrawonmakaiying . 


to take out of the water. 


Tumyaiioii 


- I recoyer. 


Wrawonmak 


to takeoff. 


7jfa^0oA - 


- my land. 


Woomack - - - 


sunshine. 


7V<n»>MNmya 


- yery dry. 


Woorynack 


grey flsh. 


Tya ' 


- earth, land. 


Wya- 


to wish, to long for. 


Tyarit 


- island. 


Wooggagacknon- 


I want it 


Tyarryman 


- to plant 


wma - - 


opossum. 


Tyaak 


- reeds. 


Wiaa . - 


gum-tree. 


Tyoorrmomg 


- he will. 


Whit^af - 


where? 



48 



THE ABOBIGINES OF TICTOMA: 



AJborigloftL 

Wrawp 
Wogack 
Wanyq> - 
Wagageck - 
Wagageck wanyip 
Wawook - 
Waweek - 
Woreeke - 
Woricke nuuneek 
Winya mamen f - 
Woomelang 
Wagant - 
Wiwooek - 
Wi toy iiofi- 
TFi wg nan wonyip 
Worrenga - 
Worrenga prxtpoek 
Woam 
Woamanon 
Winyaroof 
Wooty - 
WiUkiUa - - 
Woak 

Woak tyetooek - 
TTaiZo - - 
Winyangf 
Winyarangit 
Wiatigattye 
Waipa • 
Wya-vya - 

Woatgoarraek • 
Woagga - 
Wottgganon 
Woagganinnin • 



to dimb. 

to gire. 

wood. 

gire me. 

gire me wood. 

elder brother. 

mj elder brother. 

toBpeak. 

mj father speaks. 

where is mj father ? 

poor. 

hail. 

to lift up. 

Iliftnp. 

Iliit up wood. 

to shake. 

to shake the head. 

to ask. 

I ask. 

who? 

nuMi , 

to look roimdy to turn. 

beyond. 

beyond time, endless. 

near. 

how far? 

to whom. 

spring time little wann. 

burned. 

tough. 

the centre. 

sandhilL 

to laugh. 

I laugh. 

laughing at me. 



Aborifliud. 

Woatwoara 

WaBapit pri^poock 

Worooa 

Werona • 

Willannen - 

Yanaeha - 

Yanaeka gaiik - 

Yanaeha gio pata 

YarcMg 

Yura - - 

Yura parang 

Yvra pamag non 

Yaraparraek - 

Yarram 

Yauve 

Yauve 

Yama 

YaOy . - 

YaUypeek' - 

YaOy pengorook - 

Yianya non gampaf 

Yingooma- 

Yoampa - 

YaU yallama 

YirrymaUa 

Yampy anon 

Yowanyooek 

Yargan 

Yarganon - 

Yarganon gamgam 

Yattya 

Yarring - 

Yawirr 

Yirrma 

Yanginanooek • 



EagUdL 

black clouds. 

on the head. 

green. 

quiet, to soften temper. 

to change. 

come on, more on. 

they shall come on. 

all shall oome. 

go away. 

belongs. 

it belongs to my ground. 

I put it on my ground. 

put it on my land. 

fine riyer, large liTer. 

beast. 

meat. 

not willing. 

property. 

my property. 

our property. 

why should I not? 

to-day. 

to take from the lire. 

a cool eyening. 

unfkstening. 

I am better. 

to shout. 

to look. 

Hook. 

I look for the horse. 

bad. 

gone away. 

animal. 

lightly. 

we all together. 



THB DIALECT OF THE BBABBOLONG AND NEIGHBOUBINQ TBIBES. 
(Bt a. W. Howitt, F.G.S., Wabdbv and Polios Maoistkatb, Baibnsdale, Gippslaitd.) 



Mr. Howitt has ftirnished short stories — ^native and English — ^illnstrative of 
the dialects spoken by the Brabrolong and neighbouring tribes ; and has added 
the following examples of the dual : — 



I, iVJ^'ji. 



You and I (dnal)^ NaBu. 



We (all), Warru. 



Blabha naUajitti mooUa Nibhoray, 
Walk we now to Nibbor. 



Nunda blabba naSa hagourrinjiUi mooBa Nibhoray. 
Not walk we sun-down now to Nibbor. 



(That is to say, « We wiU not go to Nibbor now it is sun-down.") 



Kynkemn naUa brundu. 

Too late we (will go) to-morrow. 



TumtuBa naBa jiBi mooBa Nibboray. 
Horseback we now (go) to Nibbor. 



Tumtun = Horse, 



LANGUAGE. 

Two blackfellowB ------ BuUoomanna kumi. 

Two quarrelsome blackfellows - . - - BvUoo yirakcd knmi. 

Two women ------- JBuUoo wrookut. 

Two nio^-looking women ----- BuUoo laen wrookut. 

Two spears -------- BuUum warh 

Two sharp spears -...-- BuUumJuUunbroo warl. 

Two meals (6.^.» dinners) ----- Bullum damdroo luck. 

(eat) (food) 

Two great meals ------ BuUum guerrdU luck. 



49 



The Owl and the Eaglehawk. 

(^BrahroUmg 2Vi6e, Mitchell^ Nichohon, and Tambo Rivers,^ 

Ebing tCumnd^at vfattun magwdnnnvmttrunga, 3£aengwarra gwdnnvmurunga 

Owl stole 'poflsom of eaglehawk. Watched eaglehawk 



(The little brown owl) 

midt6wundjttn wattun mCihuxmgal, 
stealing meat of his. 

'Pahoiidinna daya mo6ngabiiUan 
A number see fellows two 

maggiart-beam bulla, 
wrestling two. 

(together) 



Yirrak neinda buUa, kdnyubooUa mangoot bittal. 
Quarrel fellows two, perhaps fight. 

(as fighting with a waddy or dub) 



maggidrt'beam bulla. 
wrestling two. 

(or together) 

Kannyu bvUan mabUndian, 
Perhaps two bite. 

(tear with the beak) 



Koonkarra gwdtmumurunga 
Berhaps eaglehawk 

MvlUhoandjaKny ngrHnga 
Stealing hole 



wattunda ma gwdnnwnuntnga 
'possum of the eaglehawk 

moonangrunga. 
hole. 



fiooA prak a ngritnga gwdnnumurunga. 
block up hole the eaglehawk. 



Ebing turtygunny 
Owl dead 



The Eaglehawk and the Owl. 

(^Bg a Native qf a Tribe near the Brabrohng.) 

Bcnay^hakka jdranju gwdnnumurunga wdonganto jirra, 
CSaw-flesh foot with eaglehawk seeking kangaroo. 

The eaglehawk was seeking to seize a kangaroo with his talons. 



ebing mum 
owl there 
the owl 



mtdkwut wongia ngia ngrunga. 

going into his hole, 

going into a hole belonging to him. 



Crwdnnumurung 
Eaglehawk 
The eaglehawk saw 

Ebing woongawto blang. 

Owl seeking ring-tail 'possum. 

The owl was seeking a ring-tail 'possum. 



M^tkwuttung (mookuh) ebing toondor tanga wanga 
Went into (going into) owl down bottom into 
The owl went down into the bottom of the 



ngrunga. 
hole, 
hole. 



Tappy quannall 
All right I 
All right, I have it I 



Blabba tungana. 
Away from here. 
He made his escape. 



WuUy ngat kekdn 
How I can 

The eaglehawk said how shall 

Ebing tunkana tana. 
Owl spoke words, 

The owl said how shall 

Blabba gwdnnumurung 

Away eaglehawk 

The eaglehawk 



ma n6kepaUa gunna f 
shut up him ? 
I contriTe to shut him up ? 

wama ngat jeUaquan tungoof 
how 1 hole make hence ? 

I make a hole to escape hence ? 

tungoo — wangoo ebinga. 

hence — from him owl. 

went away when the owl had escaped. 

KoTB. — It seems that at that time the eaglehawk is supposed to hare claimed all the 'possums 
as well as the kangaroos as his property. Hence he speaks of the hole in the tree in which lives 
the ring-tail 'possum as ** belonging to him." 

Told by one of the Tatoongolong tribe, which inhabited the strip of land between the GIppsland 
Lakes and the sea. 

Tatoon = South, e.g.f Tatoon wiUung = South rain, or rain from the south. 

VOL. II. G 



50 



THE ABOEIGINES OF YIOTOEIA: 



SPECIMENS OF THE LANGUAGE OF THE NATIVES OF LAKE HINDMABSH. 

(Bt thb Rxy. a. Habtmasic.) 



Woartin yon - 
WoarHnyar - 
Woartvn 



iNFnriTrvB. 

To Comb — Woarta. 



IKDIOATITB, 

Present 

I oome, &c. Plunl. 

- Woariun nuandang* 

- Woartin yat. 

- Woartun nitch. 



Singular. 
Woartin nan 
Woartin nar 
Woartin ga 



Singular. 
Woartin yuan 
Woartin yuar 
Woarting ga 



Future. 
I shall come, he. 



Past 

I came, ftc PlnraL 

- Woartin nang^, 

- Woartin nut, 

- Woartin nitcK 



Flnnl. 
Woartin nuandang, 
Woartin gut 
Woartin gitch. 



POTBNTIAZ.. 



Singular. 
Woarti yan - 
Woartiyar - 
Woarti ya - 



Present 
I can come, &c Floral. 

- Woarti andang, 
' - Woartia gut 

- Woartia gitch. 



Singular. 
Woartian ntaSa 
Woartiar malia 
Wocwtiya malla 



Past. 

I ooald come, fte. FloraL 

- Woartiyandang malla. 

- Woartiyat maUa, 

- Woartiyitch maUa, 



XHPBRATiya. 
Singular. Plual. 

Woarii ----.--- Woarti waL 

(To Beat — Dakai To Bom—TFo^; and many more like Woarta,) 



Blngnlar. 
Nyangan 
Nyangar 
Nyaing 



Singular. 
Nyanyan - 
Nyanyar - 
Nyanya - 



Active. 



INFUIITIYB. 



To See — Nya^ngH. 



INDIOATIYB. 



Present 
I aee, &c Plnral. 

- Nyangang-o, 

- Nyangat. 

- Nyangitch, 



Singular. 
Nyakinyan 
NycJtinyar 
Nyaking - 



Singular. 
Nyainan 
Nyainar 
Nyain 



Future. 
I Bliall aee, fcc 



POTBNTZAL. 



Past 

I nw, &e. 



Plnral. 
NyaMnyang^. 
Nyakinyut 
Nyakinngitch. 



Plnral. 
Nyautang-o, 
Nyanut 
NytUniteh. 



Present. 
I can, may see, ftc. Plnral. 

- - - Nyanuang^. 

- Nyanyut 

- - - Ny any itch. 



Singular. 

Ngagak 



Past 

Singular. I could, mlgbt aee, ke. Plural. 
Nyawan maUa - - Nyaumandang wumBo* 
Nyawar maUa - - Nyaumat maUa, 
Nyawa malla - - Nyawitch maUa, 



IMPERATIYB. 



PlnraL 
Nyanganurmmg, 



LANGUAGE. 



51 



Passive. 

nraiNiTivs. — (None. ) 

INDICATIYB. 



Present 

Sfaignlar. I mm Men, fto. PlmraL 

Nyain naingn ... Nyain niyangorin. 

Nyain tiyiymung - - Nyain niyurding, 

Nyain nyiich ... Nyain nityanning. 



Past, 
Singular. I was leen, kc Floral. 

Nyain nain ... Nyain niyangorin. 

Nyain niumung - . . Nyain niyurding. 
Nyain itch .... Nyain nityanning. 



Singolar. 
Nyakin naingn 
Nyakin niuming 
Nyakin nigtch 



Futuret 

I shall be seen, &c. 



PloraL 
- Nyakin niyangorin, 
' Nyakin niyurding, 
. Nyakin nityanning. 



POTENTIAL. 

IVesent 
Same as fatnre, with Mamba afOized. 

Past, 
Same as present. 



Singolar. 
Nyapa yunning 



UCPEBATIVE. 



Plonl. 
- Nyapa nyan^orin^ 



Passive. 
Daka — ^To Beat. 

iNTiNrnvB. — (None.) 



INDIOATIYB 

Present, 
Singolar. I am beaten, &c. Plond. 
Dakun naingn - - Dcikun niyangariu, 
Dakun niyumung - - Dakun niyurding, 
Dakun nitch - - Dakun nityanning. 



Past, 
Singular. I was beaten, 8tc Plural. 
Dakin nain - r - Dakin niyangorin, 
Dakin niumung - - Dakin niyurding, 

Dakin nitch ... DMn nityanning. 



Singular. 
Dakingn naingn 
Dakingn niuming 
Dakingn nitch - 



Future, 

I shall be beaten, &c. 



Plural. 

- Dakingn niyangorin. 

- Dakingn niyurding, 

- Dakingn nityanning. 



POTENTIAL. 

Present, 
Same as future, with Mamba affixed. 

Past, 
Same as present. 



IMPEEATIVB. 



Singular. 
Dakabayunung 



Plural. 
D akahayurding. 



62 



THE AB0BI6INES OP VICTOEIA: 



niFINITITB. 



To QtmSf—Woka. 



IBJOIGATITB. 



Sioffnlar. 
Wokin If an 
Wokmfor 
Worn 



IflTVylM. 



Flaim]. 
Wooin jftauUmg, 
Woompai. 
Wooim niieh. 



WcotMnoM 
Wooim mar 
Wooim ffa 



Wokim p€M 
Wokimpar 
Wokim 



Future. 
I ateU Klre, fte. 



Pott 



fyppw Miwnidicnijy. 
fTOOtn imf. 
Wooim 



Plinal. 
Wokim yango. 
Wokim jf at, 
Wokim miidu 



iVeMMt^Mone.) 

Paat. 
BliifDtar. I woold fflre, ftc. Pliml. 

Wokiam maUa ....... IfTniltaiiiiaii^ wuiBa. 

Wokiar malla ....... fFoA^Fo/ maUa. 

Wokilch malla Wokiyitch maOa. 



A kangaroo is feeding in the scrub. 
Menjum tyakUin^ goMyabegalk, 

I hare killed bim. 

MaUam bramgum (or) bramgumim mam. 

One of ns will go down to the creek. 

Oiapbemgngurrak nySkinyo gatyivinyo datyah ga. 



Get me mj spear and I will kill him. 
Managa mgek mg&rimoaUek ha bramgum wuJlam, 

Let ns roast him and eat him. 
Edtoamg-u bd tySwamg'U. 

One of OS will go into the scnib. 
Oiapbengmgurrak mySkimyo gamyabegalk. 



We will meet at the big water-hole, where the fish are plentiful. 
W(Hupbemyang-o marko gurung-a yctramj gwmbumumg wdrap tyamardi. 



If one of ns 



Gadung giapbwrang mgurrak gSrgala matmeyi wutyu 



catch the strange blackfellow, let him coo-ee and we will ron to him. 



Gire me a stone. 
Woka gek gutyap. 



Gire him a stone. 
Wokaguk gutyap. 



I will not give 70a anj water. 
Bawanung wokin catyem^. 

We will gire you a stick. 
Wokin nuandang unung galk-o. 

Give me some bread to eat ; I am hungry. 
Woka gek banyim jOwan; wekan. 



gandalia ba hdrapiandang tyurvMMuk. 

I will gire you some water. 
Wokim yamumg catyem-o. 

Give me some bread. 
Woka gek banyim. 

We will not give you a stick. 
Bawuandang unung wokin galk'O. 



Where is your father ? 
Windya mam f 



My father is here. 
Mamek kimba. 



One. 



Two. 



Three. 



Four. 



This is (here) my hand. 
Kimba manya ngek. 

He is my father. 
Nyogung m&mek. 

Five. 



CHap, Buletck. B%Ue1pa giap. Buletpa buletch. Bulet buletch giap. 



Sing a song. 
Gigali gikiyo. 

He is not my father. 
Nyo bdufa mamek. 

Ten (hand). 
Buletgedi mai^a. 



Twenty. 
Ngullo buletgedi manya. 



We drink water. 
Gopang-o catyen. 



My sister is very tall, 

(younger) (elder) 
Tydtyek gutangdek tyuwurang hatyin gurk. 



He has two children. 
Ga/tm6tn buletch warinditch. 

My brother has a long arm. 

(younger) (elder) 
Wawek gutek tyuwurang datyak. 



LANGUAGE. 



53 



Take a stick and beat the dog. 
Manak gtUk hd dSka goL 



The dog is beaten with a stick. 
Gal maUa ddkin gcUk-o, 



The son is rising (risen already). 
Ntf6wi hrinuH brinin. 

Where are you going ? 
Winya ngarra ngdkaf 

What is the matter with yon ? 
Nyangar yttma f 



The sun is setting (set already). 
Ngdwi ngSkin ngSkung. 

What are yon going to do ? 
NgOwar gungrtyin f 



The moon is risen. 
Mityen brinin. 



What do yon want f 
NyHwar guterf 



How long ? 
Nyatuk f 



I came yesterday. Come to me to-morrow. 
Woartinan tytdUgare. Woartiar garth barebarp. 



Do not widt. Do not forget. 

Nyvngar mimdngn, Nyungar meUimingn, 



When did you come ? 
Nyethigar woartin t 



Make haste. 
Nyet wunni. 



Take care of yourself. 
Nyar ketten nydr. 

Tell him to come. 
Geyagart yarowaga. 



What is that ? 
NyShnyof 

Give that to him. 
Woka gaduk. 



Let me see that. 
Nyow w€untng. 



Come and help me. Wait I (or, stop a bit I) 

Yanak wokar gin nutnya, Warma I (or, Detpa /) 



The Bey. Mr. Hartmann says that the moods and tenses given are the only 
ones he conld get from the blacks. They have only one gender in their lan- 
guage. The itch of the third person plnral scarcely expresses the sound ; the 
eh should be pronounced as the German ch in the words icAy michy sick. 



An Old Native Stobt. 



Duan gapm met^un 

(Name meaning squirrel) tracked (a) kangaroo (an 



oumbarram meOan kHya buroin, 

a was) sleeping out many (a) night. 



Weenbulain''yo wdpculUn Du€m ba 



nyatnmen 



dumang, 
(Name meaning spider) fonndout Duan and(Diian) saw him (Weenbulain) (certain way of coming). 

Woartun Weenbulain nyum bSmbin nyum Duan ba bitrpin ba wrdiwin galk-a. 

Come Weenbulain then frighten that Duan and (made him) run and climb a tree. 



Nyubendin woartin Weenbulain 

(When) on the tree came Weenbulain (and) bit through with one bite 



bundin nyuin galk bendinung 

that 



tree on which was 



Duan, buikin ^f(^pcrumen ba geka yuSai galM, yinguman yummin mattuk 

Duan, (the tree) filing (Duan) jumped and (got) to another tree, and so on tiU 

brangayin Duan, Tyamalluk bundin Weenbulain^yo galk witnnuuDuiyen tyagung giap garan nyuin 
tired Duan. Then bite Weenbulain trees roundabout learing one that 

bendinung Duan, J)/amaUuk woartin bwuiin nyum galk bendinung Duan, i^in 

on which was Duan. Then came (and) bit that tree on which was Duan, then 

buiken galk, Weenbulain-yo bundin men Duan nyuin. Duan-a nganangduk buletchi, 
fell the tree. Weenbulain bit (killed) Duan then. Duan (had) nephews two, 

BrambambuU ddddwin bulanguk wityuwa wanyuk lamdang, ba iyawritk bewa 

Brambambull (by name) waiting both (for) his return (to) the camp, and as he did not 

woartin, bikin beeiang yarkin buhxng uk nunangum muityen bulang ^nang-i 

come, they went off both in search of him (and) soon found track 

tyarmbap bulak, Gapin bulang geu tyakal bundinung WeenbukUn-yo. 

of uncle (Duan). They tracked (him) to the place where he had been bitten by Weenbulain. 

Muityen bulang buang bundinung Weenbulain-yo, ba ngepen bulang, Nugung-a woattin bulanguk 
They found (him) dead bitten by Weenbulain, and buried (him). Of course they went after 

Weenbulaijt^aj gapin bulang tyuiorang ga, Weenbulain'ya btdetyuk mang gep, 

Weenbulain, tracking (him) all the way. Weenbulain (had) two daughters. 



54 



THE ABOEIGINES OP VICTOEIA: 



yyain bulan^ tyanardi wanyap warkinnual ngaUu^anuhfonbal nyum 

Saw they (the Bnmhambiilli saw) many fires he had made on his way till (they) 



uxtUuban hulang gmgo ngdinung, Nyum 

drew near where he lired. Then (they had) a council 



2i}f€areii bvlang fwaH'O woKg-ngal gumungn. 

how they might kill (him). 



BrdmbtJt nganansp ydrim warn willang gai ng&roben Weenbulain-yo. 

Brambambnll the younger went (to the) windward (to be) smelled by Weenbulain. 

Weenbulain-go nyum ngSroben hd bimin iSmung nA tyumhin ieat^fuk gurung-i. 

Weenbulain then smelled him and came out of his cave showing (his) teeth big. 

Ngarambenyo bmngo nganagin ngtatyapdakUch ngarambenjfi Weenbulain derta 

The elder Brambambull who was near him to hit old Weenbulain on his 



bimin njfoin drangat bulak lega 
coming out saw the fresh teeth 



iyainyo mangctwuk buletchi, Malluk barta 

belonging to his daughters two. After a while 



tim dakin 
en hit 



gurunguk Uya tgymbulan nyertwunin bimin. Nga rambenyo baingo w^ 

the big teeth themselres presently came out. The elder Brambambull th 

men brapuk ba hanyuky ba gntuk barpin woiup bumin buUmg^ ba 

him on the head and teeth, and the younger Brambambull ran to help to kill him, and 

tpirp buminbulana Weenbulain^ ba buitgel wuminbulang bropuk ba darpin bukmg, 
thus they killea Weenbulain, and knocked to pieces his nead and burnt him. 

NoTK.— The Eev. Mr. Hartmann says in a letter to me, in reference to this 
story, that, according to information given by the blacks, it is known all over 
the country. It is only part of a long story. The two Brambambnlls were 
rather remarkable men. The blacks' further account of them may be 
briefly stated thus: — The Brambambnlls were invulnerable, and the elder 
could make himself invisible whenever he pleased. The last thing known 
about the elder is that he went away in a whirlwind. The younger Bram- 
bambull is said to have vanished too for a while, but to have made his 
appearance again in another part of the country. He was followed and found 
by his mother. It is said that he died from the effects of a snake-bite ; that 
he was buried ; and that he became alive again. After that he could not be 
found any more. The portion of the story that is sent, Mr. Hartmann says, is 
written in the way a black would tell it— of course considerably abridged. 



Names of Native Animals. 



Kangaroos— 

fkwnmale - • - 

„ feooale « - - 

grey male . • - 

„ female - - - 

brown male - ^ - 

M female 

Wallabies- 
large grey, two black 

stripes on back 

brown - - - - 

smaU - - - - 

brown and grey - 









Sorra, 

Gooan. 

Goore, 

Meringur^ 

Meendyun. 

MUch. 

Kawma, 

Gooyee. 

Batyuk, 

TyaUagar, 

Dya, 

Wakwee, 



Wombat - 
Opossums — 

whitet-tailed - - •. 

black-tailed •» • . 

Bandicoots — 

striped brown and wbite 
„ black and wbite 
n brown 
Natiye cats — 

brown, with white spots 

black, „ 
Dingo» or wild dog 
Porcupine - 
Mouse 
Water-rat - 



>9 



<• Mutye, 

- WiUe. 

- BoMya, 



Watyvn. 
M.angen, 
Bo. 

Berik. 

BeridyuL 

WilkHr, 

YulowiL 

Dgityigarap, 

Brepbir. 



LANGUAGE. 



55 



Reptiles^ ^c. 



large - - - - 

» " " ■ " 

smaller- . . . 

Bmallest ... 
Iguana .... 

M with white tip of tail 
SnaJcefl — 

diamond ... 

black .... 

death-adder . . - 

grey snake ... 
Scorpion .... 
Centipede .... 
Frog - - . . 

Toad .... 

Tarantula .... 
Dragon flj . . . 
Blneflj - . . . 
House fly - 
Flat black beetle 
Grasshopper ... 
Cricket .... 

Birds. 

Emn - - . . - 
Black swan ... 
Crane .... 
Pelican .... 
Natiye companion 

Wild turkey 
n goose ... 



Gen. 

Yttrkum, 
Dwmdal 
MSmi wiUch6p, 

Watya. 

Dyallan, 

GUmwil. 

Lirk, 

Mort mOt mrr, 

Bereguil. 

Dyenga warak. 

Den, 

Dook. 

Wimboien, 

Oindenden, 

Bap hityik, 

BityiA. 

Boinka. 

Ngar-ngar, ' 

Didibwroin, 

OOwir, 

Gunowcur. 

GoUg4r. 

BahfongaL 

Kutyitn. 

Ngarlha. 

Ngarow€W, 



Mallee-hen 



- lAfwan^ 



Ducks — 




mountain 


Bi^fongiiH. 


black .... 


Ngare. 


teal - - - - 


Wipu 


musk - - - . 


TyidwiL 


wood - . . - 


Wakong, 


Eaglehawk ... 


Wrepil 




GoorHngung. 


Cockatoos — 


black, with red under wing 


Girin. 


„ „ yellow „ 


GSrwel. 


white, with yellow top- 


Ginap. 


knot 




white, with red toi>-knot 


KftUnUlu 


„ with no top-knot. 


Caiyagur, 


but red under wing 




Common green parrot 


TyeiyHrt. 


Crow ..... 


WSr. 


Magpie - . . - 


GHHtk. 


Water-hen . . . - 


CarorL 


Australian redbreast - 


TyaUg^tgibriUih 


Blue mountain parrot 


CaUngat, 


Swallow - - . . 


Gurawitchwitch. 


Cuckoo - - . - 


G^Hm&i 


Curlew . . . - 


Witt. 


Fishes. 




Cray-fish .... 


WmUnak. 


Black-fish .... 


Wirrap, 


SilTer-flflh .... 


DUrpha. 


Mussel .... 


Befyin. 



SPECIMENS OF THE LANGUAGE SPOKEN BY THE ABORIGINAL TBIBES OF 

LASS mNDMARSH. 
(Bt thb Bbt. F. W. Spibsbkb.) 

Nouns — Concibb Vocabulary. 



Mahm. - 


- 


. 


father. 


Ko-hum 


. 


. 


grandfather. 


Ba^ - 


- 


. 


mother. 


Mihm 


- 


- 


grandmother (mo- 


Waawa 


- 


- 


eldest brother. 








ther's mother). 


Kut - - 


- 


- 


youngest brother. 


Kok-wan 


. 


- 


grandmother (ihther's 


Tyat - 


m 


- 


eldest sister. 








mother). 


Kottuwcoi - 


m 


- 


youngest sister. 


Wvi-yo 


- 


- 


man ; Hrok. 


Kap-^P'tyirr 


- 


- 


family. 


Bang - 


. 


- 


body. 


Wat-yip - 


- 


- 


male child. 


Wut-yo-pah IM 


^ 


- 


men and women. 


Mang-yip - 


- 


. 


female child. 


Burp - 


- 


- 


head. 


Ngan-nit - 


- 


- 


husband. 


Wtrmbutt - 


. 


. 


ear. 


Matrywm - 


- 


- 


wife. 


Mir . - 


- 


. 


^e. 


Bo-pup 


- 


- 


male infant. 


Kahr - 


- 


. 


nose. 


Bo-ptqhgurk 


. 


. 


female infant. 


l^arp 


- 


- 


mouth. 


Nan-nan-'gurk 


- 


- 


young woman. 


Li-a - 


- 


- 


tooth. 


Kol'kon - 


- 


* 


young man. 


Burp-po^rung 


- 


- 


shoulder. 


Jyng'hum - 


- 


- 


virgin. 


Tat-yack - 


. 


m 


arm. 



56 



TKB ABOBIGINES OF TICTOBIA: 



Manrya 


- 


- 


hand. 


Tyang 


- 


- 


cheBt. 


Kra - 


- 


- 


leg. 


Kinrma 


- 


- 


foot. 


Bapmanryo 


• 


- 


thumb. 


Yuirlup yMyp 


man-yo 


flDger. 


Bap kin^S - 


- 


- 


big toe. 


Wat-yip wat'yip 


> kin-nS 


toe. 


Kol'koH 


- 


- 


soul. 


Bohk - 


- 


- 


Bpiiit. 


Ngaurwe 


- 


- 


Sim. 


Twrt - 


- 


- 


star. 


Dan4fiU - 


- 


^ 


doud. 


Mun-der 


- 


- 


thimder. 


Wa-Unrbvek 


- 


- 


lightning. 


Mit'ycuik 


- 


- 


rain. 


Nyak - - 


- 


- 


hail 


JVyicfi - 


- 


- 


Btorm, humcane. 


wa-ia 


- 


- 


wind, breeze. 


Wuiryitng wui-yung-ka - 


whirlwind. 


Kalk - . 


- 


- 


tree. 


Woar-tuch - 


- 


- 


branch. 


Kir-ra 


- 


- 


leaf. 


Bo-wat 


- 


» 


grass. 


Bi-al - - 


- 


- 


gum-tree. 


Mah'fong - 


- 


- 


pine-tree. 


PuUut •> - 


- 


- 


box-tree. 


BSp - 


- 


- 


white-gum. 


Wityin-tDta 


- 


- 


bird. 


Ktui'Wirr - 


- 


- 


emu. 


Ngar-re 


- 


- 


duck (black). 


Kym-wiU - 


- 


* 


snake. 


Lor - . 


- 


- 


house. 


Kur^dek - 


- 


- 


sand. 


Tyar - 


- 


- 


soil. 


Big - - 


- 


- 


clay. 



Jftr - - - 

Ban - - - 

Kutyep 

Wur^rar-'lar 

Kat-yin 

KaJrlei'yer'rau'wiU 

Tyal-ie-yer-rang - 

ydUet-« - 

Tat-yer-rap 

TyalrU 

Kat-ye 

Wiht - 

Mti<L - « - 

Ngal4o 
Lei^muck 

Dat-'tud'h-kuck - 

BO'TUCk 

Ydhrmrbeire 
Wuig-^wa - 
MeSt-meSt - 
Kehrle^ 
Bar-ring 
La-hulrla - 
Kul-linrye-calk - 
Tut-ye 

Worp-ufoa - 
GvUi - - - 
Mo-kin-yt - 
Tyvr-tuck - 
y«ip - - - 
Bu'Totng 
Bd-nau'we^ang » 

BSn-iUiu-w<Hreang 



hole in the ground. 

hole in a tree. 

stone. 

door. 

water. 

conrersation. 

quarreL 

peace. 

fight. 

language. 

summer. 

autumn. 

winter. 

spring. 

inheritance, snooes- 

sion. 
the centre, 
the middle, 
relief, 
exchange, 
foreigner, stranger, 
brightness, 
road, way. 
friend, 
enemy, 
rest, 
sorrow, 
anger, 
beginning, 
end. 

the light, 
darkness, 
obstruction, standing 

in the way. 
obstruction, lying in 

the way. 



There is no plural number; they express it thus only: — K&yap kalkj 
"one tree;'* Pul^ht kalk, "two trees;" JPul~let ke^ap kalk, "three trees;" 
Pul-let pul-let kalk, "four (2 times 2) trees;" PuUlet pul-let ke-yap kalk, "five 
(2 times 2 and 1) trees;" Ke-yap ke-^yap, "some trees" (seldom used, 
however) ; Kitrtyavrmll kalk, "many trees" (they usually make use of). 

Could never detect an article as yet, neither definite nor indefinite. 



Pbonouns (Pkbsonal). 



SlngnUur. 



Ngan - 


-I. 




Ngar - - you, thou. 


Ngeck . 


- mine. 


my. 


Ngin - - yours, thine. 


NgSt'rin 


- me. 




iVi/aii-iitffi^ - you, thee. 
PlttniL 


Ngo - 


- we. 




Ngat - - you- 


Ngdn-dack 


- ours. 




Ngo-dack - yours. 


Ngan-dank 


- us. 




Dtn - - you. 



Ngait- - he, she, it. 
Nguck - his, hers, its. 
NgUn - - him, her, it. 



NgaitM - they. 
NgeSn^nack theirs. 
Ngin • - them. 



LANOUAGB. 



57 



Wm'jfer - 



Some Belativx Fbonoitns. 



who. 

whose, 
whom. 



Win^a-tueA 
Ngan 



which, 
what. 





Some Adjeotivs Pronouns. 




Yar-wo-kat 
Ke-fap vmUaek 
Kihng-nut 
Man^ - 
Yfhoa^^fo-dack - 


- each, erery. 

- either, one of two. 

- this, these. 

- that, those. 

- any. 


Mo-wU - 

Ying^yur'ne 

Yo-wa 

WuU - - 

Ke-yap - 


- all. 

- sach. 

- other, another. 

- both. 

- one. 



Showing the Position of the Possessiyb Pronouns. 



Mahm 
Mahm-tek 
MahM-tH - 
Maka^-ttch 

Bahp 
BaJ^p-eek" 
Bahp-in - 
Bdhp-wsk 



&ther. 

&ther mine, my father. 

jonr father. 

his, her father. 

mother. 

mother mine, mj mother. 

yonr mother. 

his, her mother. 



Mahmrenr-dack - - onr father. 

Mahm-ang-ngo-dack- yonr father. 

Mahmren-nach - - their father. 

Bahp-en^-dack - - our mother. 

Bahp-ngo-dack - your mother. 

BaJ^p-en-nuck - - their mother. 



It will be observed that, either for oonyenience, or euphony's sake, the 
pronoans are generallj slightly altered.. 



On the Intleotion of the Verbs. 



WdhF-rSg-ngan - 
WohnrSg^ar - 
Woh^rSg-e Att^a 

Wok-rSg-m-ngan 
Wo/M'Sg-in^gar 
WohHTog-in hinya 



Slagiiltf. 

• I speak. 

- yon speak. 

- speaks that one, bespeaks. 

• Ispok& 

- you spoke. 

- he, she spoke. 



WohrToff — To Speak. 

Flnnl. 

Wo-rSgnrngo - - we speak. 

W(Mrdg-{hHgat - - yon speak. 

Wo^Sg-ngatiB - - they speak. 

Woh-rSg^n-nang-o - we spoke. 

Woh-rSg-in-ngat - you spoke. 

Woh^dg'tn-ngatta - they spoke. 



Mal-ian yfch-rSg-m - I hare spoken. 
Mal'lar wch^dg'in - yon hare spoken. 
MaJrlakiMfa wo^dg-in he, she has spoken. 



Mal-lang-o woh-rdg-in we hare spoken. 
Maliat wah-rSg-in - yon hare spoken. 
MaUatU wok-rSg-in - they hare spoken. 



Binffnlar. 



Woh-rSg-in^^igan mah-luck - 
Woh-rSg-in-ngar ttuth-luck - 
Woh-rSg^n kinga mah4uck - 



- I shall or will speak. 

- yon shall or will speak. 

- he, she shall or wiU speak. 



Pltma. 

Wok-rSg-in-^ang-o makFhiek - - - - we shall speak. 

Woh-rSg-in^ngat mah-^luck ----- yon shall speak. 

Wohrrdg^n^ngattB mah4uck ----- they shall speak. 

In the above, too, the pronouns are here and there somewhat changed. 

VOL. II. h 



58 



THE ABOBIGINES OF YICTOBIA: 



Showing the Position of ADjECTivxa. 



Yat-yenF^e lar - 


- 


a had honse. 


KaUye-lang'fMM^ffo 


a sick hand. 


Yat-yen-ke kaU - 


- 


a had dog. 


Kat-ye-langan. 


sick am I, I am sick. 


DeSl'ke lar - 


- 


a good house. 


Kat-ye-langar 


you are sick. 


Deal'ke kaU 


- 


a good dog. 


KaUye4angait - 


he, she is sick. (5ee 


Yat-yen-ke vmi-yo 


- 


a had man. 




personal pronouns.) 


DeSl'ke wut-yo - 


* 


a good man. Kai-ye-langango - 


we are sick. 






A FEW Adverbs. 




Ying^ 


- 


- so. 


Ngak - - 


- why. 


Wwr-rag 


• 


- no. 


Ngung-ya-gung 


- again. 


Nyei - 


- 


- yes. 


Kit-yaU'Wil'^ 


- often. 


Tywrme 


- 


- very. 


Ngat-yap-gung 


- almost 


Ngang^ 


- 


- how. 






In the aboTe, toond a as 'a' in fittther. 








e as *a' in rake, sake. 








t as ' i ' in sin, ship. 








like 'o* no, so. 




\ 




u like'uh' or <oo' inpooL 




« 




a like'e'inderk. 
ei Uke the English <ie' in die. 
au like the English ' ou' in thon. 








ng is produced by the nape bone or upper part of the mouth. 



WORDS IN THE DIALECT OF THE TRIBES NEAR WICKUFFE. 

The following words and sentences in the native language are contributed 
by Charles Gray, Esq., of Nareeb Nareeb, near Wickliffe, in the Western 
district of Victoria. 

Mr. Gray informs me that the names of the tribes of whose language 
he has given specimens are Bak-^n-date and Bank-neiL 

That spoken by " Sambo " and others is the Bank-neit. 



mnerte, 
e meat. 



Yanginyan tuckinyaiu 
I am going to strike. 

Yanginyan tambuUan lamook, 
I am going to find a nest. 

Yangii^an quombeyan. 
I am going to lie down. 

Yanginyan wartvpin yi 
I am going to chew tn 

Yanginyan pawinyan. 
I am going to scold her. 

Yanginyan bacottuinyan toolin coochil. 
I am going to fish with a line. 

Yanginyan touwenan tatarmu. 
I am going to chop with my axe. 

Yanginyan weerkinyan we. 
1 am going to burn the wood. 



Yanginyan eamyunang catyin. 
I am going to pour out the water. 

Yanginyan mooehchaUan, 
1 am going to take it. 

MaUach eombctip, 
1 intend to keep it. 

Yanginyan paitnainyan taarack, 
I am going to sharpen my spear. 

Tackinang poorpanaek. 
He hit me on the head. 

Youie chackelong. 
The bird eats. 

Ka-ka wattii pame. 
Come to the creek. 

Macongoo wearyea wee. 
Let us make a fire. 



LANGUAGE. 



59 



Wearie mina eai. 
Beat that dog. 

2>ettt poo-poo ! 
What a pret^ baby! 

Martok toalla. 
It is raming hazd. 

Winntfera lar-nook f 
Whose mia-mia is that? 

Ndngvfor kelangf 
What are you saying? 

Coonttra naram-naramf 
Are you a king? 

YonagaUa hamba beyell eodlpooaneUaf 
Will you come to bark that gum-tree ? 

Mutehumaraten euichukaru. 
Bring me a white parrot. 

Wa wa wat peeal. 
Climb that tree. 

Oka pappen. 
Give me a waddy. 

Caraburanga paramal. 
Let us hunt the emu. 

Partwn mechum meyattang wettatigo. 
I will get some opossum skins. 



Mung lamoke paramaeL 
Here is an emu's nest. 

Charem taratto. 
Throw the boomerang. 

Bung'hung gUang. 
You are yery stupid. 

Tinggard newnewa wellicomf 
wiU you sew that rug? 

Mung lamoke^ 
Here is a nest. 

Pawayat mang yowierie. 
Ton roast that meat. 

Wircat wee. 
Make the fire. 

Tawagat wee. 
Chop firewood. 

Oka copongnio cutyen. 
Giye me a drink of water. 

Ka-ka, YingeUi^ango, 
Come on. Let us sing, 

YangewaL 
Go away. 

Yanginyan nuHn lannanukt nyaaooHnyan keetnu, 
I am going to watch him. 



Ka ka wattie yat kingga camyoke Nareeb Nareeh, 
Come with me to Nareeb Nareeb. 

Yangoor ootana coonmeel poondean titcooyin coolie f Mai leangerook. 
How does the snake bite to loll man? With his teeth. 



Native Wobds Given — 



The nose - 
The eyes « 
The hair - 
The cheek 
The mouth 
The whiskers 
The ears - 
The forehead 
The throat 
The chest - 
The arms- 
The legs - 
The hands 
The feet - 



By " WIlllB." " Tlinor,* 

" Bobby," " Jack," 

** Axmle," and othen. 



Ca 

Meyr - 

Nurrah 

Moorrack 

Woorock 

Nunnis' 

I^unnu - 



By^'Joe." 

- Cayangeraek - 

- Meyangerack - 

- Nutreangerack • 

- MurackyangercLck 

- Wooruyangerack 

- Nunnuyangerack 

- Wemboolyangerack 



Ooon 



Chang - 
Tatyack 
Kur - 
Munya - 
Chinna 



By " Sambo," " Oaabra,' 
and othen. 



Caboong. 

Minantyen, 

Nurrat, 

Wang. 

Woorocknong. 

Merrang, 

Weenyong, 

Middin, 



- Cutnong. 

- MttrtooH, 

- Woork (arm). 

- Binnong (leg). 

- Murrang (hand). 

- Tinnang (foot). 

Mr. Gray from "Joe" 
Bobby," and "Annie;" 



It will be observed that the words obtained by 
are the same as those given by " Willis," " Timor," " 
but "Joe" uses the pronoun. 

In speaking of the "arms," "legs," Ac, "Joe," when meaning "both 
arms," " both legs," Ac, would use the word Boolite, — {See Boolichty " two," 
post) 



60 



THE ABORIGINES OF YICTOBIA: 



•• Willis,** "Timob,*' *'Bobbt,'* •Ahhik," ahd othkbs. 

One -.-----•-- Kidb, 

Two -...-•---- BooHcht, 

Three -.------- Cartore, 

Four ..-•--•--- BooUU be hooKte. 
Fire ---------- JTuimoiiya. 

Six Barook. 

Seren -.------- (No word.) 

Eight .--....-- BooUte be booUie be booHte be booUte, 

Kine --- - (No word.) 

Ten ---------- BooUu kiamon^a, 

Bril spirit- -------- Moorope, 

Good Delcoke. 

Aboriginal woman ------- Bamg-huiggo. 

Aboriginal man -.--.-• Cooieck 

{Pdrpe. 
Ihrp^fangerack, 
Pinnoe. 

^^^ iBar^ang. 

A shield Mulca, 



SOME WOEDS OF THE LANGUAGE OF THE WESTERN TRIBES OF VICTORIA 

(COLLSOTBD BT N. ThOBVLT, EsQ.) 

The following native wotds^ with the meanings in English, are from the 
tribes of the Western district. I am indebted to N. Thornly, Esq., Land 
Snryeyor, for this compilation. He has been so thoughtful as to place on 
record the native names of many localities. 



KattreKMMi. 


MMalng In Bi«lldi. 


KfttlTvHamat. 


Vtmnhtg in JEnylirii 


Annya - - - 


beard. 


Bapora 


- Mostyn township, old cross- 


Ar-va-wan * 


black and white geese. 




ing place. 


BrimbotU 


the ear. 


BraiU - 


- hail. 


BanU 


grass, herbs. 


Bow - 


- name of swsmp. Mount 


Beeal - 


gnm-tree 




Talbot station. 


BruMfruk - 


the oak-tree, swamp oek. 


Belar - 


- red-ochre, pahit. 


Baaker 


Glenelg Rircr. 


Bidart- 


- grey hair, old. 


ByambytMe - 


woman. 


Brit'brit 


- plorer. 


Baaring 


road, or path. 


Bypake 


- kangaroo-rat. 


Bramburra - 


name of late chief. 


Babrook 


- heath. 


Byaduk 




Babrooten • 


- scrub. 


Brepa • 


waddj. 


Buntmbuart- 


- junction of the Salt Creek 


Brtfu^nM - - 


spring of water. 




with Glenelg, Harrow. 


Bunn - - - 


bank, ridge, hiUock. 


Byerr - 


- meeting, hunt, PteUament 


Bacci - • . 


soft, boggj. 


Booring 


- smoke. 


Bowan 


roast, to cook. 


Caitian 


- water. 


BooliU - 


two. 


Caroopook - 


- hilL 


BooUte pre boohte - 


four. 


Carong earack 


- mountains. 


Beeor - - . 


sweet, hone/. 


Coman or C9wah 


- native name for Mount 


Beerik - 


natire cat. 




Arapiles. 


Boreang 


the Victoria Range. 


Oorra - 


- kangaroa 


Beeaar 


stream, running water. 


Cowen - 


- emu. 



N. 







LANGITAGB. 


01 


KatiTe Karnes. 


t 


Ifoffnfng In EagUflh. 


Natiye Names. Meaning in English. 


Cobe vidum - 


. 


natire turkey (bnstard). 


lU'i-ra 


- natire hut, my-mya. 


Crew - 


- 


native water-hen (bald 


Ingturrapamba 


- fear, frightened. 






coot). 


Jerrywarrook 


- the White TAke of Migor 


Cwrrangurip 


- 


adult. 




Mitchell. 


Coopan. 


- 


to drink. 


Jell-jea 


- name of a lagoon. Pine 


CaOcoop 


- 


bones. 




Mils. 


Corre - 


- 


month. 


Jerrigwarra - 


- swamp near the Mallee 


CalUe ' 


- 


light. 




scrub. 


Carran meH - 


- 


snake. 


Kadnoak 


- flat ; name of S. G. Henty's 


CtUte - 


- 


one. 




station near Harrow. 


CaitejmhootUe 


- 


three. 


Kombaiy 


- lying down, rest. 


Cooack 


m 


sand. 


Kiata - 


- summer, heat 


Cooianeharep 


- 


anger. 


Keepa 


- salt. 


Caa ' 


- 


the nose. 


Leanguel 


• a natire weapon. 


Onmadosfen - 


- 


Lake Wallace. 


Lalanguite - 


- name of a lagoon. Pine hills. 


Coite urn 


- 


natiye companion. 


Lak - - 


- a stone, rock. 


Caeep - 


- 


one tree. 


Leea - 


- teeth. 


Ccnawarr - 


- 


siran. 


Loomalangan 


- to cry, to weep. 


Coryta 


- 


paddj melon, small kan* 


Maen - 


- a kind of tea-tree. 






garoo. 


Moorang 


- clouds. 


Conneemrrecow 


" 


head of the Tea-tree Creek, 
' Longlands. 


Murrandana 


- thunder ; name of one of 
Armitage*s stations, 8. 


Cmtnee, forehead 


I t 


vfirrecowj tea-tree. 




Adelaide road. 


Caper kelfy - 


• 


name of large salt lake. 


Mutak- 


- the skin. 


CoUepoo 


- 


name of a lagoon, Pine 


Manya 


- the hands. 






hills. 


Merr - 


- the eye. 


Carrak 


- 


the magpie. 


Maarmvn 


- to hear. 


Corrtmdeeble ■ 


- 


part of Salt Creek, near 


MoBee- 


- thicket 






Harrow. 


Mood ' 


- winter, oold in the abstract. 


CvBa-aulla - 


- 


name of lagoon, Mnllagh 


Monmott 


- to feel cold. 






station. 


Moray - 


- the root of a tree. 


Cowupro - 


- 


name of lagoon, Pine hills. 


MaBee parbool 


- name of a tea-tree lake. 


CoUngedup - 


- 


name of lagoon, Pine hills. 




Mullagh. 


Cherrieweerup ( 


or 


I natire name of Qanie 
station. 


MaUanganee 


- another, Pine hills. 


ckerryweemp 


- 


MaUanbool - 


- a reedy swamp. Pine hills. 


Camcanmd 


" 


natire name of lagoon. 
Pine hills. 


Mortart 


- Pleasant Banks, Affleck's 
station. 


DeUk - - 


- 


good water. 


Manyonda - 


- swamp on Lake Wallace 


Drajurk 


- 


reeds, bulrushes, flags. 




station. 


Dank ieeranite 


- 


fight, battle. 


Moonjcun 


- a dry lake on Mullagh 


Dyjark - 


- 


the arm. 




station. 


Docker 


• 


bark of trees. 


Merrytneric - 


- old sheepwash on Salt 


Dakingle - 


- 


to kill 




Creek, seren miles from 


Dewrang 


- 


high, loftj. 




Harrow. 


Drik-drik - 


- 


limestone, lime. 


Morrpaga 


- the face or countenance. 


Dyea - 


- 


earth, soil. 


Moonya 


- a house. 


Geayoul 


- 


forest, plenty, many. 


Marroo 


- pine-tree. 


Gurra - 


- 


red. 


Moodya 


- St. Mary's Lake, Mount 


Gvrraeoop - 


- 


blood. 




Arapiles. 


Gorra - 


- 


a chief or king. 


Munda 


- Townsend's old station. Tea- 


Gorran Doranan 


m 


the present chief of the 




tree Creek, Longlands. 






tribe. 


Memck 


- an egg. 


Gatum-gaittm 


- 


the boomerang. 


Naaprup - 


. hair. 


Gritjurk 


- 


mosquito. 


Na yan cctn - 


- to see, look. 


GataU • 


- 


Maryrale old home-station 
Uke. 


Palpcura 


- a lake on Mullagh station, 
twelre miles from Harrow. 



62 



THE ABOEIGINES OP VICTOEIA: 



Katlre Kames« 

Pobrick 
Prop - 
PaUite - 
PcLrpidjeck ' 
Popope^ 
Punandeegin - 
Pirrepango - 
Rapel - - . 
Tchakel 

TchakeUchakel - 
Tort - - - 
Tord wirrup 
Tchina 
Ticoyan 
TooJang 
Tare - 
Tooky- 
Tot ar nite - 
Toolka - 
Toolondo 

Tchiia ' 

Tit-tit - 

Urangara 

Urancooya - 

Wee - 

WaUie - 

IFooraA or Wooraek 

Warock 

WiUkin 

Wayang 

Winnwin tie ' 

WUHntiek - 

Walling 

Wallpar - 

War wan bool 

Weekeer 

Waa - 

Winani 



Mauling in Engllah. 

a lake on Pine hills. 

the head. 

cherry-tree. 

a fly. 

a child, infant. 

Bait or brackuih water. 

ran, flight. 

eaglehawk. 

lake. 

lakes. 

stars. 

hawk. 

foot, footmark. 

to eat. 

stringybark forest. 

spear. 

wattle-tree gam. 

white color. 

the Cape Barren geese. 

swamp at Chas. Officer's 

home-station, 
the tongue, 
strong, or strong num. 
the sun. 
snow, 
fire, 
rain. 

a plain, level country, 
honeysuckle-tree, 
natiye dog. 
hurricane, high wind, 
a boy eight or ten years old. 
lightning, 
burnt black log. 
dead tree. 

green color, growing tree, 
dead body, 
the crow, 
a hollow tree. 



Vattre Kamei. 

Worroh 
WiUa - 
Wirreecoo 
Wanwin 



Wateegat 
Wydung 
Weetya 
WaU - 
Wombalano - 

UUcart 

MuUeraterong 

Ulebowening - 

Tapook 
Bucaan 

Wooraek 
Warackoorack 
Brvch-iruek^ 
Toolang 
Aiarroo - 
Cooakwoorack 
Warwanhool 
Woohlpooa - 

Bepcha 

Lootehook 
Bettemenah - 

Lamhruk 



Meaning in Engllsb. 

black color. 

oposBom. 

a kind of tea-tree. 

black water-holes, twelre 
miles from Harrow, Ade- 
laide road. 

come, come here. 

bandicoot. 

the blackwood-tree. 

the curlew (little bustard). 

lore, pretty, lorely, beau- 
tifuL 

the old Grange home-eta' 
tion in 1840. 

the site of Hamilton town-^ 
ship. 

Wannon, at junction of 
Grange Bum. 

Mount Napier. 

Grange Bom (running 
stream). 

plains. 

honeysuckle plains. 

she-oak tree. 

stringybark. 

pine-trees. 

sandy plains. 

gum-trees* 

Glenisla swamp, near Ou- 
ter's home-station. 

Solitary hill, situated about 
four miles north-west of 
Carter's homestead. 

swamp, east of the Glenisla 
homoHBtation three miles. 

point of the Victoria imme- 
diately eastward of Glen- 
isla station. 

Carter's home-station. 





Native Terms used by the Upfeb Glenelg Tribe. 


Wur het e gera 


- clear lake. 


C<ir che eur - 


- white. 


Choc chagel - 


- name of district. 


Beap^eap - 


- wood duck. 


Nur coung - 


- birds, natire companion. 


Ckoluel 


- musk duck^ 


Wooreep 


- grey parrot. 


Jilpanger 


- skylark, 


Moo ro curt - 


- green leek. 


Dope worra - 


- lizards, common kind. 


Baling tir - 


- blue mountain. 


Chooyoo 


- large tree. 



Names of some Swamps within Three Miles of Clear Laeie. 



JaUur, 

Bow (pronounced *' bough"). 



Lurmut, 
Carchap, 



Weobea, 
Poorpigoproc, 



LANGUAGE. 



63 



Nativb Names obtained prom Aborigines at Glenisla, with Translation, 

Locality, etc. 



KfttlTe Kunes. 



Bujawrbujam 
Burrai gurrai 
Krambruk - 
JahrapooM - 

Ganangenyaivie - 
Konangiedwara 

Kartukil 

Lamgebwnyah 

Ming-ming - 

ChukHcaQipttrt 
Wonwcndah vfitchoop 
Yarragallum 
Mucatcatchin 



Pronoanoed. 



Mekonongweerap - - Mee-konong-wee'rap 



Weerap 
Konong 



" Boojam-boqjam 

- Burr-ay gurray 

- As spelt 

- Jorrap-ooM - 

- Ja^nang-enryaW'Wee 
" Ko-nang-e^ura 

- Car-tuccU 

- Lamge-e-bunyiih 

- As spelt 

- Chuckril-calU-pvrt 

- Won-toon-dah wit-choop 

- Yarragallum 

- Mu-cat^at'chin 



Meaning in KngllsTi. 

The black-fish cannot get any higher np (Eose- 

brook). 
Black-fish. 
A hill or any impediment of any kind. This is 

a small fall in the creek at Rosebrook. 
A water-hole at Rosebrook home-station. 
A kangaroo camp. Any kangaroo camp. 
A sandy place. 
A water-hole in the Glenelg, at the crossing of 

the Horsham road, by Carendish. 
The entrance north end of the Yictoria Range. 
A small creek from the mountains east of 

Glenisla. 
A large swamp lying at the base of the hills 

east of Lambmck. 
The high mountains immediately north of the 

Chimney-pot Gap, Yictoria Range. 
A large swamp in Woohlpooer, near the east 

boundary. 
A swamp at Brin Springs homestead. 
Another swamp adjoining the last. 
A swamp at Rosebrook sheepwash. 
A spring at the base of the Black Range, east 

side. 



Kattre Namet. 

Catchin 
Wallah 
Wurtipook waUah 

WaUay 

ChoMvil 

Goburt 

Koray 

Mooree 

PeeaU 

Johie 

BUUurirrup - 



Meaning in English. 

Water. 

Rain. 

A little rain (t.e., a 

shower). 
An opossum. 
The musk duck. 
A she-oak tree. 
A kangaroo. 
The black duck. 
Gum. 
An emu. 
Rock wallaby. 



KatlTe Kamea. 



Woorak 

Beereek 

Bappell 

Buor 

Norkujooh 

Goroke 

Bobok 

Kolabatyin 

JaUakin . 

Don-gan^gee - 

Ddkakamudah 

Bo or Bohe - 



Meaning in English. 

Honeysuckle-tree. 
A native cat. 
Eaglehawk. 
Honeysuckle scrub. 
A native companion. 
Magpie. 

Young wattle-tree. 
A wild turkey. 
Kangaroo-rat. 
Wattle gum. 
A large crane. 
A bandicoot. 



LANGUAGE.— LAKE CONDAH. 

The following sentences in the native language were written down at 
my request, in 1870, by Mr. Joseph Shaw, of the Lake Condah Aboriginal 
Station : — 



Purtoko purpoyah thinbetch ko. 
Strike going am I to. 

Manoko worino purpoyah thinbetch ko. 
Find nest going am I to. 

Yow wakko purpoyah thinbetch ko. 
Lie down going am I to. 



Matthala patpattha purpoy<ih thinbetch ko. 
Meat chew going am I to. 

Keyoko thanambur purpoyah thinbetch ko. 
Scold her gomg am I to. 

Nawkanna pettoko ko purpoyah thinbetch. 
Watch him to gomg am L 



64 



THE ABORIGINES OF VICTORIA: 



Piepie cheko purpojfah ihinbeich ho. 
Burn wood going am I to. 

Kang oho porieh purpoyah (hmbeieh ho. 
Pour out water going ami to. 

Man eudk purpcyah ihinbetch ho. 
Take it about am I to. 



Man eyah 
Intend it 



natthoat pa 
1 keep 



ko. 
to. 



TTiokhin purpuriin, 
Eata bird. 

Windtey o^-o-than pundan marr kooranga purHnf 
How does bite man snake kill? 



Noaipty ihangan 
His teeth 



Whattha 
Angry 



Ungan 
▼ery 



dthoa, 
with* 

ihmha 



fiatthoat. 



Pwrtanuma pirn hmgan theehmg. 

Hit head me he. 

("on the" left out) 



Yeomyeam 
Fiah 



dehoa hitehU-kutchU purpoyah 
with line going 



NaHhoat 
My 



purpwrhorto dehoa minwrko 

with chop 



ko 
to 



PitmukAoy<ih tharana natthoat purpoyah 
Sharpen apear my going 



titinhetch 
ami 

purpoy<ih 
going 

thinbeteh 
ami 



ko, 
to. 

thinbeteh, 
amL 

ko. 
to. 



Note. — Mr. Shaw, in a letter to me, states that the definite and indefinite 
articles are left out; as he cannot gather any letter or word corresponding 
to them. 



VOCABULARY OF THE LANGUAGE SPOKEN BT THE TRIBES INHABITING THE 
COUNTRY ABOUT THE RIVERS CRAWFORD, STOKES, AND LOWER FARTS 
OF THE WANNON AND GLENELG. 







Aboriginal. 


Hair - 


- 


- 


NerlStng, 


Forehead 


- 


- 


Kerning, 


Mouth 


- 


- 


WuBdng. 


Head • 


- 


- 


KMn, 


Eyea - 


- 


- 


Mring. 


Noae - 


- 


- 


Karpbng, 


Teeth 


- 


- 


Tung-ung, 


Stomach 


- 


- 


BoUawing or werritng. 


Back- 


- 


- 


Torrdide or werrip. 


Thigh 


- 


- 


Karrip, 


Feet - 


- 


- 


Denbng or tenbng. 


Calf of leg 


- 


Nurrbke, 


Hand - 


- 


«• 


Murrung or murrdng. 


Chin - 


- 


- 


Narrdng. 


Tongue 


- 


- 


Terlingae. 


Lipa - 


- 


- 


Werrdng. 


Eara - 


- 


- 


WerrXng. 


Neck- 


•» 


- 


Norlahn. 


Shoulder 


- 


- 


Neet. 


Elbow 


- 


«» 


Terting, 


Arm - 


- 


- 


Worrdc. 


Breaat 


m 


- 


Naupung, 


Knee - 


- 


- 


Perrong, 


Sun - 


- 


- 


Tirring. 


Sunriae 


- 


• 


Wun-u-wa-ilrring. 


Sunaet 


- 


- 


U'wa-tirring, 



(Compiled bt C. J. Ttsbs, Esq., in 184S.) 

English. 

Stara 
Rain- 
Thunder - 
Fire- 
Water - 
Moon 
Wind 

Sky - . . 
Rainbow - 
Smoke 
Heat or hot 
Very cold- 
White man 
White woman - 
Black man 
Black woman - 
Male child 
Female child - 
Young man 
Young woman - 
Old black man - 
Childbirth 
Mother - 
Father 
Kangaroo - 
Emu- 



AborigtiiaL 

Kd'kdrtirring, 
Karplne, 
Munddl. 
Wenie or ween, 
PSarreeh, 

Bumbobke or parrembobke. 
Niirrajug. 
Mbn'bbng, 
To^an. 

Too-obng or poyn-burtbng. 
Ka-loin. 
Mote-mote* 
Ammatie or t 
Narranrgobroe, 
Koolbying. 
Port-port-nurrbng, 
Pbpbpe, 
Nttrrun'goaroe. 
Kol'kbn, 
Par-rott. 

Port-peqt-portpeqf. 
Po4lng'pi4d. 
Nerpung, 
Bebl 
Gordng. 
Korpring* 



m^ 





LANGUAGE. 




Ttnglteh- 


Aboriginal. 


English. 


AboriglnaL 


I>og- 


Karl 


Boomerang 


OaUom-gattom, 


Black-flih- - 


Coekmun, 


Basket carried 


Koo-win. 


Bream 


Kdul 


on the back of 




Sagle(kl11fiopo8. 


E^rnggdrra, 


women con- 








taining wood 




garoofl, bandi- 




Shield - 


Mukdrie. 


coots, &C.) 




Band worn round 


Kinning, 


White cockatoo 


Mruck or karrakeit. 


forehead 




Black cockatoo - 


Wte-Utng. 


Sack or bag 


Korbne, 


Bnllock - - 


MurruHdie-weMngf nwrrvn- 


Blanket or bed - 


Yung, 




die-guhing. 


No (negatiye) - 


Yu-a-pdh. 


Horse 


Nharr, 


Little or small - 


Wot-a-^citL 


Mosquito - 


Murroeibrra. 


Large 


Md'trong^ 


Fly . . - 


Manndg or wumnde. 


Good 


Noe-tchong, 


WUd duck 


Warren^ki. 


Bring fire 


Ma-na-weein, 


Large wild dack 




Bring water 


Ma-na-parreit, 


Mussel - 


Torlope, 


You walk or go 


Yun-a-kdh, 


Bine parrot 


Turrik>t, 


You sleep - 


Yew-a-kd, 


Snake 


Koorlng, 


Go to sleep 


Yew-uUiah, 


Natiye eat 


TaUdt-karreep. 


I walk - 


Ytai^uttiaiu 


Bandicoot - 


Currdoi, 


Talk to me 


Proi'Wun-ndl, 


Kangaroo-rat - 


Perrbok. 


I say 


Lorcannbo, 


Lizard 


Erdok, 


I talk to you - 


Prc^er-un-ung, 


OpoBsnm - * - 


Karra-mdok, 


I can see - 


Nd-cob, 


Grass 


Noo4hng, 


I can see a horse 


Nd'Cbo-nharrK 


Tree 


Lang, 


You threw 


Yun-da-nin, 


Blackwood 


Moo'tdng, 


You threw a 


Yun-da-nin-kr^^. 


Leptospermnm - 


Boonobng, 


spear 




Gnm-tree - 


Taart. 


I threw - 


Yon'drbo. 


Banksia - 


Worite. 


You jumped - 


Pdp^oo-pd'Htn, 


Beedy-giass 


TurrSic. 


I jump - 


Pdp-coo-pd. 


Stones 


Mvrrai* 


I drink - 


Pd'td. 


Bone 


Nerhine* 


You drink 


Td'tob. 


Manow - 


Tring. 


Come here 


WaUtdi, 


Hnt or tent 


Butigame, 


Dead 


Oulpin or gufym-na. 


Honse 


Woom. 


Act of pulling 


Eree»piH'narrdng, 


Large house - 


Mdtee'-toorm, 


the hair from 




Spear 


Ttdril-knpeer and garra-' 


the chin 






yarra. 


Child on woman's 


Wen-a-pd, 


Wadcty - 


Kunnbe, 


back 




Wad^ - 


Mdttrbng [shape of leom4k']. 







65 



Mr. Tyeia added the follo^ring, namely :• 



|gngH«T|, 


AboriglnaL 


EnglUh. 


Aboriginal. 


Watch or dock 

Good sheep (mutton ?) 

Beef 

Sheep - - - 

Sheepskin 

Boad, or dray track 


- KaJka-Hrring, 

' NoHchong mattdl, 

- Tarrap nooing. 

- Xegy. 

- MeeUmg4eqfhnot, 

- Wurrowing. 


Gun 

Boots - 

Bottle - 

Trousers 

Hat - - ■ 


- PunguHe, 

- Wan-denbng» 

- Pee-gal* 

- Kanat-kaneep, 

- MopU'kolan. 



* This name probably indicated not the yessel but the contents. Seal is the name, in the 
Western district, of an exhilarating liquor prepared from the flowers of the Bankna,—See page 

210, TOl. I. 

VOL. IL I 



66 



THE ABORIGINES OP YIGTOBIA: 



The natives pointed out to Mr. Tyers what they said was a large hill in 
the sky. They indicated the place as being towards the sonth-west, and they 
informed him that it was the residence of Ween^min^not Karing^ the Supreme 
Being, who, they supposed, caused rain, thunder, lightning,- wind, Ac. They 
affirmed that they did not believe in a ftiture state, nor that this great black- 
fellow was the author of their existence ; but they attributed to his agency all 
deaths from lightning. 



Names of Looalitiss. 

Source of the Waado ........ P(a4a^pamno. 

RiTer Crawford, near the road ....... Mirr^nobn. 

Water-hole, four milea abore the road ..... Mirreep. 

Brian's Creek KorbUe. 

John Henty's Creek ......... ^fbo-vdnm. 

Frank Henty's Creek ........ Woc^woe^oom, 

Stokes' -..-.-.-... BobtuorTong.- 

Winter's Creek- ...^ Wa-eoom. 

Birer Glenelg *- -- B<hcdr. 

Fitzroy ........... Wnngot-pSMtom, 

Grampians *......... M%rrai4>ug-^%m, 

Wannon of Sir Thomas MitcheU KarrawHJUu 



NiCK-KAMES OF EaBLY SbTTLEBS, 



Mr.M. 

G.W. 

T.W. 

Xh. 

J. EL 



Ooot'narrdng 
Lirrt-ptdjoong 
Tym-terlingae 

Terreip - 
MundoUoort 



Mr. M. Wwu'werrtmg 



Slgnlfloatlon. 

Hair on chin (Mr. M. wears an imperial). 

Singing or hnmming. 

Playing with tongne (Mr. W. has a peculiar manner 
of moTing his tongue when speaking). 

Not known. 

Named after a black man who was killed by thunder ; 
probably the first musket they heard fired was 
by Mr. H., which they compared to thunder. 

One who pouts. 



EzpiJLirAnoir ov SxiiBOLi usbd to Poiht out thb PsoinnrciATzoN. 

Sl a«in<<cart." 
d. accented. 



LANGUAGE. 



67 



LIST OF WORDS.— ENGLISH— NATIVE. 

(COXFIUBD BT TSB QVAXDIAJKB OF AbORIGIKSS IN THB COLOKT OF YlCTOBIA..) 

On the 4th July 1863, 1 forwarded a nnmber of printed papers to the Local 
Gnardians of Aborigines in the Colony of Victoria, with the request that they 
would write opposite to each printed (English) word the word in the Aboriginal 
language having exactly the same meaning. It was suggested in the circular 
letter accompanying the printed form that the Guardians should take care to 
ascertain whether more than one word was used in the same sense by the 
Aborigines, and, if so, to give all such words, noting the circumstances under 
which they were used. 

The correspondents whose replies are attached performed the work with 
exceeding care, and the results are very valuable. 

The lists are here arranged geographically. 



MUEBAY DISTRICT. 









TAWaAMnAT.AVflA, 














Pallanganmiddak Tribe 


a 






EngltolL 






AwtralUii. 


BoglidL 






▲oftnUaD. 


Man - 


• 


. 


Gerree^ 


Star - 


• 


» 


Jiemha, 


Woman 


- 


f 


Giree. 


Sky . 


- 


- 


YouivUla, 


Father - 


- 


as 


Mamgah, 


Night - 


- 


y 


Tooma, 


Mother - 


- 


- 


Bigah. 


Day 


- 


• 


Koonda. 


Son 


- 


- 


Yvairo. 


Fire - 


. 


m 


Kurraw, 


Daughter 


- 


- 


Yuariga, 


Air . 


- 


- 


Kurre\QjAj known as 
Kurre } wind. 


Brother 


- 


- 


Wcumga, 


Wind - 


m 
It 


- 


Sister - 
Head - 


• 


- 


Tiega, 
Booatp. 


Earth - 
Ground 


- 


- 


only known aa 
Merre) '^'^^' 


Hair - 


- 


- 


Booaw. 


SoU - 


- 


- 


Eye - 
Ear 


^ 


~ 


Mee. 
Mirmbah, 


Rirer * 
Sea - 


•« 


- 


f"-""]. any water. 
Ktewra) 


Month - 


- 


- 


Beirah. 


Stone r 


^ 


- 


Poongah, 


Tongue 


m 


- 


Tierah. 


Tree - 


- 


- 


Wondah, 


Teeth - 


- 


- 


Teera. 


Wood - 


- 


- 


7\itf-ioa ) only name for 
Tau'wa > wood. 


Hand - 


- 


- 


Hurrahs 


Stick - 


. 


. 


Finger - 


- 


- 


YouBon. 


Bird - 


- 


- 


Murregah, 


Foot - 


- 


•» 


TeyraK 


Egg - 


- 


«■ 


Narrcmgah, 


Toe - 


- 


- 


YouOan. 


Snake - 


- 


- 


Tueycn, 


BeUy - 


- 


- 


MooUooma, 


Eagle - 


- 


- 


Warrimoo, 


Blood - 


- 


- 


Koroo, 


Crow - 


- 


- 


Berantha, 


Bone - 


m 


- 


Kieela, 


Mopoke 


- 


- 


Bingami, 


Snn - 


- 


» 


Kocnda, 


Kangaroo 


- 


- 


Boodgoo, 


Moon • 


- 


- 


Yow^ioarra, 











Thomas Mitchell, Tangambalanga. 



68 



THE ABOBIGINES OF YIGTOBIA: 



EnglUh. 

Man~"- 
Woman 
Father- 
Mother 
Son - 
Daughter 
Brother 
Sister - 
Head - 
Hair - 
Eye - 
Ear - 
Month - 
Tongne 
Teeth - 
Hand - 
Finger - 
Foot - 
Toe - 
Belly - 
Blood - 
Bone - 
Snn - 
Moon - 



Babnawabtha. 
Emu Mudjuff Tribe. 

AaitnUan. EngUili. Aostnllaa. 

Mitng. 

• Bdagera, 
Mamah, 

- Gunh. 

- BurU, 
Buru, 

• Carcon, 
Mingd, 

- Cumbugong, 
' Hwran, 

• MiU. 

• Mutha, 

• Erang. 

• TuUing. 

- Terah. 

• Murrdh. 

- FeSbn. 

- Jeunong, 
' YeOon, 

- Burrabee. 
Gomyah, 

- ThuhaL 
' Neera. 

- Ckbctdong, 

• Katlres tiere baTe nerev leeD the tea, and oomequenUj ha^e no name for It. 



StAT - 


- 


- 


Jemba, 


Sky - 


- 


- 


Thwran, 


Night - 


- 


- 


Burandong, 


Day - 


- 


- 


Erah. 


Fire - 


- 


- 


Wanga, 


Air - 


- 


- 


Hinegcura, 


Wind - 


- 


- 


Towarah, 


Earth - 


- 


- 


Towarah, 


Gronnd 


- 


- 


JTutgaund, 


Soa - 


- 


- 


Thagound, 


Rirer - 


• 


- 


Mumtmbtdgah 


Sea - 


» 


^ 


None. ♦ 


Stone - 


- 


- 


WaUmg, 


Tree - 


^ 


- 


Wonder. 


Wood - 


- 


- 


Kegel, 


Stick - 


- 


- 


Kegel. 


Bird - 


- 


- 




Egg . 


- 


- 


Cobagah, 


Snake - 


- 


- 


Tkbrb. 


Eagle - 


- 


- 


WeramiL 


Crow - 


- 


- 


Wargon. 


Mopoke 


- 


- 


Oogoog, 


Kangaroo 


- 


- 


Mwrray, 



Blacks never use a dead person's name if possible, and always feel angry 

when mentioned by others. 

Davh) Beid, Bamawartha. 



BCHUCA. 



EogUflh. 

Man - 
A dead man 
Woman 
Father - 
Mother 
Son 

Child - 
Daughter 
Brother 
Sister • 
Head - 
Hair - 
Eye - 
Ear - 
Month - 
Tongne 
Teeth - 



▲aatraliaa. 



MoaniU 

Moa, 

Layarut. 

Kaiya or kaiyow. 

Kdna (the a as in << car"). 

F(«*a(theaa8in«car"). 
JTo/tiAa. 

KtUeena. 

Banyip, 

Tdigipa, 

Mwdngery, 

B6ho, 

Maa (a as in <«far"). 

Kotta. 

TdOye (the a as in " tallow"). 

Derra, 



Engllfli. 



AnstratiaD* 



Hand <> 


» 


* 


Peeyiau 


Finger 


- 


- 


Teechera. 


Foot - 


- 


m 


Tehinna, 


Toe - 


m 


m 


Dayban, 


BeUy - 


- 


m 


Boulfy, 


Blood - 


- 


- 


Mowa, 


Bone - 


- 


- 


LWma, 


Snn - 


- 


- 


Yongya. 


Moon - 


- 


- 


Yongwida, 


Star - 


- 


- 


Drutbra or tnOtra, 


Sky - 


- 


- 


Yvrdta or ddJtaia (a as in 
« &r "). 


Night - 


- 


- 


Bona. 


Day - 


- 


- 


Wongda, 


Fire - 


- 


- 


Bickya, 


Air - 


- 


- 




Wind - 


. 


- 


Bangya. 









LANGUAGE. 














EOHUCA. 








English. 




Anstaliaii. 




W"gM|iTii 






AutrallAti. 


Whirlwind - 


. 


mOttOMtrClm 




Stick - 






Traiyda, 


Earth - 


- 


W6hka. 




Bird . 






Chonda (tchonda). 


Groimd 


- 


Wdkka. 




Egg - 






Putydnga, 


Soil - 


- 


Wyeera (to dig the aoil). 


Snake - 






Kona, 


Elver - 


- 


Tongvla or tongala. 




Eagle - 






Hwdmmery, 


Sea - . 


- 






Crow - 






Wdrka. 


Stone - 


- 


Eeoga, 




Mopoke 






Koko, 


Tree - 


- 


Tainya, 




Kangaroo 






Kyemery. 


Wood - 


- 


Moatta, 




Emu - 






Peker&mdia, 


Is the CD 


stoi 


tn of sAyuis the i 


lame of any natural o 


biec 


it to a man or \ 



69 



common, and on the death of the person so named is the word disused, and 
another substituted to indicate such natural object ? — Such does not appear to 
be the case ; but the blacks dx> not willingly mention the names of the dead. 

Such a custom, it is said, leads to great alterations in the language ; are 
there any other obvious causes in operation leading to changes in the names of 
things ? — ^I have not been able to ascertain any. 

The tribe in this neighbourhood is known as the Echuca tribe, and on the 

opposite side of the Murray as the Moama tribe, these being the native names 

of the localities. 

0, E. Stbutt, Echuca. 









GniimowsB. 








tttijitoll. 






Anitnllaii. 


Bnglkh. 






▲urtnliAn. 


Ma~. 


. 


m 


Coolie, 


Star - 


• 


• 


Toort 


Woman 


- 


- 


Lubra. 


Sky - 


- 


- 


Mamg. 


Father- 


• 


. 


Mamook, 


Night - 


- 


- 


Boorin, 


Mother 


- 


- 


Pdbook. 


Day - 




- 


Kdrook. 


Son 


* 


- 


Mangkowook, 


Fire * 




• 


Wcutnup, 


Daughter 


- 


- 


Unganook, 


Air - 




« 


Bonguchirp. 


Brother 


- 


- 


Wduook, 


Wind - 




9 


Mirin. 


Sister - 


- 


- 


Koortuneook or ehajook. 


Earth - 




W 


Chwrr. 


Head - 


- 


- 


Mooruncook, 


Ground 




- 


Churr. 


Hair . 


- 


- 


Nwranneook, 


Sou . 




- 


Koonick, 


Eye 


- 


- 


Mirinook, 


Biyer - 




- 


Murray. 


Ear 


- 


m 


Wimnnboohok, 


Sea 




- 


Not known. 


Month - 


- 


- 


Chirbook. 


Stone • 




• 


Larr, 


Tongne 


m 


- 


Chdlinook. 


Tree • 


- 


- 


Beeal, 


Teeth - 


- 


- 


Lednook, 


Wood . 


- 


- 


Beealy and goombowd (dead 


Hand - 


- 


- 


Mitntmcook, 








wood). 


Finge? 


• 


w 


Mdnuncook, 


Stick - 


- 


• 


LordwiU. 


Foot - 


• 


m 


CMnvnook. 


Bird - 


- 


m 


Withebower. 


Toe(hig) 


n 


W 


Bohohininook, 


Egg . 


M 


m 


Mirkook. 


Other toes 


- 


9 


Wothebothechininook, 


Snake (hlack) 


. 


OoomwiU, 


Ankle r 


* 


^ 


Mircook. 


Snake (brown) 


- 


Cooloowoo. 


BeUy - 


- 


^ 


BiUtncook, 


Eaglehawk 


- 


. 


WirbilL 


Blood - 


- 


- 


Koorkook, 


Crow - 


flk 


• 


Wda. 


Bone - 


- 


- 


Mirdirook, 


Mopoke 


- 


- 


Wdiooke. 


Son - 


- 


i» 


Mooree, 


Kangaroo 


- 


- 


Cooray, 


Moon - 


• 


. 


WiewUl 











70 



THE ABOfilOINEB OS YICTOBIA: 



Is the custom of giving the name of any natnral object to a man or woman 
common, and on the death of the person so named is the word disosed and 
another substituted to indicate such natural object? — ^It is not the custom here. 

Such a custom, it is said, leads to great alterations in the language ; are 
there any other obvious causes in operation leading to changes in the names of 
things ? — ^None. 

NoTK. — So far as I can learn, they use no generic terms, the application 
being wholly individual — unless in the case of fish, which here is generally 
called " Munjey^'* or " MungV^ 

G90B6E Houston, Ounbower Station, Durham Ox. 



KULKYNE, 



Kan ^ - 


7 WotungL 


Wonua 


- Ztb. 


Father 




IfoUwr 


- Phapie. 


Son • 


' Piwngo. 


Daughter - 


- Muring, 


Brother 


. BuUardie. 


Sitter - 


- Mine. 


Head - • 


- Dwrut-boopt, 


Hair - 


' Kiut-earangie. 


Eye - 


- M^i. 


Ear - 


- Mvral'WimpoU. 


Mouth 


- Dhuck-chapiM. 


Tongue 


' Mdat, 


Teeth - 


- RuruC'leanff, 


Hand - 


- Wtdn. 


Finger 


- Mvnangi. 


Foot - 


- J<thn. 


Toe - 


- Noffugadun, 


Belly . . 


- Mewrt. 


Blood - 


- Kuroc. 


Bone - 


- Beagim^, 


Bun - • - 


- Nung. 


Moon - 


T Bait. 



SnglUli. 



Morning star 


- 


yunhmba. 


Stan ? 


m 


- 


Ncure4fiL 


Sky - 


- 


- 


NerieK 


Night r 


- 


- 


Biangri. 


Day . 


- 


- 


Beiammg. 


Fixe - 


- 


- 


Neic^vunapL 


Air . 


- 


m 




Whid T 


- 


- 


Weirreit 


Earth • 


- 


- 


Teangi. 


Ground 


- 


- 


NuidL 


Hirer - 


- 


- 


Ludhi, koUUdhe. 


Sea - 


. 


- 


No term for this won 


Stone - 


- 


- 


Kotabi. 


Tree - 


- 


- 


BvOoi^ndlandi. 


Wood - 


- 


- 


Zei^ar. 


Stick . 


- 


- 


Kulgt, hoop. 


Bird - 


- 


• 


Waangiy wamuML 


Ifeg - 


- 


- 


Baitf mikU 


Snake ? 


- 


• 


Kamie. 


Eagle - 


- 


- 


MaundiL 


Cpow - 


- 


. 


Wdak. 


Mopoke 


- 


m 


Borp-rorpf dwU-dtmit 


Sangarop 


- 


- 


BMlMkan0-quang%. 



Is the custom of giving the name of any natural object to a man or woman 
common, and on the death of the person so named is the word disused and 
another substituted to indicate such natural object ? — ^The names of the deceased 
persons are seldom or never mentioned by them. 

Such a custom, it is said, leads to great alterations in the language ; are 
^ there any other obvious causes in operation leading to changes in the names of 
things ? — I don't know. 

Angus MaoIntybb, Kulkyne, Lower Murray. 



LANGUAGE. 



71 



KULETNIB^ LOWEB MUBRAY. 



Bi«Udi. 


L-^ 


A\/*j 


AwtnllAO* 




English. 


j^ 


# v^ V— **»—#»»»•%/• 1 


Han - 


•• 


. 


Bang. 




Ground 


m 


Dtckar. 


Woman 


- 


- 


Lay-parrk. 




Soil - - 


m 


Dtehar. 


Fkther 


- 


- 


Maw-mook. 




River • 


- 


Lowtoohk* 


Mother 


- 


- 


Faw-book, 




Sea - 


- 


No name. 


Son . 


«■ 


- 


Wedtha-dfook. 




Stone - 


- 


La. 


Daughter 


- 


- 


Mten-gawk. 




Tree - 


- 


Be-al. 


Brother 


•B 


- 


Goodmen-yook. 




Wood - 


- 


Goomrbowie. 


Boy - 


- 


• 


Pint-go. 




Stick - - 


- 


Led^wia. 


Sister - 


- 


- 


Djauhdjook. 




Bird - - 


m 


Wig-krook. 


Head - 


- 


- 


Mooran'^yooh, 




Egg - - 


- 


Mir^kcok. 


Hair - 


- 


- 


Chuuran-yook. 




Snake - 


- 


Korm~wiU, 


Eye • 


- 


- 


Mtnook. 




Kangaroo - 


m 


Koorr-^ay. 


Ear 


m 


- 


RvmbtML 




Opossum 


- 


WiUak. 


Mouth - 


- 


- 


Woorwa-yook. 




Eagle - 


- 


Werr-bm. ^ 


Tongue 


- 


b 


OhdUn'yook. 




Crow - 


• 


Wah. 


Teeth - 


- 


- 


Le-an-yook. 




Mopoke 


- 


Wook-vfook. 


Hand - 


- 


A 


Man-yan^ook. 




Parrot - 


* 


Djt&jvgk 


Finger 


- 


- 


Ki-ah-me, 




Native companion 


Kood-thun. 


Eoot - 


- 


- 


Chin-an^^fook. 




Emu 




Kow-iU, 


Toe - 


- 


- 


JSavb^hin yanook. 




Wild turkey 




Gnarrow, 


BeUy - 


- 


- 


BiU-in-yook. 




Cockatoo parrot 




Wirtih. 


Blood - 


• 


• 


Kocr-hook. 




Swan - 




Kon-noorr-a, 


Bone - 


- 


- 


Maiidarook. 




Wild geese - 




Gnattk. 


Sim - 


- 


- 


Now-ay. 




Murray cod - 




Pom-jan. 


Moon - 


- 


- 


Wine^wiU. 




Biver Murray 


- 


MiU-ieu. 


Star - 


- 


- 


TwdJU 




Wood to make 


Mantng. 


Sky . 


- 


- 


Mamg or nuunny. 




flre-stick 






Kight or dark 


- 


PooT'run^ 




Eire-stick - 


- 


Marvng wwUhtqt. 


Day - 


- 


- 


Barrb. 




One - 


- 


Kiab. 


Eire - 


- 


- 


Wan-nap. 




Two - 


- 


Buled (or pukd) ya. 


Air - 


- 


- 


No word. 




Three - 


- 


Buied ya kiab* 


Wind - 


- 


- 


Merrin. 




Four - 


- 


BvUd-bvled. 


Earth - 


- 


- 


No name apparently. 




Fire - - 


• 


Bvled'bvkd kiab, and so on. 


FUdn - 


- 


- 


Warrk^ 
















Ouamkoo^el 


war toarang aU wxUah. 












Come on I 


we will look out 'possum. 












Mankatah 


vnOah. 












There is a 'possnm. 












WiUaht mankatah vnUak. 












Tossnml there is a 


k 'possum. 







Bird-o-men wHtah. 
I caught an opossum* 

Guam I parry ang all kooray. 
Come on I we wul look out kangaroa 

Man-^ik buletfya kooytai. 
You bring him two fellows' spear. 

MambangaU ngar kin koorra migo mindeah. 
U we see any kangaroos in the bend [of 
the creek] we will catch thenu 



Meu are never named after stones^ trees, &c. ; but when dead their names 
are not again heard. 



72 



THE AB0SIGINE8 OF YICTOSIA: 



JUNOTION OF MOBCOYIA CbESK AKD BIVXB MuBRAY. 



Man . . 


. 


Nutma. 


Woman 


- 


Burrup, 


Fbther- 


- 


Bicht. 


Mother 


- 


Onaek. 


Son - 


. 


Ku 


Daughter - 


- 




Brother 


- 


GufM. 


8kter - 


- 


MyU. 


Wife - - 


- 


Thirtmkio. 


Husband 


- 


Thomi*. 


Step-brother 


- 


Weetmctqipoi, 


Step-siBter - 


• 


JaeMtt. 




- 


Perrm. 


Grandmother 


. 


Home, 


Infant - 


. 


MtKM€€m 


Small . 


- 


Murltmg, 


lArge - 


- 


Yuroung, 


Sleep . 


- 


x CTMim* 


Bream- 


• 


Rautkun. 


Canoe - 


- 


Ydmngotqt, 


Smoke - 


- 


Tatm. 


Aahes - 


- 


Bcmga, 


Oiaye - 


- 


Bumbo, 


Qnick - - 


. 


NickemurlM, 


Slow . 


- 


Pulgark. 


Eagle - 


- 


MuneBe, 


Bird - . 


• 


BuHtmun, 


Cnrlew 


- 


Weehe. 


Swan - 


- 


OmlOou, 


Crane - 


- 


Whtmba. 


Cockatoo (white) - 


Bun. 


Cockatoo (black) - 


Baik. 


Emu - 


• 


Benme, 


Parrot- 


- 


MerUmgom, 


Pigeon 


- 


Cumnup, 


Crow - 


- 


TuUmg. 


Teal - - 


- 


TuppaL 


Mnak duck - 


• 


BmUtmg, 


Black duck - 


- 


Crupung, 


Wood dock - 


- 


Wofuion. 


Opoinun 


- 


Waeynag. 


Wallabj - 


«■ 


Merrinee, 


Dog - 


- 


Kign. 


Black make 


* 


Mumm'HuJma* 


Brown anake 


• 


PuMpWM'WubMm 


Halleeanake 


. 


WaUmanmlu 


Whip snake 


• 


Tunart. 


Carpet snake 


m 


Buccurage, 


Adder - 


- 


Mojfokiocnn, 


Kangaroo - 


- 


Bufyoukeurr, 


Egg - - 


- 


BdU. 


Wood - - 


• 


Whitha. 


Stick - - 


- 


Burgh. 


Box-tree 


• 


Bultoot 



Pine - 
Willow 
Myall - 
Saltbnsh - 
Grasa - 
Gnm 
Spear - 
Camp - 
Stone - 
Earth - 
Ground 
Water - 
Night . 
Day - 
Wind - 
Air - 
Fire - - 
Murray Birer 
Lake - - 
Fishing-net - 
Fight - - 
Tea . - 
No - 
Head - - 
Forehead - 
Hair - - 
Eyebrow 
Eye - 
Nose - 
Ear - 
Cheek- - 
Month - 
Tongue 
Neck - 
Shoulder 
Chest - 
Arm - 
Back - 
Leg - 

Knee - 
Skin - - 
Flesh - 
Fat - - 
Hand - 
Foot - 
Toe - 
Finger - 
Blood - 
Bone - 
Sun - 
Moon - 
Star - 
Sky . . 
Bain - • 



- Murr. 

- Bougie, 

- TTkurla, 

- NareAa. 

- Tkurbam^ 

- Tilbouiie. 

- Mutbar. 

- B(Urp. 

- Mock or kibbtu 

- Utie. 

- Niihe. 

- Ook. 

- Beun, 

- Nungnm, 

- Wenid. 
. yotr. 

- Arrcmge, 

- LuUe. 

- Punk, 

- ThaJe. 

- ThuIkM, 

- Yai. 

. Yttho. 

- Cobbra wpetmo^, 

- Dinn, 

- DreuL 

- Langur, 
• Cup. 

- Mart. 

- Teek. 
Moun. 

- MutL 

- Fbaifi^ 

- TunamL 

- Back. 

- Mul. 

- Poeum. 

- CiQo^piaR. 

- TrooL 

- Look. 

- NuL 

- Cutt 

- Woun. 

- T^fi. 

- Onde4hMn* 
Gmwolwomn. 

- Omrroue. 

- CWai. 

- Nung. 

- BUe. 

- Dingie. 

- Wango, 

- Mugga. 



LANGUAGE. 



73 



BofUsh 



Aoftnllaa. 



rrost - 


- 


- Zurgoo, 


Fog - 


- 


- Mow, 


Thunder 


- 


- Mundara, 


liightnmg 


- 


- Wiriabyk. 


Soul - 


• 


- CouU, 


Fiah - 


- 


- Marm, 


Cod-fish 


- 


- Menimtul 


Ferch-flah 


. 


GemCm 


Cray-flah 


- 


- Motporc, 


Miuflels 


- 


- Muer, 


Opossum rug 


- Mattura. 



BngUah. 



AostnUaa. 



Darling River - Yane. 
Edward Birer - CuUart 
Mnrrumbidgee Biyer Been, 



Lachlan Riyer 


- Durrvm, 


Tomahawk 


- 


' Thurin. 


Club - 


- 


- MumdL 


Shield - 


- 


- Btdria. 


Summer 


- 


- Wehfa, 


Winter 


- 


- Yuit, 


Owl - 


- 


- Pupinar, 


Bat - 


. 


- Rocheul. 



Tyijityndter. 
This paper applies to the WcUty-iwxitty and Litcho(hlitchoo tribes only. 



EnsUdu 






gwgltffl^ 






Man 


- 


WortotigU, 


Sky 


- 


Tyrd^ 


Woman - 


- 


Liour. 


Night - 


- 


Toikine^noune, 


Father - 


- 


Mamie. 


Day 


- 


Kedy-nowie. 


Mother - 


- 


Baboo. 


Fire 


- 


Wanup, 


Son 


- 


Wortongie wertiwoo. 


Air 


- 


No word. 


Daughter 


- 


Lunar wertuooo. 


Wind - 


- 


WiUangie, 


Brother - 


- 


Wawoo,il older; and Baiarin^ 


Ear^ - 


- 


Tvngie. 






if younger. 


Ground - 


- 


Tungie, 


Sister - 


- 


Minie, 


Son 


- 


Tungie. 


Head - 


- 


Poorp, 


Rirer - 


- 


MiUoo. 


Hair - 


- 


GneRingin, 


Sea 


- 


Cowie kayimf 


BJye 


- 


Minwo, 


Stone - 


- 


Muckie, 


Fffff 


- 


Wiruwqtoolen. 


Tree 


- 


Boorongie. (This applies to a 


Mouth - 


" 


Woorinen (this is also applicable 
to the bows of a canoe). 






number of trees ; they hare 
not any name for tree in the 


Tongue - 


- 


Tchilinen, 






singular.) 


Teeth - 


- 


Leangxn, 


Wood . 


- 




Hand - 


- 


Mumungin. 


Stick - 


- 




Fhiger - 


- 


Each finger has a separate name. 


Bird - 


- 


They have not any name for 


Foot 


•» 


Ckinangin, 






bird, each bird has a distinc- 


Toe 


- 


Each toe has a separate name. 






tiye name only. 


BeUy - 


- 


Wootchiwoo, 


Egg 


- 


Mirkoo, 


Blood - 


- 


Jinka-jinka, 


Snake - 


- 


Cannie. 


Bone 


- 


Calwe. 


Eagle - 


- 


PerrU-perriU 


Sun 


- 


Nowie, 


Crow - 


m 


Wangie, 


Moon 


- 


Meatian, 


Mopoke - 


- 


Jinny-jinny. 


Star 


- 


Toon, 


Kangaroo 


- 


Koorangie, 



Is the custom of giving the name of any natural object to a man or woman 
common^ and on the death of the person so named is the word disused and 
another substituted to indicate such natural object ? — ^Men and women have aU 
names with some local meaning or personal peculiarity. When a person dies, 
the name is forgotten from that time forward^ and if a local name, it is at once 
changed ; this causes very great difficulty in arriving at a knowledge of their 
history. 

VOL. n. K 



74 



THE AB0BI6INBB OF YICTOSIA: 



Such a custcmij it is said, leads to great alteiatioiiB in the language ; are 
there anj other obvicnu caases in operation leading to changes in the names of 
things? — There are not any other causes for dianges in the language. 

Fetkb Bkyxbdmis, Tjntjndjer, Swan BUL 









MlLDUBA. 














Terrene 


rre Tribe^ 








Man - 




. 


Wir. 


Star - 






Btml 


WOOMUI 


- 


- 


Coofwup, 


Skj . 


- 


- 


Nmrmi. 


Father 


- 


- 


BaU. 


Hlgfat- 


- 


- 


Irmi^fy* 


Mother 


- 


- 


Aeka. 


Daj . 


• 


• 


Btq^a mamL 


Don 


- 


- 


BL 


Fte . 


- 


- 


MieL 


Daughter 


- 


- 


Urn. 


Air - 


- 


. 


NUck. 


Mother 


- 


- 


(hque. 


Wfaid - 


- 


- 


Wirii. 


Bitter - 


* 


- 


Mieka, 


Earth - 


- 


- 


Naifo. 


Head - 


- 


. 


TurL 


Gronnd 


• 


- 


BambOL 


Hair - 


- 


. 


Moor^ 


Sofl - 


- 


. 


CoroaL 


Etje 


• 


. 


Me. 


BiTer - 


« 


. 


LmL 


Ear • 


• 


- 


MmraL 


Sea • 


- 


- 


Wi-a-rmJL 


Month* 


• 


. 


T^rk. 


Stone - 


- 


- 


Tkamk. 


ToDgna 


. 


. 


MaUm. 


Tkee - 


- 


. 


BumdL 


Teeth - 


- 


- 


BMrek. 


Wood - 


- 


- 


Botqf, 


Hand - 


• 


• 


Wima. 


Stiek - 


- 


- 


BtdUke-lmO. 


Finger- 


- 


- 


AkrOr^MiaU 


Biid • 


- 


- 


Bofwmpm 


Foot • 


- 


- 


Thma, 


I5gS - 


- 


- 


Bet 


Toe - 


- 


m 


ili-o-^tn. 


Snake - 


- 


- 


Tkoke. 


BeUj - 


. 


- 


UoorL 


Eafl^e - 


- 


- 


Maw-^m-M. 


Blood - 


- 


- 


l/OOfVMM* 


Crow* - 


- 


- 


Walk. 


Bone - 


- 


- 


By-hmp. 


Mopohe 


• 


• 


Ohtioek. 


Sim - 


- 


- 


NmJk. 


Kangaroo 


- 


- 


Bu'hKooL 


Moon - 


m 


- 


P^ 











Is the custom of giving the name of any natural object to a man or woman 
common, and on the death of the person so named is the word disused and 
another substituted to indicate such natural object ? — ^Yes ; name given always 
of a natural object, but not disused after death. 

Such a custom, it is said, leads to great alterations in the language ; are 
there any other obvious causes in operation leading to changes in the names of 
things ? — ^Names do not alter here. 

H. Jamdeson, . J.P.| MQdura^ Lower Murray. 



Yelta. 

Marawra Language* — Spoken by the Yaahchyaako tribe, inhabiting the 
Murray from about ten miles above the Darling Junction to a little below the 
Bufiis (the feeder of Lake Victoria), about fifty miles, and by all the tribes on 
the Darling, to about 350 miles above its junction with the Murray. About 



LANGUAGE. 



75 



half-way between Mount Morchison and Fort Bonrke a change in dialect is 
discernible, and at Fort Bonrke the Kamilaroi language commences, which .is 
understood by the tribes on nearly all the tributaries of the Darling. 



BngUih. 



Man - 


. 


- 


Mcta-Ue, 


Woman 


- 


m 


Nongo. 


Pather 


• 


- 


Kambia, 


Mother 


- 


- 


Naamagk, 


Son - 


- 


- 


W^fmbra. 


Daughter 


- 


- 


Weymbra, 


Brother 


m 


- 


Kokquia. 


Sister - 


- 


- 


Wertooia. 


Head - 


- 


- 


Tkerto,Aokoro. 


Hair - 


- 


- 


Boarlkee, 


Bye - 


- 


- 


Mayku, 


Ear - 


- 


- 


Uret^ mwnga. 


Month- 


- 


- 


YeUta. 


ToDgne 


- 


- 


Therlinya, 


Teeth - 


- 


- 


Nandee* 


Hand - 


- 


- 


Mambafuia, mera 


Finger- 


- 


- 


M€TrCL, 


Foot . 


- 


- 


Thinna, 


Toe - 


- 


- 


Nerlka thinna. 


Belly - 


- 


- 


KoonUoo, 


Blood - 


- 


- 


Kctndara, 


Bone - 


- 


- 


Pino, 


Snn - 


- 


- 


Yhuk-ko. 


Moon - 


- 


- 


Pytoa. 


Is the custom of giving th 


common. 


an 


do 


n the death oi 



Rnj H fhT 



▲nttnlUuL 



Star - 


- 


- 


Boorke. 


Sky . 


- 


- 


Kara wina. 


Night - 


- 


m 


Ton-kon^ko. 


Day - 


- 


m 


Minki, 


Fire - 


« 


- 


Nanrday-leet koon-ega. 


Air - 


- 


- 


Taparoo, 


Wind - 


- 


• 


Yerto. 


Earth - 


- 


. 


MMemai, 


Ground 


- 


• 


Pomponderoo, 


SoU - 


. 


• 


Memdi, 


River - 


. 


- 


BerUrroo, 


Sea - 


- 


- 


None, having no idea of it. 


Stone - 


> 


- 


Yemda. 


Tree - 


- 


- 


Yarra. 


Wood - 


• 


- 


Yarra, 


Btirk - 


* 


- 


Katy yarra. 


Bird - 


- 


- 


Wonga. 


%g - 


- 


•• 


Pirty. 


Snake - 


- 


- 


Tooroo 


Eagle - 


- 


- 


Bifyarra, 


Crow - 


- 


- 


Waidkoo, 


Mopoke 


- 


- 


Wau-po(Mi, 


Kangaroo 


■• 


- 


Bool-oofye, 



another substituted to indicate such natural object? — ^I believe it is; and 
when the person dies, all words having a similar sound are disused and others 
substituted. When a person of any importance dies, the change is often very 
great. 

Such a custom, it is said, leads to great alterations in the language ; are 
there any other obvious causes in operation leading to changes in the names of 
things ? — ^I am not aware of any other cause than the above. Sometimes a 
word is revived after the body of the deceased is supposed to have become 
dust ; this causes, I think, the duplicate words. 

The name of a place is as frequently given as that of a bird or animal. 

As an instance of the great changes which take place in the language in 
the course of comparatively few years, I may mention that a few months ago 
an elderly woman and two lads were met with on the upper part of the ana 
branch, who had come in from the ^^ scrub,*' and had never before seen a white 
man. The language they speak is evidently a dialect pf the Majrowra^ but it is 
so different that the other blacks can understand very little of what they say. 
I have not had an opportunity of seeing them myself, so I only speak from 
hearsay evidence. 

The supposition is (and the older blacks have an indistinct recollection of 
the circumstance) that the man, having stolen his wife, escaped with her into 



76 



THE ABORIGINES OF YICTOBIA: 



the Bcrub between the ana branch and the South Australian boundary, where 

they hare remained ever since : when the water has dried up, getting it from 

the roots of Mallee, or native wells, one of which has been recently discovered. 

Having no intercourse with any other blacks during a period of fifteen to 

twenty years, they would be unacquainted with the changes which have taken 

place in the language during that time ; and speaking that which was current 

when they went away, and which is now, greater part of it, obsolete, they are 

not readily understood. The man is supposed to be dead, and the woman with 

her two sons have made their way to the creek. Such appear to be the facts 

of the case so &r as I have been able to ascertain. 

Thos. Hill (Goodwin. 
Church Mission Station, Yelta, 15th August 1863. 







WIMMEKA DISTRICT. 










Lake Hikdmabsh. 








Kurmrme-lak Tribe. 








EnglUi. 




EngllAh, 






4ostnlisn. 


Man - . . 


Wutyo. 




Moon - 


- 


* 


Mi^9H. 


Woman - <!• 


l^etTock, 




Star - 


4* 


- 


Turt 


Father 


Mahm, 




Sky . 


- 


- 


Wur-wur, 


Mother 


Bc^. 




Night - 


«• 


• 


Burroin, 


Son* . 


Watifip. 




Day - 


- 


- 


Ayav-ve(al8Q used for sun). 


Daughter - 


Matuf-kep, 




Fire - 


« 


M 


Wan-yap. 


Brother (eldest) - 


Woaw. 




Air. - 


- 


- 


WurrdHrWurr^ 


Brother (youngest) 


Kut 




Wind - 


- 


- 


WeUa. 


Sister (eldest) - 


Tyat, 




Earth - 


• 


* 


Tyar. 


Sister (youngest) r 


Kurtuan, 




Ground 


- 


- 


Tyar. 


Head - - 


Burp, 




Soil - 


- 


- 


Tyar. 


Hair - 


Narraburp. 




BiTer - 


- 


- 


Bar. 


Eye . - - 


Mir. 




Sea . 


- 


r 


Nyam-mat. 


Ear ... 


WirmbuU, 




Stone - 


- 


- 


Kutryap, 


Mouth 


Tyarp. 




Tree - 


- 


- 


KaUk ) f also used for woo4 
Kaik) and hone). 


Tongue - r 


TycMe, 




Wood - 


- 


- 


Teeth - 


ftia. 




Stick • 


- 


- 


Lead. 


Hand - 


Manja, 




Bird - 


- 


- 


WU-ym-wiU. 


Finger - - 


YuUnp-yuUMp-mohja. 


Egg - 


m 


- 


Mirk. 


Foot - 


Kinna, 




Snake - 


- 


- 


Tyurang-kuk-naOMck. 


Toe - - - 


Bap'kinna, 




Eagle - 


- 


- 


Wirp-piU. 


Belly - 


Belkf. 




Crow - 


r 


- 


Woa. 


Blood - - - 


Gttrk, 




Mopoke 


T 


- 


Kar-tuk. 


Bone - - - 


KM (also used 


tor wood). llangaroo 


B 


r 


Minryo. 


Sun - - - 


Njfau'we. 













*The father calls his son Waty^, bat the mother calls him Pd»-yu. 

It is the custom sometimes of giving names of any natural object to 
men and women, and on the death of persons so named, the word is disused 
and another word substituted to indicate such natural objects. 

F. W. Spiesbkb, Ebenezer. 



LANGUAGE. 



77 



Horsham. 



English. 

Man 

Woman ... 

Father ... 

Mother . . - 

Son ... 

Daughter 

Brother (elde? nu) - 

Brother (younger my) 

Sister (elder my) - 

Sister (yonnger my) 

Head (n^) - r 

Hair 

Eye - - - 

Ear ... 

Month ... 

Tongne - - r 

Teeth . . - 

Hand - 

Three large fingers - 

The little finger 

Foot 

Big toe - 

Belly - - 

Blood - 

Bone . . - 

Snn . . - 



▲nstnUan. 
Wooteha, 

Marmie, 

Barpee. 

Watehip. 

Warh-weck, 

Eoiteek, 

Jar-jeck. 

E<ntw^t^4f(tt. 

Bqftrpeck, 

Ngrah'hoorupm 

Mirrh, 

Wor-tmbuU, 

Jarp, 

Chalfy, 

Lear, 

Mun-ya. 

Watehyf-watehip, 

Kerting ti^un^q, 

Jin-na, 

Barpjin-fUL. 

BW^. 

Kor-ruck, 

Ka-M 



BngUs 


h. 




AustiaUaa. 


Moon - 


. 


. 


Mit-fihen, 


Star - 


- 


- 


Durht or TurhL 


Sky (clonds) 


- 


Mramg, 


Night (darkness] 


)- 


Bore-UH, 


Day - 


T 


- 


Nyow^fie. 


Fire - 


- 


- 


Wan-yup, 


Air - 




. 


Bthercook, 


Wind - 




. 


WiUah. 


Darth - 






Yqr. 


Qroi|nd 






Yar. 


SoU - 








River - 


r 




Bu'Or, 


Sea (the 


great 


» " 


Ngar-mutch, 


water) 








Ston^ - 






Ko-chup, 


Tyee - 






By its species. 


Wood - 






KaM. 


Stick - 






Waddy, woddy. 


Bird - 






Ymo-unrh. 


Egg r 






Myrhruek, 


Snake - 






^ufttrmlL 


Ijagle . 


- 




Werare^pU, 


Cirow - 


- 


- 


Wah, 


Mopoke 


- 


- 




Kangaroo 


. 


T 


KoTroy. The mt 



Moit; female, Min-joon, 

Chas. WiLSpN, Walmer, Horsham. 



Englisb. 



Dialect of the 
lake Hindmanh Tribe. 



Dialect of the 
^onham Tribe. 



Man ...... Woot-cha 

Woman Ly-urooh 

Father ...... Mahrmee 



Son .... 

Daughter ... 
Brother (an older one) - 
Brother (yonnger) 
Sister (^n ol^er one) - 
fSister (yonnger) r 

Head, calf of leg r 

Pead(my) . - r 
Hair . - - . 
Eye - - . - 
Ear . . . . 
Month - - . - 
Tongue - . - 
Teeth - - . - 
Hand . - - - 



WotrChip. 

Munff-airwee. 

WcUt-wee, 

KoT'tee, 

Jahrjee. 

Kortuihi'dee - 

Bore^yp. 

^orerpeck. 

Ng^rghrhoreMp 

Mirrh, 

WoT'imbulL 

Jarp, 

Chal4ee. 

Lee-ar. 

Munrya» 



KMee. 

PtH'-ffee, 

Bahrpte, 



KoTrtoged^ 



78 



THE ABORIGINES OF YIGTOBIA: 



EngUih. 

Fingers (the three larger ones) 
Finger (the little one) - 

Foot 

Toe (the big one) ... 

Belly 

Blood, magpie ... 
Bone, wood ... 

Snn (day) . . . - 
Moon ..... 

Star 

Sky, hearenfl, clondf - 
Thick black clouds 
Night (darkness) 
Day (snn) .... 

Fire 

Air 

Spirit 

Wind 

Earth 

Ground - - - - 
Soil 

Biyer 

Sea (the great water) - 
Stone . . 

Stick 

Bird 

Egg 

Snake . - - . - 
Eagle . • . . « 
Crow . . . . - 
Mopoke .... 
Kangaroo . . - - 
Male kangaroo . . - 
Female kangaroo - . - 



Dialect of the 
Lake Bindinenli TdtM. 



KerHng Mvii^ia. 
BarpjtH'na, 

Ba^, 

Koi^ruek or Kormek, 

KaaOk. 

Nyow-ee, 

Mit-cken . 

Durt or TwrL 

M^ramg, 

Tan^biU, 

Bore-wa, 

Wan- 



Dialeet of the 
Honham Tribe. 



.yiip 
Bodr-cook, 
Eer^arook, 
WiUak 
Jah, 
Jah. 



Bu'Or . 
Ng-^r-muieh. 
Ko-chup 
Wad-dy. 
YoW'Wirh, 
Mirrh'Uck - 
KunU'wUl - 
Werart'pU. 
Wah . 
Kah-took 
Kor-ay, 
Moit 
Mun^goon. 



YaiH. 



Wee. 



Wakd^akL 



BwrL 
Lark. 



Mirrh-€Ook, 
KvmrUL 

Wah. 
Wahrpook. 



I have endeavoured in the foregoing li^t of words to write them in syllables 
which would give the correct sound of the word. 

With regard to the question. Is it ^'the custom of giving the name of any 
natural object to a man or woman?" I would answer it is; but whether or not 
that name is changed to some other word on the death of the black I am not 
able at this moment to say positively. One thing is certain, that the blacks on 
no account mention the name of a deceased black (the native name), and I 
know of only one instance where the blacks have not taken offence at tiie'name 
given to a deceased black by the whites being still retained by another black 
of the tribe. This black, however, brought the name from another tribe, a short 
time after the death of her namesake and predecessor. 

Tah^het mah-rung is one of the names of Tallyho, of the Lake tribe. 
Mahoning is the name of the pine-tree. JaretU is the boy Henry's name. 
Jair is the name of the tea-t^ of the Mallee. I think it should be pronounced 
rather Jurh. ^ 



LANGITAGSI. 



79 



Wungawetti is a boy's name. Wung-'Curn is the imtive name of a place near 
Pine Plains. 

BrairT^umin is a boy's name^ and is the native word for ^^ he cuts through," 
or "he runs," or ''Tpierces through," as with a spear. 

Nepttr^nin is a girl's name ; a native verb, too, which signifies "to bury, to 
hide." 

From the foregoing remarks you will, perhaps, draw your own conclusions. 
I have only been about nineteen months among the blacks, and during that 
period have had to study their language under great disadvantages. However, 
I am inclined to the opinion that the Aboriginal tongue has ever been, from the 
causes you point out, and also with those which every language is subject to, 
combined, a changeable one. 

Having been requested by Mr. C. Wilson, J.P., to fill up the paper forwarded 
to him, I have had much pleasure in doing so as far as I have been able, and 
would be most happy to give any other information that is in my power. 

Job Fbakcis, Walmer. 



GLEN0BCH7. 



Djappumiwfou Tribe. 



SngUah. 



▲utnUaii. 



Man - 


• 


- 


ChulUt. 


Woman 


- 


- 


Bibagcu, 


Father- 


. 


- 


Maarm. 


Mother 


- 


- 


Bailee. 


Son - 


- 


- 


Watchippe, 


Daughter 


- 


- 


Maguppe, 


Brother 


. 


- 


TFoatPte. 


Brother (younger) 


OoutUe. 


Sister - 


i» 


- 


Ujaihee. 


Head - 




m 


Bourp, 


Hair - 




- 


Onarra, 


Eye - 




- 


Mirkk. 


Ear - 




- 


"WearhouH 


Month- 




- 


Wowrougk, 


Tongne 




- 


Tchallee. 


Teeth - 




- 


Leah. 


Hand •' 




- 


Jf«nyaA. 


linger • 




- 


TVwgtrapp, 


Foot • 




- 


JtMia. 


Toe • 




- 


Saupjitma, 


Belly - 




• 


ChlOUTOWVWt 


Blood - 




- 


Chork. 


Bone - 




m 


CuSU. 


Sun 




- 


Gkiianoe€. 


Moon - 




. 


Fen. 



SngUilu 






▲ttitnUaa. 


Star - 


• 




JDOttrC 


Sky - 


- 




Mamg, 


Night -• 


- 




Bouroin. 


Bay . 


- 




GlmanoteifUfi, 


Fire - 


- 




Wee. 


Air - 


- 




Gnargoutch. 


Wind . 


- 




Miya. 


Earth - 


- 




Pjak. 


Ground 


- 




JDjak. 


Mud - 


- 




Biehe. 


Sou 


m 




Bcunn. 


Hirer - 


- 




Birke. 


Sea - 


- 




Waughree. 


Stone - 


m 




Laugh. 


Tree - 


- 




OulpoMgarra. 


Wood - 


- 




CuUke$ same as bone. 


Stick - 


- 




WatHpeeculke. 


Bird - 


- 




Yarburrgurr, 


Egg - 


* 




Mirrke. 


Snake - 


- 




CcmrnemUU. 


Eagle - 


* 




OnarraiBe. 


Crow - 


- 




Waagh. 


Mopoke 


- 


- 


Kartauk. 


Kangaroo 


- 


• 


Coorah. 


Wtlijam 


Denkib, Oarr's Plaii 



80 



THE ABOUOINBB OP TICTOBIA: 



m TTpFKE BlCEAMDBOS. 



Man . . 


• 


Watekm, 


Womm 


- 


Biamg-hiamgo, 


Yaiber- - 


• 


Mamie. 


Mother 


• 


PapU. 


Boa - - 


- 


WaiehepU. 


DMg^ter ' 


- 


JtfiNi^cri» 


Broiber 


• 


Wawi€. 


Silver - - 


• 


OatU. 


Head - - 


• 


Boofp, 


Hilr - 


- 


NiahcoL 


Eje - 


- 


Meet. 


Stf - - 


• 


WrimbcoL 


Moath - 


- 


Woora. 


ToDfoe 


- 


JaOU. 


Teeth - 


- 


Leah. 


Hftiia - - 


• 


Mat^ak, 


j/lDger- 


- 


BapwiMfok, 


Eoot - 


• 


^#'eM€pM« 


Toe - 


• 


^4 _^_ • 


Bell7 • - 


- 


Ckarawm. 


Blood - - 


• 


Qcoak. 


Bone - 


• 


Oailae. 


Sqn - 


- 


Npawie. 


Moon • 


• 


Yeem. 

Thet 



8k7 



D*7 



- Wee, 



Air - 
Wind - 
Eerth - 
Qftmad 
8oU - 
Birer - 



Dyak, 
Dpak. 



- No 



Stone - 

Tree - 

Wood - 

Stick - 

Bird - 
Egg . 

Snake - 
Bufl^ . 
Crow - 
Mopoke 
KAngmroo 



name rf ike Tribe catmoi be aeeertamed. 



giren. 



GojUL 
GoOl 



- MiHL 



Wiaa. 

Warpoke. 

Goora, 



Is the ciutoin of giving the name of any natural object to a man or woman 
common, and on the death of the person so named is the word disused and 
another substituted to indicate such natural object ? — It is not the custom often 
to do so, and when done so after death it is never used. 

B. MoLaghlan, Upper Richardson. 



AVOOA. 

[From the two Aborigines on the late trial of Queen v. Symes — ^viz., Samson, 
alias Koo-keT'tnonrdurj and Martin, alias Bor-ker-mm.'] 



XnfUflli. 



Man - - 




JToo^ie. 


Woman 




7<MM-a. 


Vkther- 




Mar-mook, 


Mother 




Bar^oop, 


Son - 




Boo-poop, 


Daughter - 




Wy^ur^poop, 


Brother 




Woor-wook. 


Siater - 




Koor4ook, 


Head - - 




Boofhook. 


Hair - 




Har-booT'kook, 


Bye . . 




Myn^eok, 



Ear - 

Month - 
ToDgne 
Teeth - 
Hand - 
Finger - 
Foot - 
Toe - 
Bellj - 
Blood - 
Bone - 



WffmbooUook. 

Woor-uk, 

Tar-iee. 

Lee-<we, 

kium-nar, 

WoM-m-miot-iiiir. 

Tee-nar. 

Tfbii-titiwtee-jiar. 

JTicji-fiar. 

Koor-kook, 

KarlkooL 













LANGUAGE. 






81 


»iiffM«^T 






Anstmltaii. 






Kngllab. 






AoftnUaiL 


Son - 


- 


- 


Nar-wee. 






Sea - 


. 


. 


Woor-ree, 


Moon - 


- 


- 


Yean, 






Stone - 


. 


. 


£ar. 


Star - 


- 


- 


Tourt 






Tree - 


. 


• 


Kvlk. 


Sky - 


- 


« 


Woor-woor, 






Wood - 


. 


. 


Moo4uk, 


Night - 


- 


- 


Boo-run, 






Stick - 


. 


. 


KuVk. 


Day . 


- 


- 


Kar-puJU 






Bird - 


- 


. 


Ycd-woT, 


F!ie - 


- 


M 


Wee, 






Egg - 




- 


Broom^oan, 


Air - 


- 


- 


Nam-gooU 






Snake - 


- 


. 


KuLmil, 


Wind - 


•■ 


- 


Jiier^ruiff, 






Eagle - 


w 


- 


Wear-pU, 


Earth - 


- 


- 


Kap-pen, 






Crow - 


- 


. 


War. 


Ground 


m 


- 


Tu^nyt 






Mopoke 


- 


. 


Weel-mul, 


Soil . 


- 


- 


Kun-nar, 






Kangaroo 


. 


•• 


Kor-ror, 


BiTor - 


- 


- 


WooUar. 
























Wm, Thomar 


y Guardian of AborigineB. 












UPPEB LODDON. 










Datlksport). 




# 


* 






Mcnulgtmdeech Tribe. 








EngUfllL 






Aurtnllsn. 




Bnglfffll, 






Anstraliaii* 


Man - 


• 


. 


Koohe. 






Moon - 


. 


. 


Yem, 


Woman 


- 


- 


Tauroi, 






Star - 


- 


. 


l\>ort. 


Pbther- 


- 


- 


Marm, 






Sky - 


- 


- 


Wrur^wrur. 


Mother 


- 


- 


Barp, 






Night - 


- 


- 




Son - 


- 


- 


Wareep ; occadonaUy by the 


Day - 


- 


- 


Orwween; daybreak, bearp. 








mother ^namap. 




Fire - 


- 


- 


Wee, 


Daughter 


- 


- 


Mangjup. 






Air . 


- 


- 


No name; breath, nmgowh. 


Brother 


- 


- 


Waroe, older brother; kut^ 


Whid - 


• 


- 


mervn. 








younger brother. 




Earth - 


- 


- 


Jaa, 


Sister - 


- 


- 


Jarchf older sister 


; hUookf 


Ground 


- 


- 


Jaa, 








younger sister. 




Soil - 


- 


. 


Jaa, 


Head - 


- 


- 


Boorp, 






Biver - 


- 


- 


Bur ; large rlTer, gneurae' 


Hair - 


- 


- 


Gnerra, 












bur; small rirer, wonume' 


Eye - 


- 


- 


Ma, 












bur. 


Ear • 


- 


- 


Weimbul 






Bea « 


. 


- 


Waree; wonumewaree,9mali 


Month - 


- 


- 


Wooroo, 












sea. 


Tongue 


- 


- 


Chalie, 






Stone * 


- 


. 


La. 


Teeth - 


- 


- 


Leear, 






Tree - 


- 


:1 


Kulk (every yariety of tree 


Hand - 


- 


- 


Mima, 






Wood - 


- 


has its distinctiye name). 


Finger- 


- 


- 


No name; 


barpmimaf \ 


Stick - 


- 


- 


Bradra. 








thumb. 






Bifd - 


- 


- 


Yarbooka, 


Foot - 


- 


- 


Jinna, 






Egg - 


. 


- 


Boom^boom, 


Toe - 


- 


• 


No name ; barpjitma, great 


Snake - 


- 


- 


KunmU, 








toe. 






Eagle - 


- 


- 


Waa-pU, 


BeUy - 


- 


- 


JBMma, 






Crow - 


- 


- 


War, white^yed crow; ino- 


Blood - 


- 


- 


Oaurk^ 












rung-un, black-eyed crow. 


Bone - 


- 


- 


Kolk. 






Mopoke 


- 


- 


Kurook, 


Son - 


- 


- 


Gnowee, 






Kangaroo 


- 


- 


Goura. 



Is the custom of giving the name of any natural object to a man or woman 
common, and on the death of the person so named is the word disused and 

VOL. II. L 



82 



THE ABOEIGENBB OF TICTOKIA: 



another gabrtitiited to indicate audi natoni olgect ? — ^It ia the coatom to giye 

the namea of natuial objecta to both malea and ffemaleH, and i:^on the death 

of a person so named for his or her relations to abstain firom the nse of 

such name for a few months or a year, the length of time depending npon 

the respect felt for the person ; bat it is not costomaiy for the tribe to oease 

to use snch name. 

Such a custom, it is said, leads to great alterations in the language ; are 

there any other olmoas causes in operation leading to changes in the names of 

things ? — ^No. 

W. £. SiAHBUDGn, Wombat 









LOWER LODDON. 








Boost. 










L^werLoddoH Driie. 






Englkli. 






1. 


Bi^Uh. 




kmtnaaL 


Man 


- 


Wooiko. 




Moon" - 


m 


Waimgwm. 


Woman - 


- 


ZarooL 




Star - 


- 


Hoort 


Father - 


- 


Marmoke. 




Sky - 


- 


TalgitAa. 


Motiier - 


- 


Barbook. 




Night - 


• 


XltOtOOtim 


Son 


- 


Wadkebf pamgo. . 




Daj . 


- 


Parrqt, 


Dan^ter 


- 


Popomem. 




Fire 


- 


Wwmap. 


Brother - 


- 


Tranpoal, elder s yoojmanjfook. 


Air 


- 


Merruu 






jonnger. 




Wind - 


- 


Merrim^ 


Sister - 


- 


Tardaie, 




Berth - 


- 


dor. 


Head - 


- 


Boowrhook^* jfowjfoiireel. 


Groimd - 


- 


Ckar, 


Hair 


- 


NarroMjpike, 




Soil 


« 


Ckar. 


IBje 


- 


Mim-nook, 




BirerOOioddim'*) Gm^oipcroe. 


Ear 


- 


Weembmlloke. 




Sea 


- 


Inland blacks neTer saw it, aal 


Mouth - 


- 


Charbook, 








so have no name. 


Lip 


- 


Ourocm^fuhe. 




Stone - 


- 


Lar. 


Tongue - 


- 


CharUmfook, 




Tree 


- 


CttHk. 


Teeth • 


- 


LeeoM^ook. 




Wood - 


- 


Carlk. 


Hand - 


- 


Mananiyuke, 




Stick - 


- 


Waddg. 


Finger - 


- 


W^aAa^woAot wuuutnwMkB* 


Blid - 


- 


Waikeborykmirr. 


Foot 


- 


ChtMomjfook. 




Egg - 


- 


Men*. 


Toe 


- 


Parp ekmarnyook. 




Snake - 


- 


CbtmwilL 


Belly - 


- 






Eegle - 


- 


War^UL 


Blood - 


- 


Coorkffook, 




Crow - 


- 


Warr. 


Bone 


- 


Carlgook. 




Mopoke - 


- 


Cardook, 


Son 


- 


Gnarwee, 






- 


Coord CCkmra), 



Is the custom of giving the name of any natoral object to a man or womaQ 
common, and on the death of the person so named is the word disused and 
another substituted to indicate such natural object? — Yes; see aboye;* 
^^Bourbook^^ is name of a dead blackfellow ; now it is ^' Tauyaurooky 

Such a custom, it is said, leads to great alterations in the language ; are 

there any other obvious causes in operation leading to changes in the names of 

things ? — ^I know of no other. 

Henby Godfrey, Boort, Lower Loddon. 





LAN6TJAGIL 


»9 




WESTERN DISTRICT. 






Balmoral. 






Glenelg 


Tribe. 




EagUtli. 




EngliBlu 


Anitndiua 


Man - 


- OtxAf or heng, meaning either 


Moon 


. Yem. 




one man or a number. 


Star 


- Dort 


Woman - 


- Bang-bang^, 


Sky *. 


« Jhmba. 


Father - 


- Marmuke; my father, marmek; 


Night - 


- BoroiHu (dark) ; (the ot as in 




your, marmen; his, marmukt 




"point"). 




(the was in << Luke")- 


Day 


- Ngawi (sun) ; (the nga must be 


Mother - 


- Papuke (the a pronounced like 




pronounced as one syllable). 




a in •'after"). 


Fire 


- Wee (and which also means 


Son 


- Waehepuke, 




firewood). 


Daughter 


- Mung-a-ok (a like a in '•mate"). 


Air 


- Gnang-goUch, 


Brother - 


- TTawuAe (elder ),cotoil (younger). 


Wind - 


- Mering. 


Sister - 


- Dgatyuke, 


Earth - 


- Tcha. 


Head - 


- Boorpuke, 


Ground - 


- Tcha. 


Hair - 


- C7nerra&oof7<alikeain'^aftGr^X 


Sou 


- (sand) Coorak; (clay) MtKtur; 


Eye 


- Meumok, 




(mud) Beak (one syllable). 


Ear 


- Wroom^ohh* 


Birer - 


- Gnul-ok-^, 


Month - 


• JVorro, 


Sea 


- Numaiteh (two syllables). 


Tongue - 


- CKalrinuke. 


Stone - 


* Za (the a as in <<after^. 


Teeth - 


- Leanuke, 


Tree 


■' Calk, 


Hand - 


- Manges 


Wood - 


- Caik. 


linger - 


- (thumb) Babmanyat (little 


Stick - 


- OoO'^T'Cmg* 




finger) GriHng, 


Bird - 


- Yovr-gour (the on as in "de- 


Foot 


- Oifma. 




Tour"). 


Toe 


- (big toe) Babgiima, 


Egg 


- Mirk. 


Belly - 


- Bilfy. 


Snake - 


- CoomweL 


Blood - 


- Gork, 


Eagle * 


- Wrappd. 


Bone 


. Calk. 


Crow 


- Tra(aasin«*after"). 


Snn 


" Ngawi (nga must be pronouneed 


Mopoke - 


• Cartok (a as in " after**). 




as one 8yllable>. 


Kangaroo 


- (kare (two syllables). 



Is the CQstom of giying the name of any natural object to a man or woman 
common, and on the death of the person so named is the word disused and 
another substituted to indicate such natural object ?^-The custom of giving the 
name of any natural object to a man or woman is not uncommon, the following 
being instances in point : — Colabatyin (a turkey), also a man's name ; Built- 
kinna (a sheep), also a man's name ; Banyea (testes), also a man's name. The 
writer is not sufficiently familiar with the names of women to be able to give 
examples, but believes the same custom extends to them. Upon the death of 
a person named, according to the custom mentioned, the word or name of the 
natural object is not disused, neither is another substituted. When speaking 
of a deceased person, his or her name is never mentioned. 

I am not aware of any causes in operation leading to changes in the names 
of things. None of the words or names of things familiar to me have been 
disused or altered during the last twelve or thirteen years. 



0. M. Officer, Mount Talbot, Balmoral 



84 



THE ABOBIGINES OP YICTOBIA: 



Sakdfobd. 
Wam/um Tribe, MeerinypL 



EnglUh. 

Man - 
Woman 
Father - 
Mother 
Son - 
Daughter 
Brother 
Sister - 
Head - 
Hair • 
Eye - 
Ear - 
Mouth - 
Tongue 
Teeth - 
Hand • 
little finger 
Foot - 
Toe - 
Belly - 
Blood . 
Bone - 
Sun - 
Moon - 



▲mtnllaiL 

Kootnongmorang. 

NooroKygcM, 

Papie. 

Nooning, 

Cooprank, • 

Nuart. 

Wardu 

Kurkie, 

OooIOH, 

NuttoHg. 

Moontng, 

Hooaung, 

MvUomg, 

Tallin. 

Tungung. 

3furrong. 

Gridding. 

Dinnung, 

Oridding dinnung. 

BulUne, 

Carmarrow, 

Burgin€, 

I^arung. 

Dangiu, 



Star - 
Sky - 
Night - 
Day - 
Fire - 
Air . 
Wind - 
Earth - 
Ground 
Sou - 
Biyer - 
Sea - 
Stone - 
Tree - 
Wood - 
Stick - 
Bird - 
Egg - 
Snake - 
Eagle - 
Crow - 
Mopoke 
Kangaroo 



BariU harriie. 
MumbuJL 

BOOTOH, 

Woomm durrcmg. 
Ween and goonda. 
Nood maring (good day). 
Nare^wck, 
Maring* 



Boogarra, 
NarwttitU 
Moorie. 
Parliep, 

Lurt 

MudrnMrdntL 

CooUag. 

Coorong, 

Neegangeura, 

Wamg, 

IhorreedooniL 

Koorang, 



J. H. JacksoH; Sandford. 



Xnfflidi. 

Man". 
Woman 
Father - 
Mother 
Son - 
Daughter 
Brother 
Sister - 
Head - 
Hair - 
Eye - 
Ear - 
Mouth - 
Tongue 
Teeth - 
Hand - 
Finger - 
Foot - 
Toe - 



HAMUiTON. 

Upper Wamum Tribe, 



AutnUan. 



Cohe, 

Bangbango, 

Mammy, 

Pappg. 

Whacheappa, 

Mongatowee, 

Whawe. 

Chache. 

Boorup, 

Nahra, 

Mareh, 

BrimboL 

Cone. 

Charle. 

Lagha. 

Mongak, 

Kyup. 

Ckena. 

Patgena, 



|K»if«A , 



Belly - 


- 


- 


Belfy. 


Blood - 


- 


- 


Roark. 


Bone • 


- 


-- 


Oalk. 


Sun - 


- 


- 


Nowe. 


Moon - 


- 


- 


Yaen. 


Star - 


- 


- 


Toort. 


Sky . 


» 


- 


Mauren, 


Night - 


- 


• 


Borrine, 


Day - 


- 


- 


Belpa, 


Fire - 


• 


- 


We. 


Air - 


- 


- 


Wayoungwayonga 


Wind - 


- 


- 


Mga, 


Earth - 


•• 


- 


Minagotga. 


Ground 


- 


- 


Jah. 


Sou - 


- 


- 


Neapem. 


Biver - 


• 


- 


Ycurreun, 


Sea - 


- 


- 


Ammiteh, 


Stone - 


. 


. 


Lah. 


Tree - 


. 


. 


GaUt. 





LANGUAGE. 








EngUah. 




We (some as flre). 

Ko3f€urrock, 

Weet-weeU 

Mirk. 

Ckxmwtd, 




Eagle - 
Crow - 
Mopoke 
Kangaroo - 


- Rappil. 

- Woo. 

- Cartook. 

- Croorap 



85 

Wood - 
Stick - 
Bird - 
Egg - 
Snake - 

Is the custom of giving the name of any natural object to a man or woman 

conmion, and on the death of the person so named is the word disused and 

another substituted to indicate such natural object? — This custom does not 

prevail ; the father is said to dream a name for his child. The name of the 

dead is never mentioned, and one holding the same name in the tribe has it 

changed. 

P. Leabmonth, Eb^milton. 



EngUah. 

Man - 
Woman 
Father - 
Mother 
Son - 
Daughter 
Brother 
Sister - 
Head - 
Hair - 
Eye - 
Ear - 
Mouth - 
Tongue 
Teeth - 
Hand - 
Finger- 
Foot - 
Toe - 
BeUy - 
Blood - 
Bone - 
Sun - 
Moon - 



POBTLAND. 

TauraAananff Tribe. 

(61 now living — 1863.) 



AnitmUaa. 



Mhara, 

Tunvmbu, 

Pepint. 

Nerung. 

Copenyong, 

Nrarton. 

Wadi. 

Charki. 

Pim. 

Narat. 

Ming. 

Wing. 

Olung. 

Talian. 

Tungun, 

Murrung. 

Kiapork, 

Youk. 

Merriniouk, 

Torkitng. 

Ghereek. 

Buckin, 

Nuriung. 

Turra. 



EngUflb. 

Star - 
Sky - 
Night - 
Day - 
Fire - 
Air - 
Wind - 
Earth - 
Ground 
Soil - 
Biver - 
Sea - 
Stone - 
Tree - 
Wood - 
Stick - 
Bird - 
Egg . 
Snake - 
Eagle - 
Crow - 
Mopoke 
Kangaroo 



▲nstmUaiu 



MinkU. 

Mvmong, 

Boron, 

Nuntmg. 

Wein. 

LaUapcom. 

Umdoek, 

Mering. 

PuBang. 

Wurran. 

Naumnt, 

MurraL 

Waurut. 

W^. 

Leigt. 

Purpurin. 

Minyong* 

Corang. 

N^vnghun 

Warl 

Mumkight, 

Oorang, 



Is the custom of giving the name of any natural object to a man or woman 
common, and on the death of the person so named is the word disused and 
another substituted to indicate such natural object? — They name the child after 
the spot it is bom at, and do not change the name of the place after the death 
of the so-called black. 



86 



THE AB0BI6INBB OF TICTOBIA: 



Such a ciistaiii, it is said, leads to great alterations in the language ; are 
there any other obranis causes in operation leading to changes in the names of 
;? — ^I cannot discoyer that changes are made in the names of things. 

J. N. McLeod. 
Mr. McLeod gives the names of some of the wei^ns nsed by the natives : — 



Moput 
Pqnmg 
Mulearra 



fike tbe leoiHle. 

a dub. 

a kind of dab. 

fhitMfh^Mi 



Cbjfomg 

Taira 

Narraeoori 



• m kmd of dob. 



- little spear. 

- qiear-shidd. 



Wabbhaiibool. 



Van ^ 


- 


» 


Maar. 


Woman 


- 


- 


TommbooL 


Faiber- 


- 


* 


Tebadk. 


Motber 


- 


- 


Nerra. 


Son - 


- 


- 


Tookayn. 


Danghter 


m 


- 


Knaard, 


Brotber 


m 


- 


Cogo. 


Sister - 


- 


• 


CMa. 


Head - 


- 


- 


Pim. 


Hair - 


^ 


m 


Aram 


^e - 


- 


- 


Meir, 


Ear - 


» 


• 


Wwm. 


Moaib- 


- 


- 


^"^fc W^^^^^^^^wW^m ^ 


Tongoe 


- 


m 


TuUne, 


Teetb - 


- 


- 


TonfflOim 


Hand - 


• 


• 


Merrdm 


Finger- 


- 


- 


Merra. 


Foot - 


m 


- 


Juinung^ 


Toe - 


- 


* 


Jimumg, 


Belly - 


- 


- 


Jucoo, 


Blood - 


- 


- 


KemL 


Bone - 


• 


- 


Puckine, 


Son - 


- 


- 


Uuna. 


Moon - 


• 


• 


Yer^yer, 



Star - 


• 


- 


Put^elL 


Sky - 


• 


- 


mitrwonigm 


Nigbt - 


- 


- 


Bonme, 


Day . 


- 


«k 


Teem, 


Fixe - 


- 


9 


Weau 


Air - 


* 


- 


Umdmo. 


Wind - 


- 


- 


Umdue. 


Eartb - 


- 


- 


Merring. 


Oroond 


- 


- 


Merrmg, 


Soil - 


• 


- 




Hirer - 


- 


- 


PwretL 


Sea - 


- 


- 


Mm-tUck 


Stone - 


* 


- 


Merru 


Tree • 


- 


- 


WoorooL 


Wood . 


- 


• 


Ween. 


Stick - 


m 


• 


rr tfCIl* 


Bird - 


- 


- 


Pwrtpurdee. 


Egg - 


- 


- 


Memune, 


Snake - 


- 


m 


Cborang. 


Eagle - 


- 


« 


Sanger, 


Crow - 


- 


- 


Wah. 


Mopoke 


- 


- 


Coorameet, 


Kangaroo 


- 


9 


KoroiU 



Is the custom of giving the name of any natural object to a man or woman 
common, and on the death of the person so named is the word disused and 
another substituted to indicate such natural object?— >-It is common, but not 
disused* 

Such a custom, it is said, leads to great alterations in the language ; are 

there any other obvious causes in operation leading to changes in the names of 

things? — ^None. 

A. M, MusGBOVE, Warmambool. 



LANGUAGB. 



87 









WiCKLIFFE. 














Biver Hapkina Tribe. 








XngiMi* 






^UttiKMittDa 


TCijUah. 






AoftnUu. 


Man - 


• 


. 


Cooler 


Star • 


. 




TatUunne. 


Woman 


- 


- 


Lubreu 


Sky . 


• 




Too^funue. 


Father 


- 


- 


Manmae, 


Night - 


- 




Pooroin. 


Mother 


- 


- 


Parp<u, 


Day - 


- 




Perpoamin, 


Bon - 


- 


- 


Popoey* 


Fire - 


• 




Ween or ufee. 


Daughter 


- 




Mtuigounc 


Air - 


- 




WaryotgaingeracJL 


Brother 


- 




TFbwfC 


Wind - 


- 




Miya, 


SUter - 


* 




TiUyae. 


Barth - 


- 




Ya. 


Head - 


- 




Caubra or poarpeck. 


Ground 


- 




Ya. 


Hair • 


« 




MaraK 


Sou - 


. 




Ya, 


E^ - 


- 




MaeiMjforack, 


. Biyer - 


- 




Par. 


Ear - 


- 




SimbocL 


Sea - 


- 




The blacks here haye no 


Month 


- 




Learangeraek. 








name for ^sea." 


Tongne 


- 




Taleangeraek, 


Stone 


- 




Lah, 


Teeth (month) 




Learangeraek, 


Tree - 






PeeaL 


Hand - 


- 




Munyangarack, 


Wood - 






Poort. 


Finger 


- 




Mungangarack, 


Stick . 






Calk, 


Foot - 


- 




Kinnegangeraek, 


Bird - 






Pur-pwr 


Toe - 


• 




Pcptmegangeraek. 


Bgg - 






Mairt 


Belly - 


- 




BtUeggamgerack, 


Snake - 






KwrnwiO. 


Blood - 


- 




CookyamgeraeJu 


Eagle - 






YannuL 


Bone - 


- 




CaUegangeraek 


Crow - 






War, 


Rnn - 


- 




Nawie, 


Mopoke 






Yib^yib. 


Moon - 


- 




Yen. 


Kangaroo 


•p 




Curah. 


Is the cnstom of giving the name o 


f any natural object to a man or woman 


common, 


and 


[ on the death of the per 


son so named 


is 1 


the word disnsed and 



another substituted to indicate such natural object ? — ^Not that I can discover; 
but the blacks have great aversion to naming a deceased member of their 
tribe. 

Such a custom^ it is said, leads to great alterations in the language ; are 
there any other obvious causes in operation leading to changes in the names of 
things? — ^When I have had an opportunity of conversing with some of the 
more intelligent of the blacks^ I shall endeavour to answer this. 

Chas. Gray, Nareeb Nareeb. 











Oahngham. 












AfamU Emu Tribe. 




EngUdi. 






Anftnliao. 


Englith. 


AoftnliAi 


Man - 


• 




KoimaiL 




Sister (elder) 


Taiorang, 


Woman 


- 




Komcii^Htpanet 




Sister (yonnger) - 


Bambrak, 


Fiither 


- 




Pittong, 




Head ... 


Moork, 


Mother 


« 




Yuttong. 


\ 


Hair - • - 


Nuir-moork. 


Son - 


. 




Mam, 




Bye ... 


M^ere, 


Daughter 


- 




Yarrangook, 




Ear . . - 


Yrom, 


Brother (elder) 




Yandang, 




Month 


Wora. 


Brother (yonnger) 


YangaL 




Tongne 


Glannen, 



88 



THE ABOEIGINES OF YIGTORIA: 



XngtidL 

TeeS"- 
Hand - 
Finger 
Foot - 
Toe - 
BcUy - 
Blood - 
Bone - 
Son - 
Moon - 
Star - 
Sky . 
Night - 
Day - 
Fire - 
Air - 
Wind - 
Earth - 
Ground 



AmtnUin. 

Lea, 

Mama. 

Wowmaima, 

Jenir. 

NaHnjenir, 

Tong. 

Corriek. 

Nat, 

Maira, 

Yaan. 

Tarporrum, 

Lacorra, worrawark, 

MarkaUa, 

MorrayaiL 

Weeing, 

Manabyufjaif, 

Mia, 

Yaniockfaa, 

Cha. 



XDflUh. 



▲nitaUan. 



Sou - 


- 




Biyer - 


- 


Bonmbwak, 


Sea - 


- 


Yorran, 


Stone - 


- 


Law, 


Tree - 


- 


Car. 


Wood - 


- 


Wing. 


Stick (a long one) 


Talk. 


Stick (a short one) 


MartaXk. 


Bird - 


- 


Yonbarrak, 


Egg - 


- 


Ja. 


Snake - 


- 


OmmoiL 


Eagle - 


- 


Mairompiai. 


Crow - 


- 


Waa. 


Mopoke 


V «■ 


WaanwanaL 


Kangaroo 


- 


Kama. 


Mountain 


(large). 


Cawa. 




Pnrapura, 


Water 


• 


YaUacL 



Is the cnstom of giving the name of any natural object to a man or woman 
common, and on the death of the person so named is the word disnsed and 
another substituted to indicate snch natural object? — On a death taking place, 
any relations of the same name always change their names, as they never wish 
to hear the name of the deceased mentioned. 

Aimw. PoBTEOX7B| Camgham. 







Campebdown. 










Colongulae Tribe* 






ItnifUffc- 






ffnynir>i, 




AnitellaiL 


Man - 


m 


' Ummodthe, 


Little finger - 


- 


SiUieinoraangtin» 


Woman 


- 


- Unnodthe. 


Thumb 


m 


Neranoraangtin, 


Father- 




- Pepie. 


Foot - 


- 


Dinangtin. 


Mother 


- 


- Nertmg. 


Big toe 


- 


Qtaangadtnangtm 


Son - 


- 


- Q^oburr. 


Belly - - 


m 


TTlorangtin. 


Daughter 


- 


- Ghnam, 


Blood - - 


m 


Quroeantnin. 


Brother 


- 


- Wardie. 


Bone - 


- 


Pughine, 


Young brother 


- Cuoghwm or kokrer. 


Sun - 


- 


Fhtme. 


SiBter . 


- 


- Kakie, 


Moon - 


m 


BoTongnatm, 


Grandfather 




Star - 


m 


Whytknrb. 


Unde - 


- 


- Mamim, 


Sky . - 


- 


Mttmong, 


Aunt - 


- 


- TwolHer. 


Night - - 


- 


Booroon, 


Head .- 


- 


- Piematnin. 


Day - 


- 


HvhgetiM. 


Hair - 


• 


• Harat. 


Fire - - 


- 


Whean. 


"Eye ' 


- 


- Merang. 


Air - - 


- 


Undapun^ 


Ear 


- 


- Weiringnainm, 


Wind - - 


«B 


Umdook. 


Month . 


- 


- Wooroonangtin. 


Earth - 


- 


Merrin, 


Tongue 


- 


- Talgarnangtin, 


Ground 


- 


Merrin. 


Teeth - 


- 


- 2bfi^afiaii<m. 


Sofl - 


m 


Merrin. 


Hand • 


■- 


- Moraangtin, 


Biyer - 


- 


Burong. 







LANGUAGE. 




EDgliBh. 




AnstnUan. 


EngllBh 


AastnUan. 


Sea - - 


-^^ 


Ummut 


Minah - 


- Poech. 


Stone - 


- 


JuCfTX, 


Black magpie 


- Kilihen. 


Tree - 


- 


If oorof, big tree; loang^ 


Opoflsum 


- Pieeck, 






little tree. 


Native cat - 


- Coufbonge, 


Wood - 


. 


Boarb. 


Bandicoot - 


- Keerooie, 


Stick - 


- 


Queroo ; chips, pt/>e/>t» 


Kangaroo-rat 


- Berrook, 


Bird - 


• 


Boetken, 


Dead man - 


' QuaJbenron, 


Egg . - 


- 


MtTTtk, 


Mouse - 


- Bunmuth or bummuA, 


Snake - 


- 


Koorang. 


Dnck - 


- Dochoah, 


Eaglehawk - 


- 


KerooUt 


Horse - 


- Cvpmaturah, 


Crow - 


- 


Waang, 


Eel - 


- Quean, 


Mopoke 


- 


Youitpin^ 


Pine day 


- CSdhine. 


Kangaroo - 


- 


Quoorie, 


Wet day - 


' Murhang. 


Magpie 


• 


Qudree. 






• 






R n 


» SooiTT, Camperdo^ 



89 



COLAO. 



lenyHah- 


AnstnlUuL 


Man - - 


- MondeL 


Woman 


' Noodnuwett, lubra. 


Father 


- Madhma. 


Mother 


- Padhpa, 


Son - - 


- KrcumpwteU 


Daughter - 


- Woomcut 


Brother 


' Kraamptoeet. 


Sister - 


- Permborret 


Head - - 


- Moranyentte, 


Hair - - 


- Kaen'morackenMe. 


Bye - 


- Mrinyeduc. 


Bar 


- Weinyedue, 


Month - 


- Woronyedue, 


Tongne 


- Talanyeduc. 


Teeth - 


- Meerinyeduc, 


Hand - 


- Macnyinuc. 


Finger - 


- Lerinyinue. 


Foot - 


- Kenaeyenue, 


Toe - 


- Kenaeyenve. 


BeUy - - 


- Woranyenvc. 


Blood - 


- Korockyenuc. 


Bone •• 


- Yeerbingyenuc, 


Snn - 


- Nadh. 


Moon - 


- Padrtput. 


Star (small)- 


- Karrankaran, 



EBgUdL 






AoBtnlUui. 


Star (large] 


)' 


- 


Orlembeleet 


Sky - 


- 


- 


Poolootnoamarang. 


Night - 


- 


- 


Pooroonna. 


Day - 


- 


- 


WooremoUeen. 


Firo - 


- 


- 


Weeing. 


Air - 


- 


. 


Pturhoolook, 


Wind - 


- 


- 


Pearing, 


Earth - 


- 


«• 


Moora, 


Ground 


m 


- 


Tha. 


Sou . 


- 


- 


Moora. 


River - 


- 


- 


Praah, 


Sea - 


- 


- 


Lamat, 


Stone - 


- 


- 


Drae. 


Tree - 


m 


- 


Coorhng; lightwood tree, 
loan. 


Wood - 


- 


• 


KcUeracL 


Stick - 


- 


- 


Kooroorook, 


Bird - 


- 


- 


Thitthit. 


Egg - 


- 


- 


Pottchon, 


Snake - 


- 


- 


Kaanlang, 


Eagle - 


- 


- 


Orlimerick. 


Crow - 


- 


<m 


Kaiwaicrook, 


Mopoke 


- 


- 


Kaelwarra. 


Kangaroo 


" 


" 


Korak, 


ENNIS, At. 


KXR 


. ] 


Dennis, Birrefimrra. 



VOL, II. 



M 



90 



THE ABORIGINES OP YIGTOBIA: 



THE YABBA AND WESTERN PORT. 



English. 

Man - 
Woman 
Father 
Mother 
Son - 
Daughter 
Brother 
Sister - 
Head - 
Hair - 
Eye - 
Ear - 
Month 
Tongue 
Teeth - 
Hand - 
Finger - 
Foot - 
Toe - 
Belly - 
Blood - 
Bone - 
Sun - 
Moon - 



Autnlian. 

- Koolein, 

' BaggarknUU 

' Mamaneek. 

- Bdbaneek. 

- Booboopeek. 

- Manggebeek. 

- Womdoolong, 

- Leewooruk, 

- Kawanug. 

- Yarrie. 

* jU€TTtttg, 

- Werring, 

- Wooroong. 
• JtUang, 

- Leeung. 

- Marnung, 

- WoonuHOimmillrt 

- Jtctuwag, 

- Babeen jeenoong, 

- Booet. 

" Kurruk. 

- Neekmg, 

- Nawin, 

- Meneam. 



Tabba Yarba. 
Wooeewaarong or Tarra Tribe. 

Wngftth. 



AattnUAO. 



Star - 


- 


- 


Dwrtpirram. 


Sky - 


- 


- 


Woorcwoor, 


Night - 


- 


- 


Booren. 


Day - 


- 


- 


Valingboo, 


Fire - 


. 


- 


Witin, 


Air - 


■• 


^ 


Erelark. 


Wind - 


. 


- 


MoommooU 


Earth - 


- 


. 


Yearmoobeek, 


Ground 


■i 


- 


Beek, 


Soil - 


- 


- 


Nvicvndra beek. 


Rirer - 


- 


- 


Brrerimg {Burnrring^ B. 
Yarra). 


Sea - 


- 


- 


Warmg, 


Stone - 


- 


- 


Lang. 


Tree - 


- 


- 


Treang. 


Wood - 


. 


- 


Kalk. 


Stick - 


- 


^ 


Y-bookalk. 


Bird - 


- 


m 


Quip^quip. 


Bgg - 


- 


- 




Snake - 


. 


- 


Kaon. 


Eagle - 


- 


- 


Bunnell. 


Crow - 


- 


- 


Wdamg, 


Mopoke 


- 


- 


Kookoom. 


Kangaroo 


- 


- 


Kooem. 



Is the custom of giving the name of any natnral object to a man or woman 
common^ and on the death of the person so named is the word disused and 
another substituted to indicate such natural object ? — Yes, veiy common ; but 
never changed after death. 

Such a custom, it is said, leads to great alterations in the language ; are 

there any other obvious causes in operation leading to changes in the names of 

things ? — ^None. 

John Greek, Yarra Flats. 



EngUib. 

Man - 
Woman 
Father 
Mother 
Son - 
Daughter 
Brother 
Sister - 



Western Pobt. 
The Boonroor-rcmff or Coast Tribe. 



▲lutzmUan. 

K6o4in. 

Bag^rook. 

MoT'tnan. 

Par'pun. 

Mum. 

Mon^moH'dik, 

Won^do-Jong^ 

LouT'rook, 



EoglUh, 



AutndlMi. 



Head - • 
Hair - . 


- Kow^ung. 

- Yar-ra, 


Eye - 
Ear - 
Mouth - 
Tongue 
Teeth - 
Hand - 


- My-ring. 

- Wer^ng. 

- Nung4fiUun^. 

- Tal4ang. 

- Lee-ung-er, 

- Mg-rong. 



LANGUAGE. 



91 



EnsUsli. 

Finger - 

Foot - 

Toe - 

Belly . 

Blood - 

Bone - 

Sun - 

Moon - 

8tar -> 

Sky - 

Night - 

Day - 

Fire - 

Air - 

Wind - 

Earth «■ 



AoftnUan. 

Miming, 

Tee-nan. 

BuMiib'bl4ee^ium, 

Won-nup. 

Kul4nuL 

Neyhn. 

Her-wein, 

Tth-pi^ram. 

WoOT'tOOOT'TW, 

Bo'Tun, 

Yel-lin^wa, 

Wee-en, 

Ang, 

MonrfnooU 

Beek'-beek, 



EnsliBh. 




Ground 


- Beek, 


Soil - - 


- Kung-ar, 


Rirer - 


- War-neet, 


Sea - 


- War-reen, 


Stone - 


- Lang, 


Tree - 


- Ter-rung, 


Wood - 


- Kulk. 


Stick - 


- Kulk'hdk, 


Bird - 


- Koy^up-koy-up, 


Egg - 


- Tir-ral4e4irr, 


Snake - 


- Kam, 


Eagle - 


- Pun^a, 


Crow - 


- Warug, 


Mopoke 


- 


Kangaroo - 


- Ko-eniF^O'^m, 



Is the cnsiom of giving the name of any natural object to a man or woman 
common^ and on the death of the person so named is the word disused and 
another substituted to indicate such natural object? — It is the custom of 
naming infants^ male or female, on any particular incident at their birth, 
especially the males. Ex,: GeUibrand, a noted black; his Aboriginal name 
was Ber-ukej "a kangaroo-rat," from a kangaroo-rat running through the 
miam at his birth. Billy Lonsdale, equally noted ; Aboriginal name Folee- 
oranffy after "cherry-tree," where his mother brought him forth. Another 
particular instance : A lubra in labor, the miam caught fire ; she was caught 
out and fire extinguished; the child was named Weinff-pam, "fire and water." 
Wofiffay the present chief of the Tarra tribe, was bom at the foot of Arthur's 
Seat ; Aboriginal name Wonga, 

Such a custom, it is said, leads to great alterations in the language ; are 
there any other obvious causes in operation leading to changes in the names 
of things? — I am aware such is the general opinion, but I have never known 
any material alteration, save at death they cannot and will not repeat the name 
for a certain time ; but Ber-uke^ Poleeorongj Weing-pamy and Wcmga, when 
dead, will not alter in a single iota the original name of Arthur's Seat, &c. 



Melbourne, 17th August 1863, 



Wm. Thomas, Guardian of Aborigines. 



GIPPSLAND. 



Flooding Ckbbk and Bushy Park. 



IgngHrii 


Australian. 


English. 


Anstralian. 


Han - 
Woman 
Father - 
Mother 
Bon - 


- Gunrna, 

- Wothgut, 
' Mun-gunn 

' Year-kunn. 

- Leech, 


Daughter - 
Brother 
Sister - 
Head - 
Hair - 


- Toot-buk, 

- Tunm-'tunn, 

- Bowwig. 

- Poo^uk, 
" Lett, 



92 



THE ABOEIGINBS OP VICTOEIA: 



EoglUb. 


AnstnUAQ. 


Eye - 


- Myree* 


Ear 


- Woor-ring, 


Mouth - 


- Kart, 


ToDgne 


- TaUan. 


Teeth - 


. Un^uk. 


Hand - 


- Breet, 


Einger - 


- Laorrarbrtet, 


Foot - 


- Tey-yan, 


Toe - 


- Tey-yan. 


Belly - 


- Bocl'lan, 


Blood - 


- Krook, 


Bone - 


- Bymg, 


Sun - 


- Woo-run, 


Moon - 


- NgeT'Tun, 


Star - 


" Pree-eel. 


Sky - . 


- Noort 


Night - - 


- Pook'kun, 


Day - 


- Woo-nm, 


Fire - 


- Tow-war-rar, 



•p^g]Uh, 




Aastnlian. 


Air - . 


_ 




Wind - 


- 


Krou}-%Door. 


Earth - 


- 


Turrn. 


Ground 


- 


Woork. 


Soil - - 


. 




Rirer - 


- 


Woon^dooH. 


Sea - - 


w 


War-ren. 


Stone - 


w 


Wool-lun, 


Tree - 


m 


KuUuk. 


Wood - 


- 


KuUuk. 


Stick - 


- 


Kul4uk. 


Bird - 


» 


Klart. 


Egg - - 


- 


Poe-ung. 


Snake - 


. 


Too^roo. 


Eagle - 


- 


Poen-nmg, 


Crow - 


1» 


Nar-ru-quoH, 


Mopoke 


- 


Woor-quok, 


Kangaroo - 


- 


Tir^er. 



Wjuaam Thokas, Melbonrne. 



Lake Wellington. 

1. Tarrawarrackel Tribe; 2. Wollum, or Wolloomy or Woolloom; 3. Bellum- 

bellum ; 4. Moomoo and NgaMhan. 



English. 






AoBtnlUui. 


English. 






AostnUaii. 


Man - 


. 


* 


Kanny. 


Star - 


. 


. 


BreeU. 


Woman 


m 


- 


y/^oohaU. 


Sky - 


- 


- 


NgoorrootL 


Father - 


^ 


- 


Moonkan. 


Night - 


- 


- 


PaddkaOack. 


Mother 


« 


•» 


Yackan. 


Day - 


- 


- 


Wurring (like sun ; used 


Son 


- 


- 


Leed; also hoy. 








in the same sense as 


Daughter 


- 


r 


Toorbackan, 








the Hehrew), 


Brother 


« 


- 


JDandang, the eldest ; 6ra- 


Fire - 


* 


« 


Towr, 








mang, the youngest. 


Air ^ 


- 


^ 


Krow-woorr^ 


Sister - 


- 


» 


Bawang, 


Wfaid . 


w 


- 


Krow-woorr, 


Head - 


- 


- 


Brook. 


Earth - 


- 


- 


Wrack. 


Hair - 


- 


« 


Litt, 


Ground 


- 


» 


Wrack, 


Eye - 


- 


- 


MoOeh, 


Soil - 


- 


* 


Wrack, 


Ear 


- 


- 


Wring, 


Rirer - 


- 


- 


Bongurra, 


Mouth - 


- 


^ 


Gad or gaad^ 


Sea - 


- 


- 


Warringa, 


Tongue 


- 


«• 


TyelUng. 


Stone - 


- 


- 


WaOoong. 


Teeth - 


- 


- 


Ngirmdoek^ 


Tree - 


m 


- 


Talk, large tree ; gaBack^ 


Hand - 


- 


- 


Pritt. 








small tree. 


Finger - 


- 


- 


PriU. 


Wood - 


- 


- 


Mria, 


Finger nail 


- 


- 


Dackerpritt, 


Stick - 


- 


- 


KaUoock, 


Foot - 


- 


- 


Tyain. 


Bird - 


- 


- 


Ngalloong, 


Toe - 


- 


- 


Yackanyiyainda, 


Egg . 


- 


- 


Booyang, 


Belly - 


- 


- 


Btdlum, 


Snake - 


- 


- 


Toorroong, 


Blood - 


- 


- 


Krook, 


Eagle - 


- 


- 


Qiiarrnamarroo. 


Bone - 


- 


- 


Pring, 


Crow - 


- 


- 


NgarroogaU, 


Sun - 


- 


- 


Wurring, 


Mopoke 


- 


- 


Wookoock, 


Moon - 


- 


- 


Ngirrang, 


Kangaroo 


- 


- 


Tyirra, 



LANGUAGE. 



93 



Is the custom of giving the name of any natural object to a man or 
woman common^ and on the death of the person so named is the word 
disused and another substituted to indicate such natural object? — Each 
blackfellow has his Aboriginal name^ which is no more mentioned after his 
death^ except at fights; but none could give me a satisfactory answer to 
the question. 

Such a custom, it is said, leads to great alterations in the language ; are 
there any other obvious causes in operation leading to changes in the names of 
things ? — It seems to me that the greatest reason of the many changes is, thout 
it is not a written langtmgej and, consequently, they cannot all be taught after 
the manner and in the same forms. The same changes would naturally take 
place in any other language. The construction of the language, however, 
remains the same, the personal pronouns ending in all cases at the end of the 
substantive or verb, which makes it short and beautiful. 

F, A. Hagenausb, Lake Wellington Mission Station. 



Lake Ttebs, 
Bundah Wark Kani^ or the Swan Reach Tribe or Men. 



Engllfb. 




AnstndlaD, 


Man - 


. 


Brak. 


Woman 


m 


Woorcat, 


Father 


m 


Mung^gan. 


Mother 


M 


Yackan, 


Son - 


- 


Latheba, 


Daughter - 


- 


Turtbakan. 


Brother 


- 


Tandha-gnunert 


Sister - 


- 


Landha-gonert, 


Head - 


- 


Purk. 


Hair - 


- 


Lit 


Eye - 


- 


Mr€. 


Ear - - 


- 


Wring, 


Month 


- 


Kaat 


Tongne 


- 


JeUine, 


Teeth • 


- 


Nemdack. 


Hand - 


m 


Bret. 


Finger ^ 


^ 


Tagara bret. 


Foot - 


• 


Jonon, 


Toe - 


r 


Tagara ja-an. 


BeUy - 


^ 


Button, 


Blood - 


- 


Karndobara. 


Bone - 


w 


Bring, 


8nn - 


-. 


Wurrin. 


Moon ' 


. 


Nerran, 



EngliBh. 

Star - 
Sky . 
Night - 
Day - 
Fire - 
Air 

Wind - 
Earth - 
Ground 
Soil - 
Kiver - 
Sea - 
Stone - 
Tree - 
Wood - 
Stick - 
Bkd - 
Egg - 
Snake - 
Eagle - 
Crow - 
Mopoke 
Kangaroo 



Aartralian. 

Brayel. 

Note. 

Bookang, 

Wurrin, 

Towera. 

Wa^utjan. 

Krowaro. 

Wark. 

Wark. 

Munduckan, 

Bowgari, 

Waring, 

Waliung. 

Nappur, 

Kanby, 

Kalach, 

Tuin. 

Bo-yang» 

Kalang and thurrung, 

Quomamero. 

Waygara, 

Wokuk. 

Jirrah, 



John Bulmer, Lake Tyers, Gippsland. 



94 THE ABOBIOrNES OP VICTORIA: 

Chnrch Mission Station, Lake Ty^ers, 
18th August 1863. 

Sir, — I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of yours of the 4th July. 
I am sorry I could not answer it sooner, but it arrived so late in the month 
that I had not time to get it ready by return of post. I have given you 
a list of words ; I think they are correct ; I have used every caution in 
collecting them. You will observe, on examining my list, that the blacks 
have two or three words to express the same thing. 

It is customary among these blacks to disuse a word when a person has 
died whose name was the same, or even of the same sound. I find great 
difficulty in getting blacks to repeat such words. I believe this custom 
is common to all the Victorian tribes, though in the course of time the word 
is resumed again. I have seen among the Murray blacks the dead freely 
spoken of when they have been dead some time. I have seen them have a 
little Uram (ftm) at the expense of a dead black, though I dare say the man 
had been dead nearly twenty years ; though I do not think they would refer to 
the dead, even at that distance of time, in the presence of any relatives who 
might be alive. I have no doubt this custom alters the language a little. I 
know of no other obvious causes which might alter the language, though I 
should think languages which are not reduced to writing must alter in the 
course of years, more especially where they have customs similar to the 
Australian Aborigine. > 

With regard to the giving of names, they sometimes name a person from 
the country where he was bom. The blacks have great objections to speak 
of a person by name. In speaking to each other, they address the person 
spoken to as brother, cousin, friend, or whatever relation the person spoken 
to bears. Sometimes a black bears a name which we would term merely a 
nick-name, as the left-handed ( Yanguia)^ or the bad-handed {Murra mutAi), 
or the little man (Kato wirto). They would speak of a person by this name 
while living, but they would never mention the proper name. I found great 
difficulty in collecting the native names of the blacks here. I found after- 
wards that they had given me wrong names ; and, on asking the reason why, 
was informed they had two or three names, but they never mentioned their 
right name for fear any one got it when they would die. 

With regard to the list of words, I found sometimes, when they had more 
than one word to express the same thing, that the other word related to 
something else. For instance, the word "brother ;"-they gave me the words 
Thomdhagunert and Thandhay^ which means an elder brother, while Brammun 
means a younger brother ; and the word "mother" — Yackan and Loombaruk; 
the latter word refers to a mother's sister. While the mother is alive her 
sister is called Preppa yackan — that is, another mother — ^but when she is 
dead the Preppa yackan is changed to Loomiaruk, Again, the kangaroo is 
called Jirrah, and also Pangilowertan ; the latter word refers to the animal 
when he is ftdl of grass, looking corpulent. I have found no words exactly 
to express mercy, justice, faith, and other words which it is so necessary for 



LANGITAGR 



96 



Missionaries to know. I found a word among the Murray blacks to express 
compassion for anything ; it is Thangartrappely a word equal to " bowels of 
mercy," but literally it is the liver, as Thanganya refers exclusively to the 
liver, and all the affections are placed there, as Thangan patolanay to be 
hungry, Thangan thillia, to be hard-hearted or strong in the liver, &c* The 
above word is the only one I have met which expresses any feeling of com- 
passion. With regard to "justice," I have not found a word to express it, 
though the blacks in this district have the word If^n-^ to express satisfaction 
when justice is done. The word " &ith " I do not think is represented at all ; 
they merely say, if they believe a person, "You are telling the truth," or, vice 
versdf " You are telling a lie." 

I hope I have given you the information you require. Should you again 
need my services, I may state I shall be happy to get all the information I can. 

I have the honor to be. Sir, 

Faithfully yours, 

John Bttlmeb. 
R Brough Smyth, Esq., 

Secretary to Central Board for Protection of Aborigines. 



The Bundhul Wark Kaniy the Swan Reach Tribe. 



Englldi. 


Anatrallan. 


EngUsb. 


AuBtnllftn. 


Man - » 


- Brakj hragnohK 


Moon - 


• Nerran, waan. 


Woman 


- Woorcat 


Star - 


- Brael,Hmma, 


Father- 


- Mungauy mamang. 


Night - 


- Boohang, laUat, booknai. 


Mother 


- Yackafif wandaek. 


Day - 


- Wurrin. 


Son - 


- LcUMa, grtowia. 


Fire - - 


- Towera, kumbaUan, 


Daughter - 


- Turtbackant tharcigunang. 


Air - - 


- Wa^tjan, 


SiBter - 


- Landhagmnertf tatagunert. 


Wind . - 


- Krowero, 


Brother 


- Tarulhagunert, gnuhi. 


Earth - 


- Wrak, mundht^an 


Head - 


- Pwrkf gnowang, whifera. 


Ground 


" Mrairr€L 


Hair - 


- Litf mamdho'mundha. 


Soil - - 


- Same ai ground. 


Eye - 


- Mri, wieragut 


Rirer - 


- Bawgari, wamdwan* 


Ear - 


- Wring, nucko-nvcko. 


Sea - 


- Waring, nerktibundka.^ 


Month - 


- Kaat, gna-^ngat. 


Stone - 


- WaUung, nerawera. 


Tongue 


- Jellinej mamharrang. 


Tree - 


- Nlappwr, kunbal. 


Teeth - 


- Nemdaek^gadat 


Wood - - 


- Kallack. 


Hand - 


- Bret, yowan, gnarranman. 


Stick - " 


- Kallack. 


linger oails- 


- Tagara, bret. 


Bird - - 


" Tarbjaak (small meat). 


Toe - 


- Tagara, jaan. 


Egg . - 


- Bo-yang, tha, tkiga. 


Foot - 


- Jaan. 


Snake - 


- Kalang, ihtammg. 


BeUy - . 


. BuJhn, werian^ tamdan. 


Eagle - 


- QuorruimerOf Ihwronack, 


Blood - 


- Kamdobarra, krook, nurruk. 


Crow - 


- Wa-gara, gnuro-jal. 


Bone - 


- Bring. 


Mopoke 


- Wohik, abin. 


Son - 


- Wwrin, kalgarro. 


Kangaroo - 


- Jirrah. 



• Tbe word Wamduan Is at praeent not uwd on «oooant of Uie death of a blaok. I waa told the word in oonfldenoe t 
I was not to repeat It again. 

t Tbe word JIMtu^midha refera to iti being honndleM. When they look npon the aea and see no trees, they uj 
iferit ybttndkal Ihe sea-water Js ealled Kammg-gammg, on aoooont of Its liad taate. 



96 



THE ABOEIQINES OF YICTOBIA: 



DECLENSION OP NOUN, USB OF POSSESSIVE PBONOUN, ETC. 

The following papers were prepared at my request by the gentlemen whose 
names appear at the head of each list : — 

(Fbox thb Bby. a. HABTMAznr, Laks HnrDicABSH.) 

EnglUh. Katire. 



I Bee an opossnin 



An oposBom is eating the leayes 



The tail of an opoesum 



I gaye learea to an opossum - 

I took the food from an opossum - 

The heart in an opossum 

I found a young one with an opossum 



- NySngan wille. 

Bee I opossum. 

- Janga wilUtch gera. 
Eating opossum leayes. 

- Bereki wUle, 

Tail opossum. 

- Woyinan gerang* wiUe. 

Gaye I leayes to opossum. 

- MSrinan hanyim unUengung, 

Took I food opossum mm, 

' Woi^buk mangaga wiHejcU. 
Heart inside opossum. 

- Moityinan watyibi vnUe bapanyuck. 

Found I young one opossum mother with. 



KngHah, 


Katire. 


English. 


KatlTe. 


Hand - 


- Manya* 
Hand. 


Their hands 


- Manyanganak,* 
Hands their. 


My hand 


- Manyangek,* 
Hand my. 


Tree 


. Kalk, 
Tree. 


His hand 


- Manyanyuk, 

Hand his, or of him. 


A tree « 


" Kiapi kalk. 
A (or one) tree. 


Her hand 


- Same. 


Thetree- 


- Nyuinma hoik. 


Your hand 
Hands - 


- Manyangin,* 
Hand your. 

- Manya, 
Hands. 


Thistree 
That tree 


The tree. 

- Qinmakalkn 

This tree. 

- Same as the tree. 


My hands 
His hands 
Her hands 
Tour hands 


- Same as singular. 

- Same as singular. 

- Same as singular. 

- Same as singular. 


Trees - 
The trees 
Some trees 


- Same as tree. 

- Same as the tree. 

- Kiap-kiap kalk. 

Some trees. 




•irg9B\ 


In^alng." 





(Fbox thb Bbt. Jomr Bulmbb, Laeb Ttbbb, GiFP8Liin>.) 

Engllah. KattTO. 



I see an opossum - - . 
An opossum is eating the leayes 
The tail of an opossum - 
I gaye leayes to an opossum - 



- Takana u>adthan. 

See I opossum. 

- Dhanda lotEdthando jerrang. 

Eating opossum an leayes. 

- Wreka wadthanda. 
• Tail opossum. 

- Ukatha jerrang wadthango. 
Gaye I leayes opossum to. 



LANGUAGE. 



97 



I took the food from an opoBsnm - 

The heart ia an opoBsum 

I found a young one with an opossum 



EngHah. 

Hand - 
Mjhand 

His hand 

Her hand 

Yonrhand 

Hands - 



My hands 
His hands 
Her hands 



Katiye. 

Bret 

Bretitha. 
Hand my. 

Bretha. 
Hand his. 

Bretha nungowa. 
Hand hers. 

Bretjinna, 
Hand yours. 

No plural form. Would be ex- 
pressed thus : One hand, two 
hand, or many hand. Thus : 
Kootopana hret, one hand ; 
Boohmana brei^ two hand; 
Yail bmL many hand. 

Bret bama. 
Hand mine. 

Bret kinna. 
Hand his. 

Bretha. 
Hand hers. 



Kinnga nath lak thunga wanga wadthana. 
Took I food from an opossum. 

Pm}€Lka wadthanda manyina. 
Heart opossum in an. 

Mulbana latha wadthana uanga gakanart. 
Found I young opossum with mother its. 



English. 
Your hands 
Their hands 
Tree 

Atree - 
The tree- 
Thistree 
That tree 
Trees - 
The trees 
Some trees 



Katiye, 

Bret githa kara. 
Hand of yours. 

Brethana, 
Hand theirs. 

NgUppur uatti. 
Wood great. 

KctUak jinanna. 
Wood that is. 

Naarra kaUak. 
The tree or wood. 

Dinihaha kaUak. 
TMs tree. 

Mandthaka kaBaJL 
That tree. 

Yail hattak. 
Many tree. 

Manyina nara kaUak, 
That is the tree. 

Wagutkallak, 
Some trees. 



(FnoM THX Bet. F. A. Klowxavbr, Lakb Wblunotov, GiPPSULim.) 

EngUBb. KatiTe. 

I see an opossum ..... 
An opossum is eating the leaves 



Takana wadthan. 
See I opossum. 



. Daanda wadthando yerrang. 
Eating opossum leayes. 

I gaye leaves to an opossum .... Ukatha yerrang wadthango. 

Gare I leares opossum to. 

The tail of an opossum Wrecka wadthanda. 

Tail opossum. 

I took the food from an opossum ... Kinnga nattack thunga uango wadthana. 

Took 

The heart in an opossum ... 



I found a young one with an opossum 



food from an opossum. 

- Papaha wadthunda mar^/ina^ 
Heart opossum in an. 

- Mvlbani Jatha voadthunda wanaa yackan. 
Found I young opossum with mother. 



English. 

Hand - 
My hand 

His hand 

Her hand 

VOL. n. 



Kattre. 

- Bret 

• Bretitaa. 
Hand my. 

Breta. 

Hand his. 

- Breta nungowa. 
Hand her. 



English. 
Your hand - 

Hands- 
TTiH hands - 



KatlTe. 

Bretyina. 
Hand you. 

YaU bret 
Many hand. (No plural.) 

Bret kinna. 
Hands his. 



N 



98 



THE ABORIGINES OF YICTOBIA: 



EoglMb 



Katfrt. 



Her hands - Br da. 

Hands her. 

Tonr hands - Bretgitaa iara. 

Hand jonrs. 

Their hands Bretana, 
Hand theirs. 

Tree - - Nglmpaa watty. 

Wood great. 

A tree - KaUaek yetmana. 

Tree that is a. 

The tree - ^'(^^ kaUaeL 

The tree. 



This 
That 



The 
Some 



Dmiaeka kaUaek. 
This 



MoMdaeka kaOaek, 



Yail kaOaek. 
Manj trees. 

Mamgima nara kaliaek. 
That is the tree. 

Wamgoot kallaek. 
Some 



(Fbom ICb. John Gubv, CoKiJn>XBSK« Uppik Tasajl) 



I see an oposram 



An opossum is eating the leares 



The tail of an opossum 



I gare leayes to an opossum - 

I took the food from an opossum - 

The heart in an opossum 

I found a young one with an opossum 



EngUih. 



KatlTV. 



Hand - 


Manang. 


My hand - 


Manangeek, 
Hand my. 


His hand - 


JHoaanaoo. 
Hand his. 


Her hand - 

• 


Jedo mcmangoo» 
Her hand. 


Your hand - 


Jlfanaa^ jenna. 
Hand your. 


Hands 


Benjeroo manang, 
Tiro hand. 


My hands - 




His hands • 




Her hands • 




Tour hands - 





Walert ngangtmin. 
Opossum see an L 

Ba waUrt tamgerhoon moorrtH da. 
Is opossum eating leares the. 

Walert kanee mooebcBren, 
Opossum the taild 

Yurama dim benjeroo moorrin da walert 
Qare I two leaves to opossum. 

Konga din tangee ba walert on. 
Took I food from opossum an. 

Daronggo me walert da. 
Heart in opossum the. 

Brimbonga din walert booboop nga look. 
Found I opossum young one witli. 



Wngllih. 



KatiT*. 



Their hands 


- Noot to manang. 
Their hand. 


Tree 


- Tarang, 
Tree. 


A tree - 


- 


Thetree- 


- Kanee tarang. 
The tree. 


Thistree 


. Manee tarang. 
This tree. 


That tree 


- Managa tarang. 
That tree. 


Trees - 


- Tarang benjeroo. 
Tree two. 


The trees 


- 


Some trees 


- Youange tarang. 



LANGUAGE. 



09 



YABRA TRIBE. 



The following vocabtilary of the language of the tribe of Aborigines 
inhabiting the lUver Yarra, and a few short sentences in the native tongue, 
with translations, were compiled by Mr. John Green, the Inspector of Abori- 
ginal Stations in Victoria. 



WngHaTi. 

Abandoa 

Abate . . - 

Abdomen - 

Abed - 

Abhor - - - 

Ability 

Abject 

Able - 

Ablation 

Abdiah 

Abominable - 

Abortion 

Abont (near) 

Abore - - - 

Absent (in mind) - 

Absent (not here)- 

Abstain 

Abnse (v. to abuse) 

Aooelerate - 

Accept 

Acddentally 

Accommodation - 

Accompany 

Accomplish - 

Accusation - 

Adjoin 

Adjourn •> « 

Adjudge 

Admire 

Admit - . - 

Adoption - 

Adorn - - - 

Adult - 

Adulterate - 

Adulterer * « 

Away - - ^ 

Babbler 

Babe - - - 

Bachelor 

Back . - - 

Backbite - 

Bad - - - 

Bag - - - 

Bait - - - 

Bake - - - 

Bald - 

Bare - - - 



KatlTo. 

WaltanTi, 
Wykrook. 
Boojin, 
Karenboon, 
Booang, 
Balettak. 
Nulim, 
Kyinandoo* 
Karwarhoun, 
Meleemak, 
Booang, 
I^itpran^u 
Kyn'oo, 
Koov~ee, 
Abenden ngargiU 
Yani*jak, 
Nin'wUt-taU* 
Nilimjak, 
Woonudongnak, 
Witndan-nata. 
NgcibendeH'itgainfgL 
MiUiptak. 
Yan€ banged, 
Moongkanin. 
Matte tombangin, 
NaUH jerring, 
WaUan'i, 
KocptoonF'ngaF^e* 
Boomdup. 
Tylbydin, 
Wangoon^i. 
Tirredoon-boorndoen. 
Karre-nen. 
BoQiroam, 
Barmeen, 
Fan't. 
Yaran^nuL 
Booboap. 
Yanfyean. 
Ngark, 
Perangoolin, 
NiUm, 
Bilang. 
Toorroo, 
Nangeebuk, 
Taweet, 
Yearm. 



EngUah. 



Native. 



Barefoot 


- 


- 


Yeeurmjemong^ 


Bashful 


- 


- 


WiUng-jek, 


Bat - 


- 


- 


BolSang. 


Battle - 


- 


m 


Jelpchering, 


Bawl - 


- 


m 


JSfarr-Toong, 


Beak - 


- 


- 


Bargimboon, 


Beard - 


- 


- 


Ngarrin, 


Beat - 


- 


- 


Tingkttrtini, 


Bee - 


- 


- 


Manerhng^ 


Beef - 


- 


m 


Bidgana, 


Begone 


- 


- 


Yane-toee, 


Belong 


- 


w 


Noogal, 


Bewail 


- 


- 


MoTToen, 


Beyond 


- 


- 


Kaberring, 


Birds - 


- 


- 


Queep-queep* 


Birth - 


- 


- 


Tongberan^u 


Bitter - 


- 


- 


Bcdim^balim, 


Black - 


- 


» 


Woogat^ring or Kotmarrt" 
beau 


Bladder 


. 


- 


Balk. 


Blind - 


- 


- 


Bamooen, 


Blood - 


- 


- 


Goorrk. 


Blue - 


- 


- 


Woarrkarreen^ 


Blunt - 


- 


- 


Warrup. 


Boat - 


- 


- 


Koorong. 


Body - 


- 


- 


Tooleroom, 


Bone - 


- 


- 


JHeqfling'o. 


Boot - 


- 


- 


Olook OT jenongolooK^ 


Bosom - 


- 


- 


Birring, 


Bottom 


- 


- 


Moam, 


Boy - 


- 


r 


Efan'in, 


Brain - 


■» 


- 


TomWun. 


Brat - 


- 


- 


NiHmjcLk. 


Bread - 


- 


- 


Noorong, 


Breast - 


. 


- 


Brimrbrim, 


Breath 


- 


- 


Nga^ngb. 


Breathing 


- 


- 


Wan-ang-goon. 


Bring - 


- 


- 


Wan'da-gat, 


Brother 


- 


- 


Bang-gan'oo, 


Brow - 


. 


- 


Meeni-an. 


Brown - 


- 


m 


YaUeen. 


Backet 


. 


- 


Tarmook. 


Build - 


- 


- 


Ngi'a-gat. 


Bum - 


- 


- 


Nang-gmm. 


Bustard 


- 


- 


Warm^mum. - • 


Butterfly 


- 


- 


Balam-bedam, • • 


Buttock 


. 


- 


Jerrar-nu, 



* Jemmg is foot. 



100 



THE ABORIGINES OF VICTORIA: 



MaUwt, 



Cuioe - 


- 


- 


JKoOTOBff, 


Daughter 


m 


- 


Meemg-gip. 


Cap - 


- 


- 


Kamperka&mg. 


Daimt- 


- 


* 


Bambotm. 


Cbnre (wood) 


- 


JN^SOTOO. 


Daantlesa 


- 


- 


Ngabim-hamhoom, 


Ct 


- 


- 


B^deda. 


Dawn (of daj) 


- 


Branmgwiu 


Catch - 


- 


- 


Bangagat. 


Daj - 


- 


- 


Kammeai, 


Care - 


- 


- 


Merrimg-jakrkorem, 


Daybreak 


- 


- 


BronatguMm 


Centre* 


- 


- 


Bagora, 


Daylight 


- 


- 


WeatuUgoomgem, 


Change 


- 


- 


Wooki ktrUamgHd. 


Dead - 


- 


- 


WgkU. 


Chant - 


- 


- 


Engeng. 


Deaf - 


- 


- 


NgawocftL 


Charcoal 


- 


- 


KoMendmrr, 


Dear - 


m 


- 


YeadabiUhg 


Chat - 


- 


- 


TooMjtrriMg ooUm, 


Debase 


- 


- 




Cheek- 


- 


- 


Wangb. 


Debate 


- 


^ 


TomekringmtM. 


Child - 


- 


- 


Boopoop, or Boopt^f or 


Decamp 


m 


- 


Waitami. 








Boobct^. 


Decay - 


- 


- 


BvderamamgL 


Choke - 


- 


• 


CkUker-momm, 


Dfv^eit- 


- 


- 


Mameramg-ngoom, 


Claj - 


- 


- 


Bigocm, 


Deck (to dress) 


- 


£^aM-berrbog. 


Clean - 


- 


- 


Barw»berring» 


Deep - 


- 


- 


Boom^gim. 


Climh - 


- 


- 


WarmagaL 


Defeat - 


- 


- 


Ximamdak'koomgmoom, 


Coat - 


- 


- 


GoattaJL 


Defend 


- 


- 


Moorrmdak-kocmgadh^ 


Cold - 


- 


- 


Mifoier weem. 


Defile (v. to defile) 


NUimjak-koaroi/gu 


CoUc - 


- 


- 


Jerren-neM. 


Defy . 


- 


- 


Kinandak-koongmotm, 


Come - 


•• 


- 


WamdtaL 


Delicious 


- 


- 


Yeringgim, 


Comfort 


- 


- 


Boordup, 


DeliTcr 


- 


- 


Moormdak-koomgad^am, 


Comhig 


- 


- 


BoOfTHOOMt, 


Demon 


- 


- 


Ngarrang, 


Coigoin 


- 


- 


Jerrboongum. 


Dent - 


- 


- 


Barrip. 


Conrerse 


- 


- 


Toomeherring, 


Deny - 


•• 


- 


Ngabedtm-dak, 


Coid - 


- 


- 


WoodolwoodoL 


Depart 


- 


- 


Yecmiato. 


Com (on foot, < 


fcc) 


Berrpeet, 


Descend 


. 


• 


Barrawee, 


Corpse 


- 


• 


WerrgabiL 


Desire - 


. 


- 


Imdanktxmgmmjunm, 


Costive 


- 


- 


BaUn-tak. 


Destroy 


- 


- 


JeFbad'ooL 


Coxigh- 


- 


- 


Koonin-goon. 


Dew - 


- 


• 


fraTTWfug, 


Cramp - 


- 


- 


Jenmaboorri. 


Dim - 


- 


- 


Boorreen, 


Crane - 


- 


- 


Karween (the first man). 


Din - 


- 


. 


TaOgarru. 


Create (to make)- 


BooeegigaL 


Dinner 


m 


. 


Tangerboon, 


Creator (maker of 


Bunjd. 


Dirge - 


. 


• 


Toomi karra ava. 


all things) 






Dirt' - 


- 


- 


Afva-ficcp. 


Creek - 


- 


- 


Gtamoang. 


Dirty - 


- 


• 


NiUmjak. 


Creep - 


- 


- 


Derrindotn, 


Discomfort 


- 


m 


Jeengngaring. 


Creeping 


- 


- 


Derrinjee. 


Discontent 


• 


- 


WaAi Aarroong ngtm. 


Oipple 


- 


- 


JVgarrboun, 


Dish - 


. 


• 


Wilin-wiUn. 


Crooked 


* 


m 


Wanderring, 


Ditty (song) 


. 


Emgeng, 


Crow - 


- 


- 


Wang (the second man). 


Dire - 


• 


. 


Gorrongoun. 


Cruel - 


- 


- 


Niiimjak-koorring. 


DiTide- 


• 


- 


Loong-goonak. 


Cry - 


- 


- 


Marroun, 


Dizzy - 


- 


- 


Ngiren-nen, 


Cudgel 


m 


- 


Kudjerrong, 


Do - 


- 


- 


Jneeng-gooak, 


Cut - 


- 


- 


Bendi. 


Doctor 


- 


- 


WerrtTup, 


Cutting 


• 


- 


Bendadol. 


Dog - 


- 


• 


Earingin, 


Damage 


- 


- 


Nilim, 


Down - 


- 


M 


Be or we. 


Damp - 


- 


- 


Taban. 


Drag - 


- 


- 


Koorbi-gat, 


Damsel 


- 


m 


Bumni or moonmoondik. 


Dread- 


^ 


. 


Bamboon, 


Dance - 


- 


- 


Ngarrg'eS 


Dream 


- 


- 


Yiookgen. 


Danger 


- 


- 


imm. 


Dress - 


. 


. 


Boodin-gin, 


Daring 


M 


- 


Ngabon-bamboon, 


Drink - 


- 


- 


Obd-gat. 


;;t)Krk . 


- 


- 


Booreen, 


Dry - 


. 


m 


Goon-boon-noon, 


\ Darling 


- 


- 


YadabUing, 


Duck - 


- 


. 


Toolim. 


Dastard 


- 


•• 


Bamboon, 


Dull 


- 


. 


Deem-deen-dak. . 



LAl^OTTAaE. 



101 



Snffltili 


L. 




K»tlv«. 


Dung - 


- 


. 


Kwmoang, 


DUBt - 


- 


- 


Maneqff. 


Dwarf - 


- 


- 


Mooree, 


Dwelling 


* 


- 


EHm or wifim. 


Dying - 


- 


- 


W eargarangOon, 


Eagle - 


- 


- 


BunjeL 


Ear - 


• 


• 


Wooring, 


Early - 


- 


- 


Moolookoo. 


Earth - 


- 


- 


Y4dmen*eenbik, 


Eaae - 


- 


* 


Ngawthu 


Eat - 


• 


- 


Tangarrbid, 


Eaten - 


- 


- 


Tangarrbathan, 


Edge - 


- 


- 


Lang^o. 


Edging 


m 


,- 


Ngeroo, 


Eel - 


- 


- 


Eok. 


Efface - 


- 


- 


WoorewogcU. 


E£fectB 


- 


- 


Nowahkno, 


Egg - 


- 


. 


Dirrandirr, 


Eject - 


- 


- 


Databidgat, 


Eke - 


- 


- 


Permbagat. 


Elope - 


- 


- 


Man'ngan, 


Elade - 


- 


- 


Welipteen, 


Emaciate 


- 


m 


NiUmjak-korring, 


Embrace 


mm 


- 


Moondani, 


Emigrate 


- 


- 


Yean'i, 


Emp^ 


- 


- 


Tendebik, 


Encounter 


■B 


- 


Toomjerringan, 


Encumber 


- 


- 


Bardon'ngan, 


End - 


- 


- 


Kangoo. 


Ending 


- 


- 


Tendebik. 


Enjoy - 


- 


- 


Yarwinboo'dek. 


Enlarge 


- 


- 


lVoorrto-kon'ga^<U, 


Every - 


- 


- 


Yearmeen, 


Evident 


• 


- 


Jninburdi, 


Evil - 


- 


- 


Nilmjak-kooring. 


Excellent 


- 


- 


Qeeing boordup. 


Excite - 


- 


- 


Toomb'igai, 


Expend 


- 


- 


Tendebik. 


Expire - 


•• 


- 


Werrarang^ngon, 


Fable - 


- 


- 


Marrening. 


Pact - 


- 


- 


Twarren-nga-gi. 


Fade - 


- 


- 


Wergi. 


Fain - 


- 


- 


Boodambwun. 


Faint-hearted 


- 


Bambun. 


Fair - 


- 


- 


Qeente boordup. 


Fall - 


- 


- 


Baderin boon. 


False - 


- 


- 


Marreen., 


Father- 


- 


- 


Marmun. 


Fame - 


- 


- 


Boordup. 


FamelesB 


- 


- 


Nilimjak, 


Family 


- 


- 


Booboop narrkwarren. 


Famine 


- 


- 


Taong-gan, 


Famish 


- 


- 


Nerribrenin, 


Fancy - 


- 


- 


Boodamboo'in, 


Farewell 


- 


- 


Twaginin, 


Far - 


- 


- 


Booir. 



EngUah. 

Fast (swift)- 

Fat - - - 

Father-in-law 

Fatherless - 

Fear - - - 

Feast ... 

Feeble - 

Feed - 

Feel - - - 

Feet . 

Feign - - - 

Felon ... 

Female 

Fetch . 

Fend - 

Few - - - 

Fib - - - 

Fiend (bad Bpirit> 

Fight ... 

Fighter 

Fill - . - 

Fire - 

Pish - 

Fishing 

Flat . . - 

Flay . 

Flea . 

Fleabitten - 

Flee - 

Flesh - - . 

Flew - - - 

Fling - 

Float - . . 

Flock - 

Flour .... 

Flown - 

Fly - 

Fog (mist) - 

Folk - 

Fond (to love) - 

Food ... 

Foot - . . 

Footpath • 

Fop ... 

Forbid - 

Foreknowledge - 

Forerun 

Foretell 

Forget 

Fornicator - 

Forsake 

Frail - 

Fret - . - 

Frost . - .. 

Full - 

Fume - . - 



KaUve. 

Berren-berren, 
Marrimbool, 
Kondo'lang'o, 
Moorri. 
Bamboon. 
Tang'arbi. 
Murrineretu 
Tangerboun. 
Ban^adinen. 
Jenongbertoorr. 
mcwrnen. 
Nilimjak-koorren. 
Badjurr. 
Winddga. 
Wakering* 
Wdlak'Wdlak. 
Marrening. 
Ngctrrong, 
Jeltchering. 
Koonbmoon. 
Jaboon, 
Ween. 
Mattoren. 
Goolak-keni. 
Woork. 
Ter'embeyaU 
Moon-ong, 

Boondo'ang moononga, 
Berren-berren, 
Weeringam. 
Gamagooen, 
BooembegaU 
Yarrtigoon, 
Boolodoon, 
Noorrong. 
Gamctgooen* 
Gamtigooen. 
Boorrang. 
KooUnjerrk. 
Yeadabilin. 
Qeeap, 
Jenong. 
Bajejenong. 
Toolap. 

Toomatining-goongak. 
Ngargoonin (warn, 
Bambormang'i. 
ToombcuUnin twam. 
Nabidin ngaringi, 
Bdrmeen. 
Yeaninin, 
Marrinemen. 
Wa itken. 
Tangbilk. 
Doorneen. 
Booang. 



102 



THE ABORIGINES OF VICTOEIA 



Engllflh. 



Katlre. 



Fun - 


- 


- Jettikcha, 


• Heart - 


- 


- 


Dorroong, 


Fur - 


- 


- Beelgooren. 


Heat - 


- 


- 


Nanger-baun, 


Gale - 


- 


- BooloOtb MOOMNOl. 


Heavens 


- 


. 


Lark. 


Gape (to yawn) 


- Yarramoen, 


Heavy - 


- 


- 


Bamboon gaorreen. 


Gather- 


- 


- BargoongagcLt, 


Hell - 


- 


- 


Nilmjak-geliM. 


Gare - 


- 


- Wongadain, 


Help • 


- 


- 


Tamboonamon. 


Geese - 


- 


- BikmooM, 


Here (In this place) Mag-golee or wiang. 


Girdle - 


- 


- Milargarin, 


Hide (keep out of 


WilUp-keen. 


Give - 


- 


- Woonga gat, or unuUek, 


sight) 












or yumma-leek. 


High - 


- 


- 


Yarrbat. 


Glad - 


- 


- Barbomenin. 


Hill - 


- 


- 


BanooL 


Glow - 


- 


- Yanggemdakgoon-noH, 


Ice 


- 


- 


Tangbulk. 


God - 


m 


- Bonjel. 


Idea - 


- 


- 


Ngang-garra^moominrhu 


Going - 


- 


- Yan'i, 


Identity 


- 


- 


Nngalek-ki-nMhchangoon- 


Gone - 


- 


- Yan'i'j. 








twan taka. 


Good - 


^ 


- Boordup. 


Idiot - 


- 


- 


Nganga-dak'ki'no. 


Grandmother 


- Mahong-goongbn 


Ignorant 


•» 


• 


Intank-a. 


Grass - 


•• 


' Banneem, 


111 


- 


. 


Cherarmen. 


Grasp - 


•• 


- Banga-gat 


Hi-nature 


. 


. 


Bookquaren. 


Grease - 


- 


w MarrambooL 


Imbibe - 


- 


. 


iVu6oicji. 


Great - 


- 


- Boollootb. 


Imbolden 


- 


- 


Babert-ching-ka. 


Greedy 


- 


- Balert'kattg, 


Imitate 


- 


- 


Burrong-gu 


Green - 


- 


- Woorrwarren or Woorwar' 


Immediate 


«• 


- 


Wat'Ching-ka. 






reen. 


Immense 


- 


- 


Wourrt'ta-boo. 


Greyhead 


■« 


« Lamb<nai''kawang, 


Immerse 


(cover 


Gooroong-ku 


Grim - 


- 


- Nilmj<ik-kooTren» 


with water) 






Groan - 


- 


- Jirrt'tooUen. 


Immovable 


- 


. 


Tam-marmeen. 


Growl - 


- 


- Wa keen. 


Immure (shut : 


Ln)- 


Tarrt-koorim-bagai. 


Grub - 


- 


" MUerr/L 


Impaint 


- 


- 


Merrebagat. 


Grumble 


- 


- Wa keen. 


Impeach 


- 


- 


Ngat'toonan. 


Guide - 


- 


- LooretuU-gat 


Impede 


n 


« 


Toorrt-koih^ng^a din. 


Gum - 


- 


Keming. 


Impel - 


m 


- 


Urrduk ju-oL 


Gun - 


- 


- Trang booldbiL 


Impiety 


- 


- 


Tankirra-bO. 


Hal - 


- 


- Kil 


Impostor 


- 


- 


Marrin-ing-juno. 


Haggard 


- 


- Jeeng-ngarring, 


Improve 


- 


- 


Marrin-ing, 


Hail - 


- 


- Kav-ing, 


In 


- 


- 


Koormgee, 


Fair - 


- 


- YarrS, 


Inconstant 


m 


- 


Moor-moor-toeen. 


Hafay - 


- 


- MoorramHmarren^ 


Increase 


. 


. 


Karri-nun. 


Half - 


- 


- Marroo, 


Incurable 


. 


. 


Ngabin-na win. 


Hamstring 


- 


- Karra-gara. 


Independent (free) 


Yering-garrine, 


Hand - 


- 


- Mamong, 


Inquire 


^ 


. 


Bila-doin. 


Handful 


- 


- Jaboon-mamong, 


Insane - 


- 


. 


Anga-tooo-in. 


Happy - 


- 


- Barrbon-neen^ 


Insects 


• 


. 


Toombak, 


Hard - 


• 


- Balert'tak, 


Inside - 


m 


. 


Booje. 


Hark!- 


- 


- Ngarmgctk I 


Insnare (to 


catch)- 


Bang-un, 


Haste - 


- 


- Berm'herm* 


Instantly 


- 


- 


Bangoon-narroo, 


Hat - 


- 


- Komperkawang, 


Insufferable - 


- 


Man-doin-qua-neen. 


Hatchet 


- 


- Karrgeen, 


Insult - 


. 


. 


Book-o-warren. 


Hawk - 


- 


' Bubk'bulok, 


Intend - 


- 


- 


Yan-kranginin. 


Head - 


- 


m Kawang, 


Intestines 


- 


. 


Boore-boore-do, 


Headache 


- 


«• Lulerneen-kawang, 


Intoxicate 


- 


- 


Ngiriii-nen. 


Headband 


- 


- Birrbak-kawangin. 


Introduce 


- 


- 


Geerp, 


Heal - 


- 


- Ngarra-jarra^noun, 


Invade 


- 


m 


Boonbree-koHng-i. 


Health - 


- 


- Bocn-marrit'tak gooreen. 


Invalid 


- 


- 


Ckaren-'neen-mel-bo. 


Hear - 


- 


- Ngarm-gak-go, 


Invisible 


- 


- 


Ngah ina-mang-oon. 


Hearing 


- 


- Ngarrngar-boodin, 


Invite - 


- 


- 


Toomba'din-juno. 



Engllflh. 



Katlre. 









LANGUAGE. 




lU 


EngUal 


1. 




KaUve. 


EogllBh 




Katlre. 


Ire - 


• 


. 


Book-kooring, 


Lonesome - 


- 


Gan-gan. 


Irregular 


- 


- 


Narho(m-Hn marr'neen- 


Long - 


- 


Boorr. 








manee. 


Longing 


- 


Mel-both-a dak-harring. 


Is 


- 


- 


Ma-gugcH. 


Look - 


- 


Nang-nak, 


Idand - 


- 


- 


Ba-gerr-brip, 


Lost - 


- 


Yu-bum-angi. 


Jaw - 


- 


•B 


Wang-at'ta, 


Love - 


- 


Onem-da, 


Jealous 


- 


- 


Bang-netn. 


Low (not high) 


- 


Morrt 


Jestiiig 


- 


- 


Laga-ba-boo-en. 


Lnngs - 


- 


Woorba-ooUook. 


Join - 


- 


- 


Kerr-boo-on-ool, 


Lnrk (hide) - 


- 


Marra-go, 


Joint - 


- 


- 


TooT'rong, 


Lying - 


- 


Karrem-bin, 


Joy 


- 


- 


Burd-up, 


Mad - 


- 


Nanga-wo-en. 


Jngolar 


- 


- 


Berr-up, 


Made - 


- 


Ela-mong^gu 


Jump - 


- 


- 


Yurrmrup, 


Maggot 


- 


Moona long. 


Kangaroo 


- 


- 


MtfTfH, 


Maid - 


- 


Bumnie, 


Kangaroos (two) - 


Mirrm-bootor. 


Malady (sick) 


- 


»/fm»->w€ii« 


Kangaroos (many) 


Mirrm-boolok, 


Man 


- 


Kolin or kooUn, 


Keep - 


- 


- 


Mttrm-ak, 


Man-eater - 


- 


Tak'jerran'P-a, 


Kick - 


- 


- 


Karrak, 


Manful 


- 


Boo-gi iL 


Kidney 


- 


- 


MarT'up. 


Manhood 


- 


Jeebooak. 


Kill - 


- 


- 


Cha-buk. 


Manna - 


- 


KuH-am boora. 


Kin - 


- 


- 


Kerr'up'tnon, 


Many - 


- 


Woort'tifi'do, 


Kiss - 


- 


- 


Moo^pom-dak, 


Mark - 


- 


Banda-gat, 


Knee - 


m 


- 


Barreng. 


Marriage 


- 


Yuram'-magai, 


Kneel - 


- 


- 


Bcureng'ge-gorree» 


Marrow 


- 


Birrm. 


Knew - 


- 


- 


Ngarm^gi. 


Marsh - 


- 


Tool 


Knife (sharp stone) 


Kal-boon-kal'boon. 


Massacre 


- 


UU'ulL 


Knock- 


- 


- 


Twmdook, 


Mate - 


- 


Jerrup, 


Know - 


- 


- 


Ngarr-gi. 


Meat - 


- 


Queeup. 


Lad - 


- 


- 


Wya-luk. 


Melt - 


- 


BaUan-doon, 


Lake - 


- 


- 


Bol-hk. 


Memory 


- 


NgargefT-mooH, 


Lame - 


- 


- 


Ngarrboon, 


Men - - 


- 


Kolin dorr. 


Lament 


- 


- 


Woorrboun, 


Men (two^ - 


- 


KooUn-bootor, 


Land - 


- 


- 


Bik. 


Men (many) 


- 


KooUn^oolok. 


Language 


- 


- 


Ngnoci, 


Met - 


- 


Nakorang^an'Ong, 


Large - 


• 


- 


Woort'to, 


Meteor 


- 


El-orlang^, 


Last - 


- 


- 


Wan-qunde, 


Midday 


- 


TilHtng^e-karrd-meen. 


Lazy - 


- 


- 


Wa-boorm, 


Midnight - 


- 


TiUang-ge-naia-^, 


Leaf (of tree) 


- 


Jerrang, 


Midway 


- 


Bag-garr-doee, 


Leak - 


- 


- 


Boee^goun, 


MUk - 


- 


Brim-brim, 


Leap - 


- 


- 


Yumee, 


Milky-way - 


- 


Tirm-galk, 


Least - 


- 


- 


Wg-krook. 


Mind (my mind] 


)- 


Nga-ang-garra noomintH, 


Lice - 


- 


- 


Moon-ang, 


Mine (belonging 


to 


Noogit^leek, 


lack - 


- 


- 


Jamrbah, 


me) 






Life - 


- 


- 


Mooroop, 


Mist - 


- 


Boorr^arrang^ 


Light « 


•• 


- 


Ya-ang^gim, 


Mistletoe - 


- 


Balee. 


Lightning 


- 


- 


Derreng-o, 


Mistake 


- 


To-ton-tavMlan, 


Like - 


- 


- 


Bootham-marra, 


Mock - - 


- 


Boorr-go^neen, 


lip . 


- 


- 


Woorroong, 


Moon - 


- 


Meene-an, 


listen - 


- 


- 


Ngang-gak, 


Moonlight - 


- 


Meene^uirtaon, 


little - 


- 


m 


Wy-krook. 


Mosquito - 


m 


Go-gook, 


lirer - 


- 


- 


Bootko. 


Moth - 


- 


Tarr-ien. 


Lizard - 


- 


- 


Toorrop. 


Mother 


- 


Bdboop. 


Load - 


- 


- 


Bamrbum, 


Mountain - 


- 


Ngarrak, 


Loath - 


- 


- 


Booang, 


Moustaches - 


- 


Ngarrin, 


Locnst- 


- 


- 


Na long na lang. 


Mouth - 


- 


Nga-angdak, 


Log - 


- 


ma 


Woorree-kalk, 


More - 


- 


Togip. 



104 



THE AB0EIGINE8 OF VIOTOEIA: 



EngUab. 



KatiTt. 



EogUalL 



Katire. 



Much - - . 


Woot-too-korreen, 


Pay - 


- 


Marrmoomle-aK 


Mud - 


Beg-gooreen, 


Peace - 


- 


Daminomrinon, 


Murder 


ChiUd-dol. 


Pebble (stone) - 


Moomowroong. 


Murderer - 


MoonHtUtil. 


People 


M m 


Moorre kolindirr. 


Mushroom - 


Beak-goonu 


Perfect 


m m 


Tendebeck. 


Musk-tree - 


TaU, 


Perspire 


- 


Moonmrn-mooraun, 


Myself - - - 


Wan. 


Piece - 


- 


Kongi-gik-wtf krook. 


Naked- 


Yerran, 


Pinch - 


- 


Chiie-bvk. 


Name - - - 


Narreen, 


Pit - 


■ m 


Mirreeng, 


Narrow 


Tarrunumg^arr. 


Pith (in 1^ 


rood) - 


Brong^. 


Nasty - 


BUim-bUim, 


Play . 


- 


ChUak^kerreng, 


Narel - - - 


Meendook, 


Please - 


- 


Onemdd, 


Near - - - 


Tang-anrdoea. 


Plenty - 


- 


Woot-tai^-oo, 


Neck - 


Koorm. 


Pl0Yer- 


- 


Perret-perret 


Need - - - 


Boo-dom-baun. 


Point - 


m mm 


Chm-chtn-nUrm, 


Neglect 


T<hgoom-boun, 


Polish - 


- 


Boomerr^win. 


Nephew 


Kctrri-karri-imboo, 


Pregnant 


- 


Koomxmg-warren, 


Nest - 


Elmo-garang, 


Press (to squeeze) 


Moondak, 


Net - - - 


Oarrt'kirrk, 


Pretty - 


- 


Burrd up^orren. 


Nerer - - 


Ta^goong. 


Prerent 


- 


Me-amhak, 


News - w - 


Kooeeon, 


Pride - 


- 


DoUen, 


Next - 


Koon-at-4ew, 


Promise 


•■ m 


ToombaUangiik 


Nice - 


Boorrd up. 


Protect 


- 


Dia-bd-dm. 


Night - 


Boorreti'de, 


ProTide 


— • 


Ge'-gorbco-danL 


Nimble 


Warrh-warrk. 


ProToke 


- 


Toomhoon e angim. 


No - - - 


Tdgoong. 


Pull - 


- 


Koorr^ak, 


Noise - - - 


Werreng-jerren. 


Pursue- 


- 


Tarrorgak, 


None - - - 


Td-goo. 


Putrid . 


- 


Boodennin, 


North - 


Winr-make, 


Puzzle - 


- 


Ngorboondinrmgargoen. 


Nose - - - 


KA-ang. 


Quarrel 


- 


Wd'kerrd-biL 


Notch - 


Barrip. 


Quartz 


- 


Bcurwong-ge^mooHg, 


Now - - - 


Mangee. 


Racing 


- 




Nurse - - - 


MoondorgaU 


Rage - 


- 


Chipjerreng, 


Oar . - - 


Kana-goo-uhm. 


Bain - 


- 


A4. 


Offer - - - 


Toom-bctl-ang^nin. 


Rainbow 


- 


Brenbe-^ 


Oft - - - 


Md'boo, 


Ramble 


«• » 


Yabb-Iunn, 


Oil - - - 


Yn-nok, 


Rap - 


- 


Mo(mee-muk, 


Old - - - 


Tarrde^oop. 


Rattle - 


- 


Moorrd'WUforrd, 


Once - - . 


Kooptoonrdoe. 


RaTen- 


- 


Wdng, 


One - 


Kooptooru 


Ready- 


- 


Jim brte nm. 


Open - - - 


Yarra-me. 


Receire 


- 


Gongadirr, 


Opinion 


Moonang-namtki, 


Recital 


- 


I^one-ninde-toom'-bik, 


Orator- 


Moondd toom^4ae-neen. 


Recoil - 


- 


Yurrder-booH, 


Orphan 


Moorree-yak, 


Rectify 


M m 


Burdup'tdga-konga-din, 


Out - - - 


Bcmuit-to, 


Red - 


m m 


Grook'warreen or ibiooA- 


Over - - - 


Koondorldt. 






krook warrabiL 


Owl - - - 


Go-goom, 


Reed - 


- 


Jerrerr. 


Pafai - 


Brreng-gem-^ieen, 


Reek (smoke) 


Boorrt, 


Pair - 


Bo»Ua^en. 


Refresh 


- 


Larrge-gi-ang-ing-in, 


Palm (of hand) - 


Boothe-manang, 


Regret - 


- 


Woorr-ia dw-dd. 


Pap - 


Brvn-Brin, 


Reject - 


m «* 


Boarrdadin. 


Papa - - . 


Marrm-moon op warree- 


Rejoice 


- 


Barrboon in in dd. 




geek. 


Rejoin - 


- 


Bcnde-mak, 


Paroquet - 


Yu hoop. 


Relatiye 


(same 


Gerrbik. 


Parrot - - - 


Bro-gU, 


blood) 






Part (of anything) 


Long-ge-gerre-hi, 


Relieye 


m m 


Ngorongak-kan. 








• 


LANGUAGE. 






lUO 


TEi^HiJi, 


NatiTe, 


Rngli^h, 




NatlYe. 


Bemain 


• 


- Mang-an, 


See - 


. 


- 


Nang-cik. 


Bemore 


- 




Seek • 


- 


- 


Ye-S^ak. 


Bend - 


- 


- Twrroomuk, 


Self - 


- 


m 


Kanje groong. 


Benew- 


- 


- Wardcait4mk. 


Send - 


- 


. 


Woorree-mak, 


Bepent 


- 


- Wilke. 


Sepulchre (grave) 


Mirreng, 


Beply - 


- 


- Toombuk'tSu 


Sew - 


- 


- 


Marrgak. 


Beproach 


- 


• NewAim-quenHmoolin. 


Shade - 


- 


- 


Yunak, 


BeproTe 


- 


- Nga-bo'darra-ngitgO'kfmga' 


Shame - 


- 


- 


Wol-anin. 






da. 


Shell - 


- 


- 


Tal-Iang, 


Beaound 


- 


- Karang krmn'ya hreen. 


Shin - 


- 


- 


Kalrge^ang, 


Best - 


- 


- Nga-we. 


Shine - 


- 


* 


Bathd-mooH, 


Bertless 


- 


- WiUi9-wWte ni^a. 


Short - 


- 


- 


Morrt, 


Betrace 


- 


" Nook'kuuhn-^wakin'O-^. 


Shoulder 


- 


- 


Ngang-gerr, 


Betract 


- 


- Twa^gorrakrngooUen^ 


Shower 


- 


- 


Che-brong. 


Beward 


- 


- Mabrim^boonHneen^ 


Shrub - 


* 


- 


Yerrin, 


Bib - 


m 


- Darmeen, 


Shut - 


- 


- 


Toothordk, 


Bight - 


- 


" Boordup, 


Shy - 


- 


- 


Bam^be, 


Bigid - 


- 


- BdUrrt. 


Sick - 


- 


- 


Cherrin^neen, 


Bip - 


- 


- Berrt'muk, 


Side - 


- 


a» 


Marr, 


Bipe - 


- 


- Toegoeen, 


Sigh - 


- 


- 


Nganai-^. 


Biae - 


- 


' Komti^ee, 


Sinew - 


- 


- 


Berr boo. 


Bead - 


- 


- Parreng. 


Sing - 


- 


- 


Engtng. 


Boast - 


- 


- Nang-am^buk, 


Sister - 


- 


- 


LdHngata. 


Bock - 


- 


- Moqferr, 


Sit - 


- 


- 


NgdUmbe, 


Bod - 


. 


- Parrim, 


Skin - 


- 


- 


Morrok, 


Boot - 


- 


' Werrook. 


SkuU - 


- 


- 


Galk'ka^dng, 


Bope - 


- 


- Woodel^woodel 


Sky . 


- 


- 


Woonrworrd. 


Botten. 


- 


- Boderrinrm, 


Slay - 


- 


- 


Gil-boak. 


Bough* 


- 


- Newlim-grooh, 


Sleep - 


- 


- 


Ngi-god, 


Bound - 


- 


- WalUtnrwallan, 


Sleepy - 


- 


- 


Bande-^ng-nan-ngi^golt to. 


Bug - 


- 


" TMod'todool. 


Sleet - 


* 


- 


Kabbing, 


Bumbling 


- 


- MoorrnHmoon, 


Slender 


- 


- 


Kalb^M-mimn broong. 


Bun - 


- 


- Worre wee. 


SUp - 


- 


- 


Borror goidin. 


Bunaway 


- 


- Worrar-angmee, 


Slow - 


- 


- 


Btdjit-bidjO. 


Sad - 


* 


- WoorrbooH, 


Small - 


- 


■» 


Wykrook. 


Said - 


- 


- MaUee-go-ia. 


Smoke - 


- 


- 


Boorrt 


Same - 


- 


- Noone-niF-de, 


Snake - 


- 


- 


KoarmieL 


Sand - 


- 


- Breg^gerr, 


Snore - 


- 


- 


Newaragolm. 


Sang - 


. - 


- Bngi, 


Snow - 


- 


- 


Kabbing. 


Sap - 


- 


- Doo^A-no. 


Soft - 


- 


- 


Dogil-dogiL 




- Wattee-^uUeen. 


Some - 


- 


- 


Wonga geek. 


Sassafras 


- 


- Ching koong. 


Something 


- 


- 


Ngm-'ing-co-miUa. 


Sat - 


- 


- Ngorm'i, 


Son - 


- 


- 


Boo-boo-gorrt, 


Satan - 


- 


- Ngarrang. 


Son-in-law 


- 


- 


Koori'-de'bmg. 


Satisfy 


- 


- Twam-de-groong. 


Song - 


- 


- 


Engak-eng'-eng, 


Sare - 


- 


- Marr^mak, 


Soon - 


- 


- 


Mooloo4to, 


Saw - 


- 


' Ngang-d-din, 


Soot - 


- 


- 


Woogarrd^U. 


Say - 


- 


- Ang-tng^nar-goen. 


Sorry - 


- 


- 


Woobedin, 


Scab - 


- 


- Borhorrom, 


Soul - 


- 


- 


Moorop. 


Scabby 


- 


- Borbrom d chJU 


Sour - 


- 


- 


JKamnrkanm, 


Scar - 


. 


- Boorran, 


South - 


- 


- 


Mirreen or worboom. 


Scare - 


- 


- Noorrbil'-bong-ak, 


Spark - 


- 


- 


Be-be dinen. 


Scatter 


- 


. - Ki-e b(h-ling-^o^ grab. 


Spawn (of fish) 


- 


Drre-drre-^n&lun, 


Sea - 


- 


- BaUm-be warreen. 


Speak - 


- 


- 


ToomHMe, 


Secure- 


- 


- Moong-moong-gak, 


Spear - 


- 


- 


D&rr, 


Seed - 


- 


- Koorr, 


Speed - 


- 


- 


Wondil. 


VOL. 


n. 


i 


3 









106 



THE ABORiaiNES OP VIOTOBLL: 



»fiyHrfi 


Kfttly*. 


Spend - 


- Loott koradtn. 


Spew - 


- Koorr^mi, 


Spit • 


- Jug-an-dak. 


Spittle - 


. KA-gooH 


SpUt - 


- Lalgo-mak, 


Spoke - 


- Toom nangi. 


Sport - 


- Likje bu 


Spring (of wai 


ter) Bun^ng, 


Spy (») - 


- Merrtt, 


Sqnat - 


^mm-orrtiii. 


Squeeze 


- Moon-dak, 


Squint - 


- Ngat'WarrcHKMrreny, 


Stab - - 


- Borr-gi, 


Stake - 


- Ngarrm led. 


Stand - 


- Tarre-dee, 


Star - 


- ToorrU 


Stare - 


- Tan-gong^i. 


Start - 


- Noorrp-tang^-din, 


Steep - 


Aioorr, 


Stench - 


- Boo<mg, 


Stick - 


- KM, 


Stiff - - 


- YulrorrUUn. 


Still-bom - 


" Weak a Inl^mamboodiL 


Sting - 


- Birringun. 


Stomach 


. Ba-boogoorm, 


Stone - 


- Moojerr, 


Stoop - 


- Mije korree. 


Stream 


- Wane-wcM, 


Stride - 


- Yalerrt-te, 


Strife - 


- Bootnool'lunga docl. 


String - 


- Purrt-tean, 


Strong - 


- BaUerrt. 


Stmck- 


- CkUrbireng-an, 


Stupid - 


- Nang-A'tDeen, 


Subtle - 


- Err'neen-bordan'mumee, 


Suck - 


- Brimrbuk, 


Suifocate 


" Moom-goonga'^iool, 


Sulky - - 


- Chipjerreng, 


Summer 


- NgunU'e-ak-korreen, 


Sun - 


- Ngumi, 


Sunburnt - 


- Nangi-ngumed, 


Sung - 


- We-eng-A-din. 


Sunk - 


- Kan-dongadin. 


Sunrise 


- Bukje-korreen-mgumu 


Sunset 


- Kroong konUw-ngumi, 


Sunshine 


' Birkjen-ngumi, 


Supple 


- Doober-doober, 


Suppurate - 


- Karre noon. 


Sure - 


- yew-noon. 


Surfeit 


- Ebeing-god-Ordin, 


Swallow 


- Betl'bett ngom bit. 


Swam - 


- Erra ga din. 


Swamp 


- Boottok, 


Swan - 


- Goon d-warr. 


Sweat - 


- Moorreen-moorreen, 


Sweet - 


- Boo-en, 



Englldi. 



Katlra. 



Swhn - 


- Erra-ge, 


Swing - 


- Boorrorboorra ben. 


TaU - 


- Mooeeboo. 


Take - 


- Kongak, 


Talk - 


- Toom-nee. 


Talking 


- Toom-nangi, 


Tall - 


' Krang-niel, 


Taste - 


- Barra-dak, 


Tattle - 


- Erraneen^arrong'neem, 


Tears - 


- Pawnje mirreng. 


Teeth - 


- Leeang, 


TeU - - 


- Toom-buk, 


Tempest 


- Weti-muUeen, 


Tendon 


- Beerip, 


Terror 


- Bambeidin, 


Testicles - 


- Jdoortt, 


Thanks 


- Ngoon godjuu 


That - 


- Kon-nooe, 


The - 


- Oee, 


Their - 


* MaUee gobiin. 


Thief - - 


- Beat tangi. 


Thigh - . 


- Ngarrge jerrin. 


Thin - 


- Gal-gal mirran. 


Thirsty 


- Kon bon^^non^ 


Thistle 


- Brvgl-brugL 


Thorn - 


- Warr, 


Those - 


- WaooO. 


Thought - 


- Non noo-ngarratig^na noth 




noon. 


Three - 


- BooUo-ween-bagoap, 


Threw - 


- Bo-em badin. 


Throat- 


- Korren, 


Thumb 


. Borbo-vn mamang. 


Thunder 


- WoondabiL 


Thy - 


- Wan, 


Tie . - 


- Berrbak, 


To - - 


- Kondee, 


Told . - 


- Toomba'dool, 


Tomahawk - 


- Karrgeing, 


To-morrow - 


- Yeram^oo-ee, 


Tongue 


- JdUin. 


Top - 


- Koong-jerrang, 


Topple 


- BaderranUte, 


Tom - 


- Toorrm-toormMiu, 


Tortoise 


- Bundabun, 


Track- - 


- Barreng, 


Trarail 


- Mam-badool, 


Trayel- 


- Yanon-inon, 


Trayeller - 


- Bren^wmooU, 


Tree - 


- Kaik or bajerrang. 


Tribe - 


- Marra^nee-gwML-gvna, 


Trick . 


- Ngomrhong^gak, 


Tripe - 


- Brr€^-brra-doo, 


Trouble 


- Wdbong-ngonrboo-jeek, 


Trae - 


- Goon-golong-ngi, 


Trost - 


- Tarm-doon-nonim, 



LANOVAGE. 



102 



XngUflh. 

Try - 
Tmnonr 
Torn . 
TwiUght 
Twist - 
Two - 
Ugly . 
Ulcer - 
Unable 
Unborn 
Unclean 
Under - 
Understand • 
Uneasy 
Uneaten 
Uneren 



UnMr- 
Un&ithf nl - 
Unfasten - 
Unfit - 
Unfold 

Unfortunate 
Unfteqnent - 
Unhappy - 
Unite - 
Unjust 
Unkind 



Unseen 
Unsound 
Untrue 
Untruth 
Unweary - 
Unwdoome - 

Unwell 
Up - . 
Uphill - 
Upper- 
Upright 
Uprise - 
Upward 
Urine - 
Us . 
UTula - 
Vale (a yalley) 
Vanish 
Vapour 
Vast - 
Veui . 
Venom 
Verdant 



KatlTe. 

- Bramuk, 

- Karre-nu 

- WUke. 

' Minak. 

- BoOtnoeen, 

- Jeng^erring, 

- Boomrhmre^neang. 

- Mon'tooletn-narr, 

- Ndbadool-miam'na'^ 

- Intarr-wcrrft-haietn, 

- Koon^e, 

- Ngang4umF4UBn^an to. 

- New lim-'tea-Jkorre nitu 

- Nga-beHiin-iangerr4n, 

- Nga - boun - boUn - tarreng' 

bren or wan/^oan-^imi- 

ba, 

• Ngabocm'noon^'koorreen. 
" Marrangu 

• Boodoom-ngak-kannooi, 

- NUimjak, 

- Boo-dong^nak or boormr 

mak. 

- Mirrimta kooangdm, 

- Ngabonda toojetanin, 

- Ngorbe-dm-darwang^ten, 

- BoomU-mak baXUttak, 

• Wy^kocTong koogajek, 

' Ngorhowi-day or burrd-vp 
korre-nowee^ or ngaboonr 
boodom-babon, 

' Ngarbe-diiirdaF4iang4, 

- Boodorranin, 

- Man-ifirda. 

- Man^in^da. 

- Nga^B'^H-^a-wa-borreefL 

- Nga-be-dtn^da^boodim' 

boun, 

- NiUamturrong, 

- Koobi, 

- Wangtrrip, 

- Kahbareng, 

- Utten. 

- Kooma^e-koobu 

- Kabbareng, 

- Ballge. 

- TTy. 

- Voo^mak, 

. Boan-ngorrm. 

" Euk^bood-^ng^ngi, 

- Boommg, 

- IFoorr-woofT. 

- Barring^e krook-nat 

- BoH-non^^m 



EaglUh. 

Vexed - - t 

Vile - - - 

Villain 

Virgui 

Visible 

Visit - 

Voice (sound emit- 
ted by the mouth) 

Vomit - - - 

Wail Gamentation) 

Wailing 

Wake - - - 

Walk(i;.) - 

Wand (a small 
stick) 

Wandering - . - 

Want - - - 

War - - . 

War (*.) . 

Warm 

Wart - - • 

Waste (to duninish 
or spend) 

Water («.) • 

Water (fresh) - 

Water (salt, as of 
the sea) 

Wattle (the tree so 
called) 

Wax (*.) - 

We - - - 

Weak - - . 

Wear (to waste) - 

Weather (the state 
of the air) 

Weep ( to shed 
tears) 

Welcome (kind re- 
ception) 

Well (a spring of 
water) 

WeU (not sick) - 

Wet (rainy, moist) 

Whale (a large fish) 

What (p.) - 

Wheeze (v.) 

Whelp (a puppy 
dog) 

When - . - 

Whence 

Whenerer - 

Where - 

Whereabouts 

Whet (to sharpen) 

Which - 

While . 



NatiTe. 

Chip'jerrbiengin, 
Newhtm, 

Btime^ume, 
Nga-ga-din. 
Bu-wan^-koo-nongu 
Ngoloo or in'ttong-col'tDom- 

JTrrum-mee. 
JaU marmrngoL 
Mamjerring, 
Tear a be 
Yan. 
Jetrefm 

YaXbUum^kormeen, 

Nono-no-bodom-boun, 

Ngakmg, 

Terrak'irangi, 

Tooni'badin, 

Perrpe, 

Toorongjering-noorong, 

Paen, 
Paen. 
Pakm warren, 

Kirrang^ 

Bejering, 

Wat. 

BarrbontcA-korreen, 

Tooroongjering-noorong, 

Berring tak, 

Eb^ngoUng, 

Wominjeka, 

BcM'-ding, 

Boordup tak kooreen, 

Karrgcding, 

Be-H'tL 

Ining-Jak. 

Kart Hrring, 

Boobop gerranginin* 

Narooe, 

Inongo, 

Moohk rangino, 

Intoorring, 

Inioarring, 

Kirk-kirk-konak, 

Wenerop, 

KooingkooniHingin. 



108 



THE AB0BIGINE8 OF YIOTOBIA: 



EnglUh. 

Whirring (noiie by 
ft bird's wing) 

Whisper ( a low 
Toice) 

Whistle (the sound 
made bj the lips) 

White - - . 

Whither 

Who - - - 

Whole - . . 

Whose 

Why - 

Wide - - 

Widow 

Widower - 

Wife - • . 

Will (choice, com- 
mand) 

Whi (to win a 
game) 

Wince (to shrink 
with pain) 

Wind (a.) - 

Winding (turning 
about) 

Windy 

Wing (part of a 

bird) 

Wink (to shut the 
eyes) 

Winter 

Wish (longing, de- 
sire) 

Wish (to hare a 
strong desire) 

Withhold - 

Within 

Wives - - - 

Woe - - - 

Woman ■ - 

Womanhood 

Womankind 

Womb 

Women 

Women (two) 

Women (many) - 
Wonder (i.) 
Wood (a forest) - 
Wood-ashes 



KAtirt. 



Kart'tirrmg, 
Bran-'bran'kaejar<iMiue, 
Dart tangia. 



Lamhoorreen, 

Either. 

Ela, 

Luttrm-nanffL 

Edcd. 

AinF^ng^iali. 

WilUhorring. 

MooUngrook, 

WarrhU, 

Brimbano, 

Ngabedm. 

Toengorrt tdnu 

fFan-aooRtm 

Moonmoot. 
Wmder-boring, 

Kooreeniak-hfrratun, 
Tare^go. 

MUip'tiUlip^Mmi, 

BBfrentok, 
Intak'kongi, 

Intakrhmgi^ 

Twabongon. 

Mangkie, 

BooUm-korrtHn, 

Woo, 

Baggarrook or bajor» 

Woortbarrmgrookje, 

Woortbarrmgrool^e. 

Korreeni^orreenrnoo, 

Woortanobajer, 

Baggarrook-bootor or 

bajoT'-bootor, 
Bfiggarrookrbooiok. 
IntOrbarra kong^ani juno. 
Kalk. 
Bona be maneep. 



Word (part of 
speech) 

World (the earth) 

Worm- 

Worse 

Would 

Wound (*.) - 

Wrangle (to dis- 
pute) 

Wrap (to roll to- 
gether) 

Wrath 

Wrench (to pnU 
forcibly) 

Wrest (to twist) - 

Wriggle (to more 
to and fro) 

Wring (to twist) - 

Wrinkle (as in the 
£ac^) 

Wrist ,. . - 

Writhe (to dis- 
tort) 

Wrong (•.) - 

Wry (crooked) • 

Tam (the root so 
called) 

Yawn (to gape) - 

Yell (to make a 
noise) 

Yellow - 

Yelp (to yelp as a 
dog) 

Yes - - - 

Yesterday - 
Yet (neyertheless) 
Yield (to produce) 
You - - - 
Young (not old) - 
Young (the off- 
spring of any 
creature) 
Your - ^ - 

Youth (a young 

person) 
YouthAil - 
Zeal . . - 
2Sig-zag (winding) 



Sattve. 



NgoU 



Beektak 

TOTTO, 

Koodong^ 
Met mgaUa , 
Toorerap. 



Mome-mone mak, 

Boogil, 
Koorrbak, 

Koorrbak. 
Borrtjerin bolan^ 



The plural of all liring creatures is expressed by adding «6ootor" 
when more than two» to the singular noun. 

The plural of nouns— of stone, stick, star, &c., &c.— is expressed by 



Stone - 
Stones - 
Stack - 



- Lung. 

- Lung-pirm, 

- Kalk. 



Sticks 

Star 

Stars 



nak. 
NanborrjeHn, 

Ngoangnaita- 
No word. 

Nullmdakf 
Wg-drring, 
Barrtn. 

Yerram-gerram wkoofd^ 
Karrim-neeH, 

Babedtrreen* 
Warram boorboon, 

Ngie, 

YoUinkoe. 

Kooing. 

Woort tanoQ. 

Wan, 

Tarrango. 

Boobooprefk. 



In or din; your hand, 

manongin. 
Wgiak. 

Yean yan. 
Jbolangi, 

Toonda nubn baling ta 
kojen, 

if only two, and ** boohk * 

adding pirm. Thus — 

- Kalk-pirm. 

- Turrt. 

- Turrt-pirm. 



LANGUAGE. 



109 



The sexes are disUngiiiBhed by adding '* fy-goon** (male), and ^ hooner " (female). Thna— 
Male kangaroo - Mtrrm^y-gocn. \ Female kangaroo - Mirrm-booner, 

Possession is indicated thus — 

Stick mj - •* Katk-eek. \ Stick his ... Kalh-o. 



ISngHwli. 

My hand 
My hands 
My foot 
My feet 
My leg 
My legs 
My h«ftd 
My body - 
My hair 
My eyes 
My ears 
My nose 
My teeth - • 
My mouth - 
My lips 
Yonrhand - 
Yonr hands - 
Their hands- 
My horse - 
Tour horse - 
My house •> 
Tour house - 
Their house 
My dog 
My kangaroo 

My face 
Man - 
Old man 
Tonng man - 
Grandfather 
Father- 
Father-in-law 
Stepfather - 
Husband 
Widower - 
Son - - 
Son-in-law - 
Brother 
Brother-]n<rlaw 
Stepbrother 
Uncle - 
Nephew 
Cousin- 
Woman 
Old woman - 
Toung woman 
Girl - 
Children 
Grandmother 



VatlTe. 

Manang-^ek. 
Benjere manan^'Bek. 

Bay ere jenong-eek, 

Jerrifig'-eek, 

Benjere jerring^eek, 

Ka ang^ek. 

Miramreek, 

Yttrr-^ek, 

Mining-eek, 

Wertng-eek, 

Kong-eek, 

Leong-eek. 

Nanda^^, 

Worcng-eek, 

Manang ng na, 

Benjere manang ingna, 

Manang noola me kia weet, 

KtUadamook-eek, 

Kata damook ingna, 

WiUim-eek. 

WilUm mina, 

Noota kia weet wiUim. 

Maramb^eek warning. 

Miramlheek kooe em or 91100- 

eem* 
Meni ha gai^ek, 
Kolin. 
Weekabil 
Yean in, 
Biring groong. 
Mormon, 
Ooniilang, 
Ynong^marman. 
Naing groong, 
Warbil 
Mamam moo. 
Karry^karry imboo, 
Wondowlong or bang gan. 
Kooreit. 
TaH. 
Garrgook, 
WoonUng, 
Beeninang, 
Baggarrook, 
Moondegrook, 
Moondik. 
Moon-moondik, 
Booboop nark. 
MaUng tra. 



EogUflu 

Mother 
Stepmother 
Wife - 
Widow 
Daughter - 
Sister - 
Sister*in-law 
Aunt - 
Niece - 
Wedding - 
Friend- 
Ancestors - 
Tribe • 
I hear - 
They hear - 
We hear 
Come - 
I come- 
We come - 
Go - - 
Igo . 
Wego- 
They go 
I am going - 
We are going 
They are going 

Give me a stone - Koongageek lung. 
Give him a stone - Koongogoono lung. 
I gave yon some water Woongana ngalan bawn. 
I will not giye you Ngidbaner nelena woongana 

some water b awn y£6ia. 

Give me some bread Koontabageek noorcng. 
We will give you a Woongana ngana kalk. 

stick 
We will not giro Ngabeninalina woongankaVL 

you a stick 
Gireme somebread Woongageek noorong nery 
to eat, I am hungry bery nen. 
This is my hand - Kabbe mamong'-eek. 
Sing me a song - E'ingook e ing e ing^ 
Whereisyonrfather? Intoom marmanf 
He is my father - Myo marman. 
My father is here- Marman^-M 0^. 
He is not my father Ngaboon myo nuxrmaneek. 
We drink water - Ngobenin bawn. 
My brother has a Panggangen-eekneremtarago, 

long arm 
My sister is rery tall Leearook-^ek nerem to. 
He has two children Benjeroo booboop. 
The sun is rising • Naween wary ween. 



Satire. 

Pchpa. 

Wardi grook. 

Brim bin. 

Bundun grook, 

Mang keep or kerin. 

Lee woorK 

Yum mvrrkn 

Bum boora. 

Ba pi. 

Karbo baggarrook yer am mial. 

Kireep. 

Lee wtA, 

Nara nee kanie-kanie. 

Ngamkadin. 

NooQang ngamgit. 

Ngargian, 

Warry wee, 

Yefyefyan ue wen, 

Brenen ngan. 

Berr yanee. 

Maian yanid, 

Berr yanee bit. 

Yanina moonaga. 

Wentoom moong yaninin, 

Wendit ka yanin. 

Yanooyul moonaga. 



110 



THE ABOEIGINES OP VICTOEIA: 



English. 



NatiT«. 



The sun is set - Naween hoorgoin. 

It is raining - - Purmtn bawn. 

It is a fine day - Naweendtu 

It is a oold day - Mooter boon ptm'dUL 

' It is frosty - - Tang btilk. 

It is snowing - Kaving. 

That is a fine tree Burdup tirang. 

That is good grass Bvrdup booit, 

1 am BLck - - Toe win, 

A kangaroo is feeding in the scrub. 
Quooeem tangarboom yerrin oot. 

I have killed him. 
Malanong pard4-ga, • 

One of us will go down the creek. 
Mirram ngafat yani bit mithe koorong noot. 



EnglUh. 



Kative. 



I am well - - Burdup hoory enin. 
Take a stick and KoongaA kalk teilbok, 

beat the dog. 
The dog is beaten Teibok kaka kaUL 

with a stick. 
Whereareyongoing? Wether yanonf 
I am going to the Yanenin-^agara goit, 

mountain. 



Get me my spear and I will kill him. 
Konga gee darak pardi-yan* 

Let us roast him and eat him. 
Perr toneebit tangi it 

One of us will go into the scrub. 
Mila yaninamiUi yerrin ooL 



We will meet at the big water-hole, where the fish are plentiful. 
Jdala-doong nange^a tamboor teenoo, noo-noo hooding {^^toobet ba by eo<A^. 

* Flah and eela. 



One. 
Kanbo, 


Two. Three. Four. 
Benjero, Beiyero hanbo. Benjero^fetyero, 

Six. 
Bet^enhbenjero ba benjero^ &a 


Pi?e. 
Benjero-benjero ba hanbo. 


Sun - 
Sunrise 
Morning 
Sunset - 
Evening 


- NgtmU or na-toeen, 

- Windar-ring, 

- Bar-ring or yar-am-bring, 

- Qurm-qun, 

- MoUoh^noUoh, 


Night (dark) 
Moon - 
Light (day) - 
Stars . 
Star - 


m Morp-poreen, 

- Tra^ujeen or meane-awL 

- Karry-mean, 

- Turtpir'am 
^ Turt, 



am going to strike - - . 

am going to find a nest 

am going to lie down - ^ . 

am going to chew the meat 

am going to scold her 

am going to fish with a line 

am going to chop with my axe - 

am going to watch him 

am going to bum the wood 

am going to pour out the water - 



M&ngee* yean-noonj&in^ hoondee chilbunen. 
Am going I to strike. 

M&ngee yean-noonj&in hooondee ye&hinin eUuwfd. 
Am going I to find nest a. 

Mdngee yean-noonjd'in hoondee hanam'boobih. 
Am going I to lie down. 

Mdngee yean^noonjffin hoondee tdngdrrboonin hoeap'ta. 
Am going I to chew meat the» 

Mdngee yean-noonjffin hoondee wygan'oo. 
Am going I to scold her. 

Mdngee yean-noon/ffin hoondee hootooh-chabih indfo wood'l-wodl. 
Am going I to fish with a line. 

Mdngee yean-noonj&in hoondee tUfarrdbih harrgeen tah. 
Am going I to chop axe my. 

Mdngee yean^noonj&in hoondee ndng-narror-noomnin. 
Am going Z to watch him. 

Mdngee yean^noonj&in hoondee werrgd-ni-wan halh. 
Am going I to bum the wood. 

Mdngee yean^noonjb'in hoondee je-gan'Oirwan pden. 
Am going I to pour out the water. 



• Mdngee might be rendered ** Be," thus i—** I be going to strike.*' 

t Tean-noanfdt ** going,** or yecuum, "go/* In all cases signifies that the person has to walk to do the thing : I am 

going to strike— ifdfidM ehiBmnen'in. 
Be strike L 



XANGTJAGB. 



Ill 



I am about to take it 



I intend to keep it 



Mdngee koon'gin'in wan. 
Am about take I it. 

M&ngee marm-nonrin wan. 
Am intend keep I it. 



I am going to sharpen my spear - Mdngee yean-noonj&in koondee hurr'narrah'ik goeecmftak. 



Am going I 



to 



sharpen spear my. 



He hit me on the head - 



The bird eats 



How does the snake bite to kill 
man ?— With his teeth. 



I am rery angry - 



CkUb'Stng-an katwotng^oo malee. 
Hit on the head my he. 

Qui'ip^ui'ip tangdrboun. 
Bird eats. 

Moorrdak koaderboHn boonderboon koolon-^noong werrp-poderboHn 
How does bite snake kill 

hooUn'tdk f — Bondang'in U&ngoo, 
man a? — With his teeth. 

Mangee ckipche/non'in. 
Am angry yery I. 



Me - 
He - - 
They - 
We (two) - 
We (many) - 
My pipe 
Tour pipe - 
His pipe 

a 



- Wdn or wdr, 

- Mainie, 

- JimObocUn, 

- Wy. 

- Wy^Jak, 

- Pipeek, 

- Pipin, 

- Pipjin, 



Her pipe 
Their pipes - 
Igo - 
Wego- 
They go 
Hego - 
She go - 



- Piptoo. 

- Pipoo'gob bilin* 

- Mdngee yean^cnin, 
' Mdngee yeanibi 

- Mdngee yeanebod. 
~ Mdngee yeaniboom, 

- Mdngee yeani'dool'Ching' 

kd. 



KoTX.— You will notice that the word Mdngee is used in the pltiral as well as in the singular. 
The same word {Mdngee) is used thus : ^Mdngee: There in that place, or there it is ; Mdng: Here 
in this place, or here it is. 



My dog 
His dog 



- Yerdng-in'eek, 

Dog my. 

- Yerdng-in^din, 

Dog his. 



Her dog 
Their dog - 



Yerdng-in'd, 
Dog her. 

Yerdng4n oogob-biluu 
Dog their. 



At that time there were a great many men, 
women, and children, but now there are but 
few of us. But since we began to settle and 
live in our own houses, we haye improyed 
much. 

We are now happier, and glad to see so many 
children about us. 

Some are coming home ; they are now tired of 
the bush. 



NoogaOoe kolin ba badjurr ba boobop boola dm. 
Mange walakrwaiak koorong^horreta boonUhy 
boom-brong-ngi lak-broongi ba billi ngaUtmhoo^ 
naje eUim-^mong-atta maen borrdoptak koorreeni» 

Mange jen-de-y borrdoptak Aorre-galeen bamdoen 
nangonoado warrMoonrto boobop koorreen barr* 
neen yarr-weU-anre bo-ongatta, 

Twagoon-^iie wa bongarrby worroro balk-^ak. 



Bono — Wdk-mik. 
[Very old Song, made on the occasion of an Earthquake.] 

Twarde kan noo toombi, jewa^to-me-me-Jet Wanellma % i i iningjak barrormHa brinbohne wonio 
ngiar-grroen bel-bel targeUbooel-^eek karwen maU, 

LrrxRAL :-^rhat will do of that kind of things. What is that noise at the back of my camp ? 
It makes the ground shake and the gum-trees tremble. 



112 



THE ABOBIGIKBS OF YICTOSIA: 



ShOBT 8XNTXKCE8y STC. 

There are two to each of joa • • • . Mamgt boBawooen moogal boL 

Oire Ha one each ...... Brrmg brramg htOimg wamgarbt, 

Eiferj one of na will go - - - - - Tends wy laUrr noomg ngam-^fou wiango. 

Either of na will go ----- - Yame boMgaita, 

neither of na wiU go ..... Nga hamabol yamam jfouwoMg. 

Neither of na haa got it • - - - . Ngi a boon tong ka yon anga wamtoau 

I killed a female kangaroo .... JdbadinbabooHdomirramtak;m 

JeWadin wurram boonerrtak. 

I killed a male kangaroo - - - - . Jdbadin iwarde boop torong mirramtak ; ot 

JeibaMn mirram fy gormtoL 

lHj head ia rerj tore ..... Kaongeekjerreneen yovronge. 

Thy hand ia rery dirty ..... Manongin werreneen woorrk-koonie katmeeniak. 

Hia hand ia Teiy aore ..... Mamongojerremeen, 

Her hand ia Tery aore ..... Manongojerremeen^ 

Onr honae ia very cold ..... Werreneen tUintatta bandal4ak koorrau 

Tonr honae ia rery good - . . . . Bamena elUmin borrdoptak koorreen. 

Their honae ia reiy bad - ... - Werreneen jen-moodHwUannewUwUakhoorreen. 

What ia that? Weenercptakf 

Who ia that? - Weenerop newanf 

That ia a atone Kajeng ka mojertak. 

It ia a atone Neman mojer. 

If any do not like Coranderrk, they can go Ngia boon bodoom boon maen beek hi yanep wya- 

away, and come back by-and-by. </aA mooloko twagie maga Coranderrktea, 

Thia place (Coranderrk) ia rery good. It ia Bordop manbeek koorreen ngaboon nga koorreen 

better to lire here than to go abont and ' toonia kiongia bambo ngo opka iongia baHmta, 

drink. 

The Government haa gathered na from the drink. Mange moork-moork karboon ngarringe magah 

ba li miah. 

Bad white men hare nearly killed all onr men Magah newlamiew hoomideet noongo weerki laU 

and women. trang mangi kolin ba badjewer, 

I am going to the mountain to-morrow. I will Yankrang a din errimbooe kabanda bolaga ngiat' 

make a hnt \ and I will hunt two daya for the rangin din efluac koorong nem-manin boU wyin 

lyre-bird. I will then come back to my own nin boh^obi nemaroongin wyrongan nga gan 

honae. nudongngam mada twagonngi kone bolage Mn- 

tqfe mong pqje. 

We are going to bed now i for we mnat get np Mange younui brrea-ang'il, boormea koma irri- 

to-morrow at break of day, becanae we are angih boorrntoe jenu/bolage wendanin nang-nal 

going orer the mountain. ngurraktoe. 

They are all rery bad men and women the people Quing-ke newOu^ak kJin ba badjurr, mangby-en 

who lire in the bnah. yanone baIk'4oe, 

Before the white people came to onr conntiy we Maga bigangaUa brreni koomofe noogal booda-do 

were all yery happy together ; but when they borrdoptak kroong-i-a, mal brreni noogaUooe 

came they gave na grog, and it made na mad. woongerby balimta ba bolage nganga boongerr- 

boon. 

Then we became nnhealthy, and began to die off. Noome nearroka^4ak werrk boongerby. 



Abticls. 

A honae ........ Koinee eOm, 

A honae. 

The honae ........ Koogik elUm, 

GXNDSB. 

Male kangaroo ....... Mirramfy goorm. 

Female kangaroo ....... Mirram booerr. 



LANGUAGE. 



113 



Plubal. 

Eangaroos ........ Mirram woottan noo. 

Trees -.----.-- Kalk-bt/jerrang, 

Tree Kalk. 

Men ---..-.-- KooUnboolick, 

Adjectives. 

A tall man ........ Kamangnile koolin. 

A taller man -..---.- Tcng^iong korrin. 







Pbonouns. 




Engllah. 




KatlTs. 


BngHBh. 


NatlTB. 
Poueasive, 




PerMnai, 


Tonn - 


- NoogdUn. 


I 


- 


- Wan, 


His . 


- Noogah, 


Then - 


- 


- Warr. 


Ours - 


- NoogaJangm, 


He 


- 


' Moonee. 


Theirs - 


. Noogaltaiu 


She - 
We . 


. 


' No equivalent. 
- Wanginin, 


Who - 


BelaHve, 

- Weenerop. 


You - 


- 


- Wangan^ 


What - 


• Ining. 


It 
They - 


- 


- No eqmralent. 

- Dod. 


Which - 
That - 


• Ining^ack, 
- Manen. 



Myhonse - - EUim ««A. 

House my. 

Thy house Eltimngoot. 

His house .......... EUimo, 

Her house .......... EUimo, 

Your house ......... EUim in. 

Our house - .- EUim atta. 

Their house Jew do tool Mm, 

Each -----..... Bring-bring bUing. 

Each man is going ........ Bring-^ring biling yanep koolin. 

Either -....-.... Mandoroong, 

Either of you may go ....... Mandoroong wangin pane. 

May you go. 
Neither -...--..-- Ngahedin, 
Neither of you is going ....... Ngahedin walangin yanep. 

Some -..--..... Wonga, 

Give me some ......... Wonga koonga-geek. 

Some give me. 
Other .-....--... Youong, 

Give me the other ........ Youong hoonga^geeK 

Other giro me. 
None --•-..---.- Ngahoondok. 

Any - KaUamiUee, 

Here ---.--..-.- Woo. 

There- ....--...- Mongdew, 

Here (putting something into your hand) .... Woo. 

Here it is (showing you something) ..... Mang. 

There (pointing to something at hand) .... Mangdew. 

Over (there before you) ...---- Mange or Mango, 

TOL. II. P 



114 



THE ABORIGINES OF VICTOEIA: 



Eogllih. 

Backward 
AboTe- 
How - 
Why - 
When - 
Little - 
Enough 
After > 
Never - 
Once - 
Twice - 



Katly«. 

Ngarrgeegonen, 

Ngitr-ngirrwan, 

Noorotqurongi. 

Ining tala. 

Ngarroie, 

Wykrook, 

Twarn, 

Wang karring, 

Ngabondiik, 

Kooptoon-toe, 

Bcdhoot'toe, 



English. 

Again • 
About - 
After - 
Againtt 
Before 
Behind 
Below - 
Beside - 
Between 
Beyond 
Down - 



- TooU). 

- Mang bajin, 
" Waude tew. 

- Weta brangL 

- Bambo, 

- Wanejeek. 

' My-JB-dt'ddk. 

- Nga tojeek. 

- Bageroe, 

- Jegou, 

- Mie. 



Between the hands . - - - - 

Under the stone ..... 

Into the water ------ 

Into the fire ------ 

Into the hole .-.-.- 
At the fire ..-..- 
So was he ------ 

That is it 

Unless you go ----- - 

Bigger than that one - . . . 

Yet he would not do it - 

Go round there ------ 

Here itis- 

Thereitis 

Where is it? 

Only one more ------ 

How did you go ? - 

Why did you come f - - - - 

That is enough ------ 

Very often ...... 

He comes sometimes - - - - - 

He came once ------ 

He did it twice ..... 

I will go again .-..-- 
Go through the creek . - . - 
Go round the road . - - - - 

I go oyer the mountain - - - . 

We are going over the mountain 

He has gone over the mountain 

Will you go over the mountain ? - - 

I would go and hunt, but I have no gun - 

I will go if you will go - - - - 

Go and kill the cat - - - - - 

Come back soon - - - - - 

Bring me some fire - - - . - 

We will go and fish to-morrow - - - 

And the fish will bite, and we will eat 
them. 



Bageroe manongoe. 
Mangadin mon hi uryjuH mojer to, 
Poje pawntoe, 
Poje weentoe, 
Poje mringtoe. 
JeyoH weetUoem 
Toonda koorrangi mandew. 
Nga i e. 

Mailer emer tooio. 
Woortto koorreen kanano. 
Wangadino nga bejak'kongi, 
Mongtew koorrnee kaUi, 
Mange, 
Kaleno, 

Intaje koomento f 
Kooptoonje toolo, 
Norrar kormang-ngi 9 
Inongar-krong ngif 
Twarje newan new, 
Noje-noje, 

Brmon negol jew-jew tak, 
Brrenaje coopton-toe, 
Nol kong ngi bolabil-toe, 
Yaninin toolo. 

Yanin niwan breen brong'inin kaktderr'toe. 
Waiuen-waltien kone kilUng-inin barrangg<U-4oe. 
Mange bring-krrong inin ngurrak-toe. 
Mange yan kongjerring neen ngurrak*toe, 
Yani Jeeng ka ngurrak-toe je kab-anfy. 
Yanini warr ngurrak-toeje bin krranginnif 
Yanadan toongka ba mein ga ngia drung boohbH 

tak. 
Yaninin tak kaUangnarr yanan, 
Yane me ba tywagera bededool. 
Twagar nigon nermoo, 
Wanta gea ween kanan noo. 
Golok jada kormde maUon. 
Milajele nagrot bandar ban boU nonaje tangarea 

errimboe. 



LANGUAGE. 



115 



Names of Nativs Animals. 



EngUih. 

Bear 

Natire cat 

Kangaroo 

Wallaby 

Wombat 

Katiye dog 

Opossum 

Squirrel (l<u^S®) 

Squirrel (small) 

Lizard G&rge) 

Swan 

Native companion 

Crow 

Cockatoo (white) 

Cockatoo (black) 

Back 

Wood dack - 

Mountain duck 

Emu 



NatiTe. 

Koab-burr. 

Beth-e-dd. 

Mirrim, 

Wimbd. 

Warreen, 

Yearangin, 

Walert, 

Pocng-goong, 

Warrin. 

Pudjeing. 

Goon-d-warr, 

Goorroak, 

Wang. 

Ngiak, 

Na^u-na-duk, 

Tulum. 

Bik-moon. 

Winak^i. 

Boorri'muL 



EngllBb. 

Plover - - - 
Pelican 
Lyre-bird - 
Jay - - - 
Eagle - . - 
Pigeon - - - 
Laughing jackass 
Bat - - 
Platypus 
Magpie 

Parrot - - - 
Bustard 
Porcupine - 
Kangaroo-rat 
Snake - - - 
Quail - - - 
Hawk (little) 
Grubs (in trees) - 



Natire. 

Peret-peret. 

Bil-e-gin. 

Bulin^bulin, 

Buleeri'buleen. 

Bunjel, 

Moongoob-bdrrd. 

Koorring'koorring. 

Billeang, 

Wad-dirrang, 

Parr'Warrang. 

Boorrgil. 

Bred-eL 

Kd'tcarren, 

Barrook, 

Ka-dn. 

Bontrgin, 

Klu-roong, 

Mihrk, 



GOULBURN TRIBE. 



A kangaroo is feeding in the scrub. 

Mirrim tangarboon ngarvp toe, Gong-naget dear 

Let us roast him and eat him. Give me a stone. 

Beer nangebethoo tang-ado, Gong-naget moorrer. 



Get me my spear and I will kUl him. 

barenoo. 



I gave you some water. 
jSjftnefi wongipawn. 



We will give him a stick. 
GongangaUu kaUt. 



I will not give you some water. 
Ngabenan wanin wongin pawn. 

Give me some bread. 
Gong-chabagaeek noorong. 

We will give you a stick. 
Wonginnio wanin ktUk, 



Give him a stone. 
Gong-ngago moorrer. 

We drink water. 
Nooboonni pawn. 



We will not give you a stick. 
Ngabenan wanin kalk. 



Give me some bread to eat. 
Intarrik wook taboon noorong tanganoo. 



This is my hand. 
MagguUe manangeek. 



Smg me a song. 
Intarr wengin. 



One. 
Booptin. 



Where is your father? 
Inta koonin warrijinf 



He is my father. 
Mang^mdn warrijin. 



My father is here. 
Warrijeeh magguUee. 



He is not my father. 
Naboontanka warrijeek. 



ICti yHah- 



Katlyf. 



Bone 


- Kalkgn. 


Blood - 


- Koorh. 


Matter - 


- Booihen. 


Brain - 


- Doonden. 


Heart - 


- Dorong, 


Lirer 


• Booing-ata. 


Kidney - 


" Marp^ta, 


Bowels - 


- Meiang-ata 



Two. 


Three 




Four. 


BtdabU. 


Bulawin ba 


goop. 


Bvlawin'bulawin, 




English. 


Katire. 




Blow 


_ 


TeUfuk. 




Chit 


- 


Pentuck. 




Kick - 


m 


Meranak. 




Fall 


- 


Batherembi, 




Swelling - 


- 


Karrenin. 




Heaven - 


- 


Woor woon. 




Sky 


- 


yVoorwoon. 




Cloud - 


. 


Lark. 



116 



THE ABORIGINES OF VICTOBIA: 



Enflish. 



Kftti^e. 



Thick clond 


- Mondirking lark. 


Mist 


- Boorang. 


Rain 


- AeL 


Hail 


- Mooreer, 


Snow 


- Kabing. 


Ice 


- Tangbelk, 


Thaw - 


' Tenfdebeek tangbelk. 


X'lood - 


- Woorlbillg pawn. 


Air 


- Wanang-wanang. 


Wind - 


- Gooreen. 


8tonn - 


- Wondoaebel. 


Calm 


- Dereming, 


Sound - 


- Woondo, 


Noise ^ 


- Wering gering. 


SileDce - 


t Tvminee. 


Lightning 


- Jerringoo, 


Thunder T 


- Woodobii, 


Fire 


- Ween, 


Spark - 


- J^evdinen, 


Blaze - 


- Ye up kanun. 


Smoke - 


- Boori, 


Ashei - 


- Muneep, 


Heat 


- Woolen, 


Cold - 


- Mooter ween. 


Sun 


- Ngumi. 


Moon 


- Menan, 


Star 


^ Turt. 


Meteor - 


r Goorbenee turt. 


Planet - 


- Luan. 


Seven Stars 


- Moon^moondih, 


Spring - 


? Kom brook. 


Autumn - 


- Berreen. 


Light - 


- Yearam. 


Darkness 


- Booreen, 


Day 


- Karry mean. 


Night - 


'f Booreen, 


Sunrise - 


- Wondang ngumi. 


Twilight- 


. Moolok-moolok, 


I hear - 


^ Ngain konindo. 


We hear - 


- Koby ngarrngoon. 



He hears 
They hear 
I go 

I am going - 
We go - 
They go - 
I am sick 
He is sick 
They are sick <- 
We are sick - 
I was sick 
I am well 
He is well 
We are well - 
They are well- 
I am hungry - 
They are hungry 
We are hungry 
He is hungry r 
I am hot- 
He i9 hot 
They are hot - 

We are hot « 
I am cold 
You are cold - 
Look 
Look here 
Look yonder - 
Go - - 

Come 
Go up T 
Go oyer - 
Gk) down- 
Come up- 
Come oyer 
Come down - 
Come in - 
Go out - 



KatiTe. 

Ngarrngoon maUee. 
Ngarmkarrbon man^ee, 
Mangee yanunin. 
Mangee yaninin. 
Intaee yanoni. 
Yanool tongka. 
Jerrinin tongka. 
Jerrinin mang'ee, 
Jerrinin kal buncherin. 
Jerrinin ingen tongka. 
Jerrinin athin tongka twam. 
Boomdup kooren-mun. 
Boomdup kooren mang'ee. 
Boomdup kooreningen mang. 
Boomdup koorenool mangee. 
Mangka nearebrea nun. 
Nearebrenool mang'ee. 
Mangka nearebren kalbuncherin, 
Nearebren mang'ee. 
Mangooloon tak koorin^un. 
Wooloon tak koorin mang'ee. 
Wooloon tak koore kal bunckerin 

mangee. 
Wooloon tak kooren mang, 
Loork4oork kooren^nun mang. 
Loork-loork cker koorenar. 
Ngarar mangee, 
Nganak mang, 
NganaJi chew, 
Yanee. 
Wonde. 
Yaneedo, 
Yaneedo ban, 
Barang-barang yanee, 
Wende. 

Koondelee kado, 
Barrawee miee,' 
Koong ke kado. 
Bene'do miethering. 



LAKE CONDAH TRIB^. 



Engllah. 

My hand 
My foot 
Your hand - 
His hand 
I wiU go - 
I am going - 
He is going - 
They are going 



NatiTe. 

Murungan. 
Tinungan. 
Murung ngo, 
Murung newang. 
Boor peer, 
Boorpoea, 
Boor pa. 
Boor ee. 



EngUflb. 



Xatlve, 



There - - - Wonda. 
Oyer there before Moon^o or moon^e, 
you 



Up there 
Down there - 
Look there - 
Look here - 
Look, look I 



Kan noo. 
Wan new, 
Na ka go eot, 
Na ka, 
Na ka! na ka! 



LAKaUAOB. 



117 



EngUsb. 

Go and look- 

I say - - , 

To die - 

Dead . . - 

He is dead - 

All done 

Gire me bread - 

Food (general) - 

Meeting (general) 

Track - - - 

This track - 

Stone tomahawk - 

Grass - - . 

Father - 

Mother 

Brother 

Sister - 

Son ... 

Daughter - - 

Husband 

Wile - - - 

Hand ... 

Foot - - - 

Head ... 

Body ... 

Eyes ... 

Nose - f - 

Ears . . - 

Month ... 

Teeth ... 

Hair - 

Tongue 

Sun ... 

Moon . r . 

Wind - 

Stars ... 

Bain - 

Snow ... 



Natfra. 

Na ka booree, 

Nga took, 

KalprtncL, 

Noo kati yah wonda. 

Nga go. 

Bang ng<U Ua ook kivfo. 

Yung mita yung mita, 

Ngool halin gooHn* 

Qtforwu 

Tarn. 

Moombe tarn. 

Mode eher. 

Pootong, 

Bepi. 

Ngrrong, 
Warti. 
KM. 

Koping ung, 
Ngaft vn. 
Ngvm up, 
Maibung^ 
Murung. 
Tin ung. 

Pirn. 

Koong, 

Meeng, 

Kapung, 

Wing. 

NguUing, 

Tangang. 

Ngarat, 

Tal lang, 

Nga ung, 

Taroo, 

Ngondok. 

Ming^al, 

Mie-ung, 

Ywmgarang, 



EngllBb. 

Thunder 
lightning e 
light (morning) - 
Dark (night) 
Whirlwind - 
Water - 
Opossimi 
Kangaroo - 
Cockatoo 
Crow ... 
Kill the kangaroo* 
Are you going ? . 
Throw the spear - 
Going away f 
Come here r 
Coming here ^ 
Groing to sta^ Are 

days 
One - r . 
Two - . • 
Three - . - 
Four - . - 
Ten . r - 
Stone ... 
Fish (general) 
Eel . - - 
Black-flsh t 
Duck ... 
Swan ... 
Emu - r r 
Blood ... 
Breath- 
Spirit (soul) 
Bad - - - 
Good - - - 
God (or big man) 
Devil ... 
Seren St^rs 



Native. 

Mamdal. 

WiUm nung, 

KaiaU 

Boorong. 

Weeung-weeung gor» 

Parech. 

Koora moh. 

Korqng, 

Na nvh, 

Wang. 

^alprtna na koorin. 

Watoongen 9 

Mia tara» 

Boorfnen, 

Wata. 

Wat tok mar tin ba. 

Kart murung goot ^ hoot, 

Ki upa. 

BoUta, 

Bala meo* 

Bolita'boliia, 

J^dita murung (two hap^s)* 

Mart. 

Yarar, 

Queang. 

Quia. 

Mooee* 

Koona wttnh 

Koping. 

Kereh. 

Ngango. 

Moorop. 

Ammeng^r. 

Otung, 

PrenheaL 

Ngot hoot. 

Mepatoom^ 



lis THE ABOSIGINEB OF TICTOSIA: 



SUCCINCT SKETCH OF THE ABORIGINAL LANGUAGE. 

(Bt WflXUV TmCMAM, XtOy QVAMDUM <fW AbOBIO] 



G 

From ob«crration« I have been led to make, and attentively noticing their 
expressions, I am led to conclude that, like many of the civilized langoagea, 
much is abridged by the use of prepositions . and terminations, which give a 
musical tone to savage languages not to be found in civilized tongues. Such 
has been observed in the South Sea Islanders, and generally among other 
barbarous nations ; in fiict, every Aboriginal is a true child of nature, and 
nothing more than what is actually required will be found in their language. 
Reduplication is a feature in the Aboriginal language of the two Melbourne 
tribes, which renders it at one and the same time simple and harmonious. 
The degrees of comparison in the adjectives are generally formed thus — War- 
brinufif tired; Woririnunun^ very tired; Warbrinununufiy excessively tired — 
regularly done. Iferrebrunin^ hungry ; Nerrebruninunj very hungry ; Nerre- 
bruninununj regularly famished ; and so on, though they sometimes say Kungee 
nerrebrunin^ excessively hungry. 

Articles are seldom used, the numeral adjectives answering fully their 
purpose. The article is always used (though at the termination) when 
describing any part of the human frame, and that in an elegant manner. 
After f the : thus — Myng^ eye ; Myngartevy the eye; TaHan^ tongue; TaHanarter^ 
the tongue. They, however, often use the participle o for "the," as — Teming^ 
foot ; TenungOf the foot ; Myngo^ the eye, &c. 

Plurals are generally formed with the numerals, though sometimes (quite 
an original method) by ge to the end of the first singular, making both the 
the substantives plural, thus — KooliUj man; Bagrooky woman; Koolingee- 
bagrook, men and women; and often dispensing with the conjunction alto- 
gether ; thus — Weiitf fire ; Parn^ water ; Weiih-pamy fire and water. 

Verbs are more regular ; in fact, they appear one and all upon one general 
footing, like the French, but destitute of the irregular and refiective. Their 
verbs invariably terminate in eiL The eit cut off, and the verb may be 
conjugated; though I could never go through or find out, as in the French 
and English grammar, the whole of the tenses. I select a few of the principal 
verbs. 



Buigan«it 




- to hare. 


Komargeit * 


9 


> to get up. 


Borgoneit - 




- toipear. 


Koonaneit 


- 


- to hold. 


BonldoDcil - 




• tofklL 


Mardoneit 


* 


- to cry. 


Bonndoneit • 




- to bite. 


Monkeit 


- 


- to make or do. 


Onolbiiikeit • 




- to cany. 


Mamgoneit • 


- 


• to mend. 


Gomraiseit " 




- to coTer. 


NamgoDeit - 


- 


- to hear. 



* An extract from a Eqwi ^ a Sekct Committee of tke LegidaHvt Ooumcil ^ Vietaria m ike 
1S5S-9. 





LANGUAGE. 




Ngarneit 


- to Bee. 


IJmoneit 


- to throw. 


NobeaDeit - 


- todrink. 


Koomoneit - 


- to bury. 


Pimdarroneit 


- to dig up. 


Wolwooneit - 


- to run. 


Pamimboneit 


- to rub out. 


Weagolaneit 


- to die. 


Paarthrabnneit - 


- to steal. 


Wongoruneit 


- to be stupid. 


Tnnganeit - 


- to eat. 


Yemoneit - 


• to dwell. 


Toewangeit - 


- to go. 


Taarkoneit - 


- to look for. 


Tomboneit - 


- to enquire. 


Yarwoneit - 


- to swim. 


Toomdereneit 


- to talk. 


Yannoneit - 


- to walk. 


Tiowoneit - 


- to be sick. 


Yangowlaneit 


- to go away. 



119 



Thus — Bangeaif haye ; Banganerd<m, I did hare ; Yartpon, swim ; Yarwonerdon, I did swim ; 
Tanganarcika, did I eat ? Bouldonerdon, I did ML ; and so on. Since they have been with the white 
people they, howerer, use the pronouns I, you, &c.y thus — Murrumbeek yarwoTt^ I swim ; Murrun^ 
bmner tanganan, you eat ; &c., &c., &c. » 

Frononns are also subject to reduplication by abridging or annexing to the 
terminations, thus — 



Murrumbeek - 
Murrumbiek - 



- I or me. 

- Mine. 



Adverbs in like manner, as — 

Ganbo - - - - One. 
Ganboden ... Once. 
Granbony - - - First. 



Murrumbinner 
Murrumbianner 

Bengero 
Bengeroden - 
Bengerodenum 



Thou or you. 
Yours, 



Two. 

Twice. 

Second. 



Particles are seldom used separately, and are so strangely interwoven with 
verbs, adverbs, and the other parts of speech, that, in a brief sketch like this, 
it would be useless to enter upon. 

Conjunctions they have but few ; but all that are necessary. 

I will now give a list of the principal adverbs, particles, prepositions, 
conjunctions, &c. The verbs have been briefly given, and the adjectives will 
come in the regular vocabulary. 

Adyerbs of Number. — Ganboden^ once; Ttiuie«, only; Tmdee bengerOf ovi\y two ; Tindee bengenh^ 
ganmelf only three. 

Adverbs of Order,^ Ganbony, first; Ganbronun, first time; Bengeroudiny second; Telutkin, 
before ; Kurrengerin, after ; Wunadaky behind ; Wemeit, last ; Mingo, beginning ; Tohma^ middle ; 
dioibof end. 

Adverbs of Place. — Karbe, here ; Teman, there ; JIf lAtr, these ; Notto, here ; Wmda, where ; 
Wtndowring, whither ; Monkir, thither ; Karboit, aboye ; Kubberdon, below. 

Adverbs of Quantity. — BuUito, much ; Kertherba, together ; Wyebo, little ; Nogee, enough ; 
Dungo, more ; BuUitodebar, too much ; Wyebo^ebar^ too little ; Wootuxno, abounding ; Nung%iU 
budin^ how many ; Nunggudbuddin, how much. 

Adverbs of Time. — Netbo, now ; Won^o, sometimes ; Moloco, presently ; YeUewa, to-day ; 
Bdboreen, to-morrow; Mola molok, yesterday; Molo guan, by-and-by; Yerramboot, day after 
to-morrow ; YelUngout, another day ; Banban cram, morning ; Kurren mwmebo, noon ; Krungine 
ngervein, evening ; Borun, night ; GnanbOf long time ; Tutanbo, short time ; Nierbuddun, never { 
Kunnelliner, then ; Bonmdut, midnight. 

Adverbs, Negatives. — Nier, nay ; Utur barak, no. 

Adverbs, Interrogatives. — Wener, which ; Winnerdon, which one ; Wmdoufer, to which ; Wentr, 

what ; Winnerer, what is ; Winda, where ; Windart, where did they ; Kunne, this. 

Inteijections.— JTt/ kil surprise; Ur! tar! hush, hark; Yarkat grief, pain; Wat wat look 
out. 

F^otides affixed, &c. — Ut, in ; Oot, on ; Dap, in ; Wea, in the ; Wa, to, at ; Arter, the ; O, the ; 
Bumin, at ; Ter, add ; Teno, at the. 

Conjunctions. — Bar, and; Ge, occasionally, and ; T^, also. 



120 



THE ABOBIOmiiS OF VICTOSIA: 



PronotiBi. — 

I or me 
Thoa or yoa 
He or him - 


Singular, 

- Mnrrombeek. 

- Mnrrombinner. 

- Mnnniger, kargee. 


We - 

Ton - 
They - 


Plural. 

- Mnrramaner. 

- Mnrmmbinner. 

- MnrmmnuUer. 


Mine - - 
Tours * 
Ours - 
His - - 


PoMesfftve. 

- Mnrmmbieek. Us 

. Murmmbianner. Them - 

- Mnrmmbnnarter. Myself - 

- Kargeeieek. Yonrself 


- Nnmin. 

- Murthiger. 

- Ganieek. 

- Ganninner. 



N.B. — It will be necessary here, in order to gire an idea of the use Aborigines make of 
these small particles, to give examples, thns: — Ut, in; Beek, gronnd or earth; Beekut^ in the 
gronnd. Willum, honse or miam ; Willumut, in the honse# />ap, in ; JTooron^, boat; Koorongdap, in 
the boat. Wa, in the ; Weing, fire ; Weingwa, in the fire. Wa, to or from ; Sydneywaf to Sydney. 
Oitf to or at ; Melboumoit, to Melbourne. Arter, the ; Tallanarter, the tongue ; Myngarter, the 
eye. O, in the ; Weingo, in the fire ; &c., &c. 

The aforesaid will, I trust, be to the committee and philologists some due 
to the language of the two Melbourne tribes, comprehending no small extent 
of country along the coast and inland to the Goulbum, OvenS) Broken, and 
Devil's Rivers, which may serve as a key (as far as my experience goes) 
to a chain of communication throughout Victoria, and, upon the same rule, 
throughout the whole of New Holland. I leave this sketch and my remarks 
for what they are worth, and now proceed to the vocabulaiy. 



SuccmoT Language. — Mobt Noulab. 







AlxniCTITBB. 






SnglUh. 




Kativ^ 


^agUOL 




Katlre. 


Bitter - 


. 


BaUin. 


Free - 


• 


Foo-tun-uk. 


Broad - 


- 


Terringooden. 


First - 


- 


Gan-bro-nun. 


Big . . 


- 


BulUtto. 


Good - 


- 


Mar-na-meek. 


Blind - 


- 


Toutmyng. 


Good (reiy) - 


- 


Boon-dup. 


Bad - - 


- 


Nillam. 


Greedy 


- 


Bnl-let-gam. 


Black- - 


- 


Woorkoordin. 


Giddy - 


- 


Lar-ltm-en-et. 


Blue - - 


- 


Wooknrrerble. 


Hot - 


- 


Num-mnn-in. 


Clean - 


- 


Eurrebully, or worrework, 


Hot (as fire) 


- 


Tou-nar>bon. 






or woorreboUy. 


HeaTy- 


- 


Bem-bem. 


Dry - 


- 


Euubebel. 


Hungry 


- 


Ner-re-bmn-in. 


Dxy (dead) - 


- 


Biddemp. 


Hoarse 


- 


Eiel-bul-un-in. 


Deaf - 


- 


Toutweing. 


Industrious - 


- 


Tar-tuk-ur-nup. 


Dirty - 


• 


Woorgumn or woorgol- 


Idle - - 


- 


Tour-nur-nin. 






bnnna. 


Lazy - 


- 


Tour-iin-tab-lun. 


Dark - - 


- 


Boonmdara. 


Laiy (very) 


- 


Tour-nur-ne-nun. 


Deep - 


- 


Mer-rim. 


Lazy (sluggish) 


- 


Tal-lnn-der-ner. 


Deeper 


- 


Mer-rim-er. 


Long - 


- 


Ner-rim. 


Flat . - 


- 


Koy-eon. 


light (weight) 


- 


Bul-ler-bul4er. 


Fat - 


- 


Marm-bull. 


Little - 


- 


Wye-bo. 









LANGUAGE. 




i;^i 


SngUdi. 






KatiTO. 


EagUdu 




NatlTS. 


Lame - 


mm 


. 


Nar-boon. 


Sick (very) - 


. 


Gee-gee-ry. 


Last - 


- 


- 


Yan-neite. 


Straight 


- 


Ur-din. 


Mighty 


- 


- 


Bool-ut-pall-eet. 


Smooth 


- 


Barm-burdin. 


Nasty - 


- 


- 


Nil-lam. 


Slow - 


- 


Port-be-uk. 


KaiTOW 


- 


- 


Win-nin-koo-dip. 


Stinking - 


- 


Buun-koon.t 


New - 


- 


- 


Moo-lo-good. 


Sweet - 


■■ 


Lal-Iee-woon. 


New (fresh) 


- 


Tur-den-den. 


TaU - - 


- 


Eur-nile. 


Old . 


- 


- 


Wag-ga-belL 


Thick - - 


- 


Bnn-neet. 


Poop - 


- 


- 


Wa-wat-tun-ner. 


Thin - - 


- 


Lal-lum. 


Proud - 


- 


- 


Tou-lup. 


Thirsty 


- 


Kum-brun-in. 


Pretty - 


- 


- 


Boum-dnp. 


Tired - 


- 


Wor-brun-in. 


Round - 


- 


• 


Pi-o-bu-bur-din. 


Ugly - - 


- 


Nil-lam. 


Ronnd (as 


tree) 


- 


Piou-bur-rin. 


Upright 


- 


Murm-bulL 


Bough - 


- 


- 


Te-rip-te-rip. 


Upright (as a stick) 


Ter-ree-dee. 


Botten- 


- 


- 


Brun-guit. 


Wet - 


•• 


Toln-go-don. 


Rich* - 


- 


- 


Nam-get. 


Wet (as damp) 


- 


Tul-gru-min. 


Bed - 


. 


- 


Be-bet-ur-nin. 


Weak - 


- 


Bo-rup. 


Short - 


- 


- 


Mort-ku-ding. 


Wicked 


- 


Me-ung-o-wor-gile. 


Sweet - 


- 


- 


Bab-ber. 


Wicked (bad) 


- 


Nil-lam. 


Strong - 


- 


- 


Pal-leet. 


Well (not ill) 


- 


Eo-rum-din-in. 


Sloping 


- 


- 


Kur-nurm-bil-ber-ding. 


White - 


- 


Tam-der-din. 


Square 


• 


- 


Purk-bun. 


Wise - 


- 


Narn-ger-bon. 


Stupid - 


- 


- 


Naw-lun-nin» 


Wide - . 


- 


Wyl-gul-ter. 


Sound - 


- 


- 


Pal-let-ku-ding. 


Young (male) 


- 


Yan-yean. 


Sick - 


- 


- 


Tam-der-bun-in. 


YouDg (female) 


- 


Mon-mon-deek. 


Sick (not 


well) 




Toy-yon. 

8UB6Ti 


YeUow 

iIVTITXS. 


m 


Ei-er-lin. 




Parts of the Body. 


Jaw - 


- 


Eurt. 


Body - 


m 


• 


Mur-mm. 


Beard - 


- 


Yar-rar>nun-duk. 


Hair - 


- 


- 


Tarra, 


Moustache - 


- 


Yar-ra-mon-tu-be-run. 


Hair (of the head) 


Yar-ra-kow-an. 


Neck - 


- 


Eonm. 


Head - 


- 


. 


Kow-an. 


Shoulder 


- 


Buck-ur-er. 


Head (crown of] 


I" 


Troot-toop. 


Arm - 


- 


Ter-ruk. 


Skull - 


• 


m 


Turp-turp. 


Elbow - 


- 


Eo-rum. 


Brain - 


• 


m 


Toum-toum. 


Armpit 


- 


Won-gu-ruk. 


Forehead 


. 


m 


Myng-nin. 


Wrist - 


- 


Un-ung. 


Bone oyer 


eyes 


- 


Toum-a-myng. 


Hand - 


- 


Mun-ung. 


Ear - 


• 


• 


Wer-ring. 


Hand (palm of) 


- 


Ber-riug-ber-ring. 


Eye - 


- 


- 


Myng. 


Fingers 


«• 


Mun-nong. 


Eyebrows 


m 


• 


Yar-ra-myng. 


Finger (first) 


- 


Won- mun-mill-uk. 


S^elashes 


- 


m 


Yar-ra-de-myng. 


Finger (little) 


- 


Won-mun-mill-uk-wye-bo. 


EyebaU 


m 


m 


Woor-wor-ri-mer. 


Thumb 


- 


Bar-bin-bar-bin. 


Nose - 


- 


- 


Gaam. 


NaUs - 


- 


Tir-re-bee-mun-ung. 


Nostrils 


- 


. 


lifyng-gaam. 


Breast - 


- 


Bar-nm-boom. 


Mouth- 


- 


- 


Kun-der-ner. 


Breast (nipple of) 


Brem-brim. 


Mouth (open) 


- 


Um-ble-bun-ark. 


Bosom- 


- 


Berring. 


Lips - 


- 


• 


Woor-roon. 


Belly - 


- 


Bonrt. 


Teeth - 


• 


. 


Lee-ang. 


Narel - 


- 


Tour-luk. 


Tongue 


- 


. 


Tal-lon. 


Back - - 


- 


Bun-nin-bun-nin. 


(Cheeks 


m 


- 


WotLng. 


Backbone - 


- 


Nilgn-er-ur-ruk. 


Cheek-bone - 


- 


Tourt-woting. 


Ribs - - 


- 


Nilgn-e-tur-min. 


Chin - 


- 


• 


Un-duk or nun-duk. 


Posteriors - 


- 


Bill-ake. 








• Kot In oor miim— wealth ; bat eel 


tlmation— eloouence, adrioe, 


or war. 
















VOL. 


II. 




< 


) 







122 



THE AB0EIGINB8 OP VIOTOEU: 



EngUfth. 



Vatlre. 



Hip - 


- 


- Eow-an-honr-no. 


Thigh - 


- 


- Ngar-ke-ter-rang. 


Knee - 


m 


- Bur-din. 


Leg - 


- 


- Lour-ko. 


Leg (calf 





- Lourk. 


Ankle - 


- 


- Tour-nim-ke-kiln-uk. 


Foot - 


- 


- Te-nan. 


Instep - 


- 


- Ngar-te-nan. 


Heel - 


- 


- Pern. 


Toe - 


* 


- Kow-an-te-nan. 


Toe (big) 


- 


- Bar-bnn-te-nan. 


Toe (Uttle) 


- 


- Wye-bo-te-nan. 


Skin . 


- 


- Tar-bo. 


Bone - 


m 


- Nilgne-karTOok. 


Flesh - 


- 


- Kgar-huk. 


Windpipe 


- 


- Tur-tur kur-mm. 


Lungs - 


«■ 


- Nin-nin-e-boort. 


Heart - 


- 


- Toor-oor. 


Breathing 


- 


- Ang. 


Throat 


- 


- Turn. 


Gnllet - 


- 


- Tal-ler-be-gotlra. 


Stomach 


- 


- Tnr-rum-ber-lin4 


Guts - 


- 


- Moon-mur. 


Liyer - 


- 


- BoHr-doo. 


Kidney 


- 


- Woor-ror-marp. 


Kidney (fat 


;of) 


- Martn-bul-ia. 


Bladder 


- 


- Mour-rnt« 


Urine - 


- 


- Bul-gt. 


Vein - 


- 


- Gour-uk. 


Sinews 


- 


- Pee reep. 


Blood - 


- 


- Kul-mul, 


Marrow 


m 


- Dee-dit. 


Sweat - 


• 


- Moor-run-moor-rtin. 



Of the Heavens, ffc. 

God (or first cause) Pundgyl-Marman . 

Deyil [some tribes Bull-gen-kar-nee.* 

have] 

Heaven - - Woor-woor-rer. 

Hellf - - - Moo-eep-nall-ook. 

Soul ... Moor-roop. 

Spirit - - - Nar-roon. 

Ghost . - - Moor-roo-buU. 

Apparition (of one Lam-bar-moor4 

dead) 

Sun - - - Nger-weln. 

Moon ... Myn-cam. 

Star - - - To-py-rum. 

Cloud ... Lark. 

Sky ... Woor-woor. 

Morning star - Woo-to-ko-rook. 



EngUdi. 



KatlTe. 



Erening itaif 


- 


Mar-be-ang'^rook. 


Dew . 


. 


- 


Boo-re-Arn. 


Fog - 


- 


- 


Ng-err. 


New moon 


m 


- 


Buntt-bo. 


Half moon 


- 


. 


Bul-go. 


Full moon 


» 


. 


Tu-«n-de-boop. 


Thunder 


. 


- 


Woon-du-ble. 


Lightning 


- 


- 


Moor-rin-no. 


Ice 


- 


. 


Tam-bulk. 


Snow - 


- 


- 


Kabbin. 


Hafl - 


- 


- 


Tu-dee-war-ree. 


Rainbow 


. 


- 


Brinbeal. 


Storm - 


. 


. 


Eo-reen. 


Wind - 


» 


- 


Mom-moot. 


Whirlwind 


. 


. 


Burt-ko-reen. 


Hot wind 


- 


- 


Weet-mul-lin. 


Rain - 


- 


- 


Pam-min. 


Spring 


. 


- 


Moodee-e-ram. 


Summer 


- 


. 


Mer-rim-nger-weili. 


Autumn 


- 


- 


Moo-dee-nger-wein. 


Winter 


- 


- 


Per-ring-nger-weln. 






Cardinal Paints. 


East - 


. 


~ 


Eul-lin-bi-rem. 


West - 


- 


- 


Nut-bro-ki. 


North - 


- 


A, 


Bur-gee. 


South - 


- 


- 


Koor-reen. 



Sea - - - War-reen. 

Rirer - - - Woor-neet. 

Spring (rise water) Gan-noon. 

Creek ... Eun-nung. 

Water-hole - - Tflm-boore. 

Water-hole (tern- Pun-pun. 
porary) 





Four Elements, 


Earth - 


- Beek. 


Air - 


- Ngm tou-r&. 


Fire - 


- Weing. 


Water - 


- Pam. 




Five Senses. 


Taste - 


^ - Bar-ro-mnk. 


Smell - 


- Ngar-o-buk. 


Feel - 


- Pnm-boo-nuk. 


See 


- Ngar-noon. 


Hear - 


- Ngar-goon. 




Face of Countries, 


Mountain 


. Bun-null. 


Ranges § 


- Noo.ur-ro-ur-rook. 



• My blacks state this only means ugly. 

t They have several terms for the abode of bad souls. This Is the most Impressive, contUmed desoradlng thnragh 
a narrow opening, and never stopping. 

% A long solemn drone. 

9 Every range has Its name ; likewise every monntain has Its particular name ; so that blacks can state the precise 
mountain or hill In an extensive range where they will meet. I have upwards of 200 names of mountains In the Aus- 
tralian Alps. Aborigines require neither latitude nor longitude ; plain nature by day and the stars by night. 



LANGUAGR 



123 



KngHih. 

HiU - 
Bifle - . 
Flat - 
Swamp 

Stone - 
Flint (white) 
Bed (ochre)* 
White (ochre) 
Brown (ochre) 
Brick - 
Clay - 
Grarel - 
Coal - 
Charcoal 
Sand - 
Afihes (dust) 

Man - 
Woman 
White man ^ 
Black man - 
Old man 
Old woman ^ 
Infant (male) 
Infant (female) 
Child - 
Girl - 
Young man - 
Young woman 
Husband 
Wife - 
Son - 
Daughter - 
Father- 
Mother 
Grandfrther- 
Grandmother 
Sister - 
Brother 
Blder brother 
Elder sister - 
Uncle - 
Aunt - 
Niece - 
Nephew 
Half-caste - 
Friend- ? 

Coat - 
Trousers 
Shirt - 



« Wje-bo-bnn«'nnlL 

- MilU 

- TauL 

- Bull-ook. 

SixMe^ Clay, jpe. 

- Lamg mong, 
Oo-work, 

- Wee-rup. 

- Nar-rum-Ue. 

- Ter-reel. 

- Der-re-kuL-muI. 

- Nut-kun-tare. 

- Ter-ree-beek. 

- Loum. 

- Kun-nun-dare. 
« Ear-ga-ruk. 
. Mun-nip. 

KindreiL 

- Koovlin. 

- Bag-rook, 

- Hom-mer-geek. 

- Woor-gur-din-koo-lin. 

- Wag-a-bil-koo-lin. 

- Moon-deg-rook. 

- Wye-bo-bo»pup, 

- Wye-krook. 
•r Bo-pup. 

- Mon-mon-dik. 

- Tui-yean. 

- Mon-mon-dik. 

- Nan-go-ron. 

- Bren-bun. 
r Mum-mum* 
^ Man-gip, 

- Mar-man. 

- Par-pun, 

- Nerrbun-ger-ron, 

- Eo-kung-e!-up. 

- Leur-rookong. 

- Woon-do-1. 

- Bam-gim. 

- Lun-dun. 

- Kum-kum. 

- Bum-boon. 

- Fa-ren-ger-roon. 

- Nar-bung-ur-roon. 

- Tr^-be-murrrunf. 

- Korrki. 

r Woor-kudsder^-bil. 

- Ta-rang-ar-look. 

- Ta-run-a-look. 



English* 

Shoes - 
Hat - 
Mur-ri-guil 

Nour-rite or kiar- 

yeun 
Leek - 

Mur-rur-kulrlim • 
Til-bur-nine 



Mur-ri-kle - 



Koum-but - r 
Eoum-ur-run - 

Wal-ler-wal-lert 
Yel-ler-ne-bre - 
Yell-un-cet-tur- 

mk 
Ber-buk - 

Mi-am or wil-lum 

Yel-low-<lung - 

Lee-an 

Toum-der-r^ 

Bol-loom - V 

Tar-nuk - r 

Eul-bul-ling-ur- 
rook 



Min-der-min 

Pee-reep - 
Moo- gra^^moo-gra 



Be-lang-be-lang - 
Bin-nuk - 

String (Europ.) - 



Te-nan-a-Iook. 

Eum-brarkow-an. 

Worn oyer secret parts of 

males till married. 
Worn oyer secret parts of 

females till married. 
Band round forehead, worn 

by male and female. 
Band neatly made of thread. 
Fine apron made of emus' 

feathers, goes all round 

the waist, worn by females 

in a single dance. 
Strips of opossum skin worn 

to hide the ftmdament in 

males when in a dance. 
Necklace made of reeds. 
Fine necklace, made of the 

sinews from emus' legs. 
Opossum rug, 
A blanket. 
Band round the arm to 

strengthen arm. 
Belt round the belly to keep 

off hunger. 
A house or place to lie down 

in or liye. 
Sapling from one end to the 

other of the miam. 
Forked sticks to support the 

sapling of miam. 
Thick bark with which the 

blacks make miam. 
Thin bark which blows off 

trees, kindles in an instant. 
Natiye bucket, made from 

the elbow or wart of trees. 
Native tomahawk, made from 

a blue flat pebble stone, 

found in certain ranges. 

The blacks had great labor 

to get them to cut ; the 

handle was bent wood. 
Native nails or pegs made 

by hardening wood in fire. 
Natiye thread. 
Kangaroo bag, in which the 

black holds all his wealth 

but his spears. 
Native bag, made of grass. 
Native basket, made of na- 
tive flags of grass. 
Woo-gle-woo-gle. 



* These odms sre med promlacaoiiBlj In painting their bodies for corrobboreei, fcc. ; bat two of them for sacred purposes : 
viz., the white for mourning ; red, for joy when a victim has been offered np for their dead. 



124 



THE ABOEIGINES OP VIOTOEIA: 



KatlTe. 

Woor-an-dal-min. 

Trang-bal-la-bill. 

Mor-ra-doo. 

Pel-Iin or ooar-nk. 

Kul-pen-knl-pen-gee-up. 

Eal-lup. 

Toum-der-ry (made of 

bark). 
Ko-ron-er. 
Lil-le-ry. 
Wor-oor-wort. 
Wel-len-wel-len. 
Pan-ni-kin. 
Marm-bnlL 
KQDi-bert. 
Beum-bean. 
Pinder-bol-lup. 
Knm-be-mon. 
Man-mure-bnl-lnp. 
Bel-ler-rer. 
Wye-bo-bal-ler. 
Bnl-li-to-koo-nm. 
Wye-bo-koo-ron. 
Eun-ne-ko-lon. 

Anbuala, 

- Eoo-im. 

- Wym-bir. 

- Waivreen. 

- Enr-buivrer. 
Bandicoot - - Boe-ung. 
Opossum - - Wal-ler-wal-lert. 
Flying squirrel Enr-nm. 

(three kinds) 

Smaller kind - Eu-an-boo. 

Very diminntiye - Tn-an-tn-an. 

Eangaroo-rat - Ber-uke. 

Bat (common) - Ty-ong. 

Bingtailed opossun Be-min. 

Mouse - . . Bar-rut. 

Dog - - - Wer-run-mL 

Dog (wild or natiye) Wer-ren-wil-Inm. 



Looking-glass* - 

Gun - - - 

Powder and shot - 

Flint (of gun) - 

Enife - - - 

Fork - . - 

Spoon - - - 

Basin ... 

Box ... 

Brush . . - 

Dish - 

Pannikin 

Candle 

Hammer 

Cliisel ... 

Saw - 

Axe - - - 

Gimlet 

Spade - - . 

Hoe - - - 

Ship - 

Boat - . - 

Paddle (as canoe)- 

Eangaioo - 

Wallaby 

Wombat 



Cat - 


- Urn or yum. 


Water mole - 


- Tu-lsror-ong or pal-la 




rale. 


Platypus 


- Mur-rin-moor-roo. 


Hedgehog - 


- Eow-an. 


Horse - 


- Eul-ken-tur-nuk. 


Bullock 


- Bul-gan-ner. 


Sheep - 


- Eu-ep. 



Native companion 

Turkey 

Pelican 

Swan - - - 

Mulligan 



Eagle (Tery large) 
Eagle (smidler) - 
Sparrow hawk - 
White hawk 
White hawk (yery 

small) 
Lyre-bird - 
Nankeen-bird 
Pigeon . - - 
Cockatoo 

Black cockatoo - 
Cockatoo parrot - 
Parrot (general 

name) 
Parrot (Magella)- 
Parrot(blue moun- 
tain) 
Parrot (king) 
Parrot (rery small 

kind) 
Satin-bird - 
Whip-bird - - 



Wattle-biid - 

Leather-bird 

Mopoke 

Cuckoo (noise Uke) 

Magpie 

Gean-gean - 



BirdM. 
Bird (general term) Eoy-up. 
Emu - - . Bur-ri-miL 



Crow - 

Laughing jackass 

Bell-bird - 
Redbreast - 
Fowl - 
Duck - 

Eor-rung-un-un • 
Goose - 
Quail - 
Snipe - 



Natire. 

Eur-ur-rook. 

Woon-mar-bel. 

War-gill. 

Eoon-war-ror. 

A large bird of prey, lives 

only on birds and fish 

by the coast. 
Pun-dyU 
Ber-pip. 
Par-rite. 
Eab-bin. 
Tur-rer. 

Bulln-bulln. 

Ear- warn. 

Moon-go-bra. 

Gnur-uile. 

Gnur-nan. 

Ear-mile. 

Tan-dun. 

Bro-gil. 
Lar-guk. 

Uu-gup. 
Nel-la-woon. 

Ngar-ran. 

Tan-yan-gak. [So named 
from its noise, like the 
cracking of a whip.] 

Tan-guk. 

Be-rat-be-iat. 

Groor-koom (night-bird). 

Woork-woork. 

Per-er-wam. 

A bird between a crow 
and magpie. [The na- 
tires hare strange su* 
perstitious notions of 
it.] 

Warn. [Superstitious of 
this.] 

Tour-ur-rong. [Called the 
bushman's tunepiece.] 

Trin-war-reen. 

Tee-ung. 

Bowl. 

Tou-loom. 

Very large water f owL 

Nup-nup. 

Tre-bin. 

Elruk-wor-rum. 



• When white people had regolwly made a footing at Port Phillip, one, Budgenr Tom, was noted for gtrlng namee to 
European things and anlmale. These names are moetljr of his glying. 



LANaUAGS. 



125 



Snglldi. 
Soldier-bird - 



Tug-gan-kow-an - 



Bat 



Bill-bill-man-nere. [So 
Darned by the whites 
from its always being 
on the ^t vive, and 
alarmiiig the forest, to 
the great mortification 
of the sportsman.] 

A small bird, makes a 
howling, distressing 
noise. 

Pol-ly-ong. 



Fishes, frc. 


Tn-at - 


General name of fish. 


Whale - - - 


Petrti-heeL 


Shark - 


Tal-lan-nnr-ron. 


Porpoise 


Bar-bar-k&. 


Salmon(akindof)* 


Enr-nur-gnil. 


Cod (ui Goolbam 


Mal-lun. 


and Mnrray) 




Lobster 


Kor-rite. 


Cray-flsh (fresh- 


Tar-luk-pnm. 


water) 




Cray-fish (salt- 


Toy-yon. 


water) 




Oyster - - - 


Tou-at. 


Hntton-flsh- 


Woor-din. 


Cockle- 


Mar 'yoke. 


Mussel 


Mur-bone. 


Periwinkle - 


Pid-de-ron. 



Sprat (a kind of)- Tal-U-bal-li 

Herring - - Tar-nk-war-rarbil. 

licech . . - Ter-mm-be-leet. 

Prc^ - - - Nar-rut. 

MisceUaneous. 

Insects (general Kam-kam-koor. 

term) 
Locnsts (green Tee-een. 

wings) 
Locust (a large 

kind) 



Moth - 
Butterfly - 
Grasshopper 
Fly (common) 



Earl-kal. [The duog of 
this insect is sweet ; it 
is generally termed 
mannS, though not 
generally known to be 
the soil of this insect; 
but such is the case. 
I have gathered as much 
as a quart from the tar- 
gan (or box-tree) at its 
base of a morning.] 

Bar-lum-ber-lun. 

Bol-lom-bol-lom. 

Nar-rite. 

Eow-urk. 



English. 

March fly - 
Mosquito 
Flea - - - 
Louse « - - 
Lizard - - - 
Lizard(small kind) 
Lizard ( yery large) 



Lizard (another 
kind, yery fat, 
but small) 
Snake - - - 
Snake (black) - 
Snake (diamond) - 
Worm - - - 
Grub - - - 



Grub (smaller) - 
Grub (yery small) 



Centipede - 
Ant (common) * 
Bull ant - - 



Eurm-bur-ra. 

Eoor-gook. 

Man-nun. 

Noo-noon. 

£u-roke or tun-per-rim. 

Nur-rung. 

Per-ren-un. [AttheOyens 
and Broken. Riyer, and 
to the north, they run 
to four, fiye, and six 
feet long. I haye mea- 
sured one five feet.] 

Pudg-gen. [Eaten by the 
blacks generally.] 

Earn. 

Tar-run-del. 

Eoon-milL 

Tur-ror. 

Ver-ring. [Very large and 
fat; blacks eat them 
raw. Said by Euro- 
peans to be fine eating, 
when roasted or fried.] 

Bear-uk. 

Yeour-ong. [Not bigger 
than a small maggot. I 
haye seen quarts and 
pecks of them got from 
near the roots of the 
trees. The blacks mix 
them with charcoal, and 
thus separate them from 
the rotten tree and eat 
them.] 

Ter-run-mur-ruk. 

Murrub. 

Oeur-rong. [Awfully 
sharp bite.] 



Trees, Shrubs, jfc. 

Tree (general Tur-rung or kuUc 

name) 
Tree (blossom of) Eum-brook. 



Tree (seed of) 
Tree (root of) 
Tree (trunk of) 
Branch 
Leayes 
Veins - 
Sap - 
Bark - 
Gum-tree (red) 
Gum (white) 



De-ran«delL 

Wea-eu-ruk. 

Wee-reep. 

Ter-ru-galk. 

Mur-run. 

Mur-rer-mur-uk. 

Tu-un-no. 

Toum-der-ry. 

Be-al. 

Yar-rsrbin. 



• SboalB of these in maddy rtvexs at Western Port. 



126 



THE AB0BIGINE8 OF TICTOBIAt 



EngUflh. 
Be-nvp (a gum) * 



Box-tree * 

Box (butardy) <- 

Strlngybark 

Stringybark (in- 
ferior kind) 

Light or blaok 
wood 

Light or black 
wood (gpurioufl) 

Peppermint - 

Honeysnckle 

|3he-oak 

Turpentine (tree) 



Wattle-tree (pcm-f 

mon) 
Wattle-tree (sil- 

rer) 
Wattle-tree (mi- 

moea) 
Wattle- tree 

(dwarf) 
Cedar (bastardy) - 
Cherry-tree - ^ 



Pern-tree 
Fern-tree (short 

fern-tree) 
Cabbage or grass 

tree 
Priyet (shmb) - 
Myrtle (native) - 
Strawberry (n^ 

tiye) 



NatiTe. 

[Grows stately, but Tery 
irregfular in its branches ; 
pure snowy white bark. 
From the elbows of this 
tree the blacks formerly 
made their tar-naks or 
w^ter bndkets, which 
appear by a kind Provi- 
dence to be designed for 
that purpose.] 

Tartan. 

Beet. 

Bun-ger^look. 

Way-out. 

Bnmrnar-look. 
Mam-gan-fnoy-an. 

Eur-look. 

War-rak.» 

Tur-rnn. 

Yi-al. [The oodng from 
this tree the natiyes 
use as a plaster for 
wounds.] 

Eur-run. 

Moy-yan. 

War-our-e-Fup. 

Eurt. 

Wyi^ut. 

Pooi^lyte. [The stone grows 

outside, and not inside, 

as in Europe.] 
Kum-bik<la. 
Ku-der-ron. 

Eum-be-deek, 

Kar-ran. 

Tid-e-am. 

Eoosgor-ruk, 



Engllsta, 



Bush- 



Flag (many 

kinds, princi- 
pal) 

Fig (natire) 



Buttercup - 
CoutoItuIus 

(three kinds) 
Grass - 



NatlTe, 

Bourt-bourt [Goodsubstitnte 
for candles in the early his- 
tory of the colony; grows a 
flne size at Western Fort, 
and used by the prim- 
itiye settlers there for 
candles.] 

Eur-rsrwau. [Black lubras 
make fine baskets andmata 
of them split.] 

Bung-bur-rolk or kum-me- 
ree, 

Eurm-bur-root. 

Nur-rur. 



- Bo-«nrt. 



Vegetable (indiggnoua), jfc, eaten hy Black$,^ 



Tal-le-rup - 



Tep-pere r 
Mur-nong - 



Eum-gerrfer 



Boo-yeiMi - 



Eur-mn 



Eurvn ■ 

Tou-um - 
Enurnal ? 
Nurm-nuvp 



- Grows 3 feet 6 inches high 

on the rich land and 
swamps; they eat it raws 
tastes like cabbage. 

- Small sweet bulb. 

- A nourishing bidb, grows 

on poor loamy soQ; bladm 
Tery fond of it. 
? Tapering root, like % carrot ; 
eaten raw, or thrown into 
the fire. 

- Grows high, like kiini4)e^Qk. 

They bruise the outside, 
with which they make a 
kind of dough ; eat the in- 
side raw. 

r Gum ; a yaluable portion of 
Aborigioaldiet. Indysen- 
teiy they use it as a medi- 
cine made up into piDs — 
a good medicine too. 

f A small maggot; eaten in 
thousands. 

- Larger kind ; eaten also. 

- Eggs of ants. 

- Large yegetable, grows in 

rich land and swamps, aa 
high as celery and not in- 
ferior. 



• Tree genendlj itanted. not mora than tix or eight Inobee in dimneter; !rat on the Ten-mile Beach, between Moirdt- 
alloc and Monnt Elixa, between the two fliat Inleta of the aea, on mere land, fbey grow aa high and In diameter aa a 
huge gnm-tree. 

t It wonld be well here to itate ttiat theie roots are all lndlgenoaa,and were In abondanoe before the whltee came among 
them. CiYlUzed or tamed animala and enclonires hare much dimlniahed their dependence. All were eaten bj the blacks. 
To aroid touching npon the like sabject again, I may state tbat all animals, except the snake and a few other anbnals, were 
eaten Xxy the two Helboone tribes; and tribes to the westward— eren the Geelong black§-4ised to eat snakes and bodies of 
large moths. 



LANGUAGB. 



137 



jElttlttUa 

Bouit'^eet - 



• A Biiperior fibtoiu yegetablei 
blackfl eat it raw or cooked« 

JEuropean Food^ jre. 



Bread oar flour 
Bice - 
Sugar - 
Meat (general) 
Beef - 
Mutton 
Pork* 



- NerH^ng. 
" Eur-ran. 

- Gaem-gaenii 

- Win*gar-um* 

- Bnl-gan-ner. 

- Ee-up. 

- Tal-ltim. 



Biscuit 
Soup - 
Tea - 
Butter - 
Milk . 
Herbs - 
Carrots 
Tobacco - 
Spirits 

To drink spirits 
To get drttnkf 



FatiTe. 

Pal-let-ner-roDg. 

Lil-le-bro. 

Mor-an-doo. 

Brim-brim-Oft 

Brem-brem. 

Par-rum. 

Eam-bo-duk. 

Kim-ang-ner-ro-men. 

Bal-lam. 

No'bi-an-bal-lam. 

Bul-li-to no-bi-an. 



^m 



A Few LsADma Sentences. 



Englkh. 

Come here 
Go away 
Give me 
Lend me 
Bring me 
Send me 



Katlre. 

War^rarwee« 

Tan-na-to-a. 

tJ-mar-leek. . 

We-am-be-kaa. 

Won-'da^Bun. 

U<^ro-ma-kan. 



EngUib. 

take it 
Go and fetch 
Cut it - 
Put It down- 
Sit down there 



Koon^ik. 

Yan-na-no. 

Ti-bnk. 

Mar-bukk 

Nor4«im-bee<iiot4o. 



Come here to-morrow, and cut me dome wood, 

and me give jou white money. 
What for you stupid, and get em big one drunk ( 

by-and-by you die like it another one black 

fellow. 

Will you go with me ? 

Where are you going ?*-*.-- 

This way> that way --**«•- 

What going for f - 

To look out kangaroo ..... 

Where are your spears f - - - - - 

Here, in my miam .--*-- 

No good spear. Very good gtta - . « 

Now, let us go 

Me see kangaroo ; no yoti make noise, me shoot 

him. 
Go on, fire. Ah ! tumble down dead 
No dead, only gammon ; you see ran away that 

one. 
Big one stupid. Now, go look out opoiwum > 

Mesee tracks up the tree § . & . - 
Blackf ellows' oorrobboree to-idght - <• " 
No ; too much tumble down rain ... 



Ba-bo-riog miu--rum bin-ner Wo-man, bar til-beil-er 

kulk, bar murrumbeek umarleek white money. 
Eundee rener wong runnin murrumbinner, bar 

bul-lito nobean baHam molocho weaken tan- 

dowring uungo kooUn. 
Tan-na-noul ? % 
Winda lingo murrumbinner f 
Temon-o, temon mihu. 
Eundee yener ? 
Eundee koim. 
Winda tarren-o ? 
Mihu willumut. 

Nillam tare. Mai*nameek tranbuUli^w]. 
Yan-na-wat. 
Narnardun kolm nler biUmef tomnboonner mai- 

rumbeek ▼ionei'. 
Mangkonuk rioner. Wa tfantubliilneit 
Borak weakoneif, tindee moyup ; mumHnbinner 

ngarren woolwoor. 
Nowlttnunartun, wazrentenul, kundee waller 

wallert. 
Nangerdon munnung kalligi myngnoit. 
Eoolin ngargnnner borundnt. 
Utur ; boUito pam-min boldoneit. 



• I mnit remftrk tbat, wben I lint came among fhe AbortglnM, they would not eat any part of tbe pig. I soon found, 
how8T6r hnngiy a black migbt be, that he would not partake of a rasher of bacon. Thej oonld not explain whj, only ** no 
good pig.** They, howerer, faave long got over thla pxejodioe, and now enjoy It mncb. 

t The flrst black I ever saw dmnk was of tbe Goalbom tribe— a mux in years. Poor fellow I He was broogbt up to 
my tent by his wife and others, to know if he woald die— had he been poisoned. He cried, staggered, and lay down in my 
tent. This was eariy in 1899. I believe, snch was their innoonoe at that time, that the blacks thooght he bad been poisoned. 
Alas I now they crave this poison. 

% This *'noal,'* at tbe termination of the verb " go,** answers to ** will yon with me ?** 

S Blacks can tell by the bark if an opoasam is np, by claw marks. 



128 



THE ABOEIGINES OP VIOTOEIA : 



Yon tell 'em blackfellows to corrobboree, and 

me give tbem white money. 
Blackfellows big one stnpid, no corrobboree 
What for blackfellows no corrobboree ? - 
BlackfellowiT die last moon .... 
Blackfellows' corrobboree to-morrow night 
Yes, big one corrobboree ; all blackfellows dance. 

Don't 70a know another one moon oome ? 



Tombannerrennnn ngargnn, bar mnrrmnbeek 

nmallen white monej. 
Koollner, wongmnin bnllito, borak ngargmi. 
Emidee vener borak ngargee koollner ? 
Eoolin weaknn ninneam wem^t. 
Baborin bonmdnt kooliner ngargee. 
Yea, ngargoon waga-bil, umarko koolin yeflye 

nier. Mangeit mincam unngo womon ? 



DlAIiOGUES. 



ON Bisnro nr 
Awake 1 get np, get up, get np I ... 
I will get np directly ; stop, stop I my tronsera 

are wet. 
Get np and make the fire ; the snn is high 
Yon are lazy; get np; chop some wood ; the snn 

is np ; dry yonr trousers. 
What for you tell 'em lie ? sun only little up. 

Where tailwork ? 
Tailwork not dry; name who leare it on the 

ground last night. 
Now it is dry ; go on, turn away. Ah I I see 

smoke ; fire soon come. 
Very good now, big one fire ; now sit down and 

smoke your pipe. 
All good white men when they get up say their 

prayers, and thank God for taking care of 

them all night. 
Big one stupid me and all blackfellows ; no like 

it white man. 

OR oonro 
Now, my blackfellows, make haste and get your 

breakfast ; we will be going. 
Where are the bullocks ? - 
Over there, behind that hill - - - - 
Did you see their tracks ? - 
Yes ; I saw them this morning . - - - 
Where did they bed last night ? - - - 
By the big tree ; don't you see their dung ? 

Go and fetch them, that's a good fellow ; I will 

lend you my horse. 
Very well ; where ?------ 

Bridle and saddle, I will go and fetch them ; put 

my bag in the cart. 
Now get the things together. Where are the 

pannikins ? Don't leaye anything behind. 
Here are the bullocks. You are a good fellow, 

Bugup ; here is a stick of tobacco for you. 

Now, blackfellows, hold up the pole of the dray, 
and two of you hold on the back of the cart 

There, now, that will do ; stop, let us see if any- 
thing is left behind ; look about. 



TRB XOBNIFa. 

Ngiemuk I kommergee, konunergee,kommergee ! 

Murmmbeek konunergee tudan; hurra, hurra! 
murmmbiek tammarlook tulgunner. 

Eommargee werigut yein ; ngervein karboit. 

Tandnm murmmbinner ; konunagee ; tilbemer 
kulk ; ngeryein karboit ; biderup tammarlook. 

Wenerrer wa moyutpin murmmbinner? nger- 
yein tindee wyebo. Winda tailwork ? * 

Tailwork nier bidderup ; nerreno welain narlum- 
boon nge bukerborin molomolac. 

Netbo bidderup; ure, purmmbon. Ah I ngeren 
port ; molocho yein woman. 

Mamameek netbo, buUito yein ; narlumby prom- 
bean pipe. 

Bondup kommergee-kernerdoit kommergee par- 
dogurrabun, bar thank Pundgy'l Marman ta- 
duk kunununner nerrembee borundut. 

Wongmnin murmmbeek bar koolinner ; nier 
tandowring hommageek. 

▲ JOURIIBT. 

Eur barbullin kunarkut yanner buUen kunnee 

wat ; kunnee wat. 
Winda wottering bulganna ? 
Earbering miring bunnul wS. 
Narnadarta parren teno ? 
Yer ; narnnerdonemn banban eram. 
Windart kudunger borundut ? 
Namnarlonniart karlto ; kuddalUng tarnmg 

kunar ? 
Eungargewat wallarboyun nuUinner; kulkel- 

turaegieek. 
Eungargewat ? 

Worong kukedo nunnieek pelan minebuk; ngar- 
gee karber yoit. 

Perkart yarrite ketherbS. Windowring tamuk ? 
Tumart now yolumberaner yarrite. 

Mihu pinnuk tudeyoul. EftngewK boundapy 
Bugup ; moode yanner kunnunne murroman- 
ner. 

Netbo tarmbar kaarteekulgo, bengeronewat mum- 
medo karter. 

Nogeeballing, nageeballing ; tudan, yartkun nut 
terredee yarrite ; ngarreen. 



* WhoQ I lint came funong the blacks, not an adalt male or female were without their tailwork— a wood from whldi 
thej procQie lire ; not hy friction, as the Sydnej blacks, bat perpendicalar, as worklag a drililng-bow. 



LANaUAGH 



129 



OV BJLTINO Aim DRIKKINa. 

Put the pannikin on the Bre. Where are the Eoronrk pannikin yeinoit. Winda morrador 

tea and sugar ? bar gaem-gaem ? 

There is no water. Tell the lubras to get some Nier parn. Toom bergee bagrook wantagu parn ; 

water ; pannikin in miam. pannikin willumnt. 

I cannot see the pannikin ; it is not in the miam ; Nier ngerien pannikin mnrmmbeek ; miring 

I haye looked all about. will am ; nier jarkunner. 

Oh I big one, stupid me ; it is behind the miam Oh I wongurrunin, murrumbeek ; monkir willu- 

hy that g^um-tree. mut karbe nge beal turrung. 

Wash the pannikin. Yeiy good clean, no good Eurworbun pannikin. Mamameek kerwoneit, 

dirty. nillam kunnit pin. 

Me big one hungrj. Where is the kangaroo, Nerrebranin bulllto murrumbeek. Windowiing 

the opossum, and the bandicoot ? koem, waller wallert, bar boong ? 

There they are, also the bear, wallaby, and wom- Notto nangeit, bar wimbi, warren, tumanook 

bat ; put them all to the fire. Plenty of food umarko, bar kurborft ; bullito tanganan nar- 

in the bag. Sit down to-day ; no look-out, Inmby wooUaminin, quomb& yellinewft ; utnr, 

only eat, sleep, and sing. koondee, tinde tanganan, yemen bar yengerk. 

Here, pickaninny, give that to the lubras, and W& I bopup, kunuk kunnee bagrook, tombanna 

tell them when they have eaten to go and look bagrook tinderbak tanganan dado koondee 

out gum for blackfellows to eat. kurruntuduk koolinner bullito tanganan. 

This kaogaroo is very good, it is a joe ; here is Eunne koem mamameek, joe kargee ; bar unngo 

another, young lubra, ah I mamameek, monmondeek, ki I 

The water boils ; put in the tea, and give some Parn touloppun; qnambi m0rador,bar umarleek 

to the children, aud they fetch us more water. bopup, tudun bopup wantagee parn uungo. 

Ton too much greedy, pickaninny ; you giro Bullito gam murrumbinner, bopup ; umerleek 

some of that kangaroo to that pickaninny out bopup monkyne nge tanganun koem tudan. 
there. 

Kow let us sleep, big one stupid ; white man • Netbo mallyemena, bullito wongorunin homma- 
work erery day, no like 'em this. No you geek mongan yellenwi yellenwft. Nier tan- 
make a noise, pickaninny ; pUy out there. dowring nge-nier, bopup; tillutkerin monkyne 
Big one bellyful me. nge. Bullito marp murrumbeek. 

PLATS AND nrTSBSIONS. 

What shall we play at first ? .... Wener ganbony tillutkerrin ? 

We will play at ball ; you make it up, rery Mangut mamameek, mongun ganbony murmm- 

high, don't you see one ? Very good that one, binner, mamamuk kunnup ; ure kurruk ngerln 

go on kick. karboit. 

Come, come ; me get it ; make haste I - - EoUy-warree, wolley kungardon I 

Take care of the child ; no me throw it down ; Tartbuk bopup ; nidp badan umite nier ; won- 

no me stupid. gmnin murrumbeek. 

Throw it out again, out further. Call the boys Umark worreder, weatbuk, mamameek. Tom. 

outside. bargee bopup millarree. 

Take care of the stumps, take care now, you Warregerry kulk, warregerry kullerbrook, kul- 

go on too fast. beclin woovoneit murrumbinner. 

No more ; that will do; the ball broke ; sit down Nogee ; nogee ; mangut tinderbeek ; narlumby. 

Play at soldiers. Come here. Stand up. Hold Tillutkerrin policemen. WarrX wee. Terridee* 

up your head. That will do, that will do. konmiergally, berunggally. Nogee, nogeemee. 

Bight about fiice Pierop koodelly. 

Stand at ease .-..-.- Tilbert mununinner. 

Attention- - - Tilbert terreninna. 

Quick march Tanna uree. 

Another one day get 'em guns . • - • Uung yellenwS kundu trangbullabiL 

No more play now, it is too hot. When go down Nogeemee woodu ngeryein toumaboon. Nerdoit 

sun, then play at wayoit. narlumby, ngeryein wayoit. 

Now koolin, where wayoit? Come all black- Netbo koolin, winda wayoit ? Womendenewat. 

fellows. 

Now let us see who throw out the farthest. Kalnangyer, wida umeit warreete, umuk per- 

Throw it out perduuk. 

VOL. n. R 



130 



THE ABOBIGINES OP VICTORIA: 



Yon can't catch me. No yon'take it, mj waroit. 
This is mine. No, no ; me give it yon. 

All done play. Dark now. Come on, come on. 
Ton walk and I will mn. 

Bit down. Where pipe? Ontside, inside miam ; 

make haste and get it. 
Bit all around. Stop, jnst stop- . - - 



Nier benersk hmmer, nier paarthralmn, wavoit 

mnrmmbiek. Kunne mnmunbiek. Utnr,nier 

nrbinan nmanner. 
Tinderbeek tillntkerrin. Bomn netbo. Warra- 

wee mnrmmbinner yannon, mnzmmbeek 

wooYon. 
Narlnmby. Winda pipe ? Kiering, mihn wil- 

Inm ; nre niebnk. 
Wan-wan broodewat. Pingoody, pingoody. 



Translations. 



THE CXXL PSALM. 



1. I will lift up mine eyes nnto God; from 
Him Cometh my help. 

3. My help cometh from the Lord, who made 
the heaven and the earth. 

8. He will not snfler thy foot to be mored ; 
He that keepeth thee will not slnmber. 

4. Behold I He that keepeth Israel shall 
neither slumber nor sleep. 

5. The Lord is thy keeper ; the Lord is thy 
shade, upon thy right hand. 

6. The sun shall not smite thee by day, nor 
the moon by night. 

7. The Lord shall preserre thee from all eril ; 
He shall preserre thy soul. 

8. The Lord shall preserve thy going out and 
thy coming in, from this time forth, and eren 
for CTermore. 



1. Murmmbeek woorunderoneit mynginiek 
kuding Pundgyl Marman ; weda iromonner 
nunlbeunnuL 

2. Mnrmmbiek nunlbeunnul womoner Pund- 
gyl Marman, wellainer monkeit woor-woor bar 
beeker. 

8. Kargee nier malbodoneit mnrmmbiek ti- 
nan ; mungither wellainer koonark mnrmmbin- 
ner nier yemoner. 

4. Wa I Mungither wellainer Koonark mur- 
rumbinner nier yemee nier yemoner. 

5. Pundgyl Marman kunark mnrmmbinner ; 
Pundgyl Molariek ulbinner munung. 

6. Nier ngeryein tilbunner mnrmmbinner 
yellanwS nier mineam boomndut. 

7. Pundgyl Marman nulworthun mnrmmbin- 
ner ; nier nillam woman mungither moompick 
nulworthununner. 

8. Pundgyl Marman nerdoit murmmbinne 
yannon nulworthun, bar nerdoit womoneit nul- 
worthun murrumbinner, netbo bar wootunno 
yearamboot tille mille nanbo. 



THE FIRST CHAPTER OF OBNB6I8.* 



1. In the beginning God created the heaven 
and the earth. 

2. And the earth was without form, and void, 
and darkness was upon the face of the deep. 
And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of 
the waters. 

8. And God said, let there be light : and there 
was light. 

4. And God saw the light that it was good ; 
and God divided the light from the darkness. 

6. And God called the light day, and the 
darkness he called night. And the evening and 
the morning were the first day. 



1. Ganbronin Pundgyl Marman monguit 
woorworer bar beek. 

2. Nier beek nowdin netbo, beek tandowring 
tarkate ; nier bolt, nier mill, nier taul, nier 
turrong, nier nungo; bar boomndara kormuk 
bumile. Bar Moomp Pundgyl warrebonnk nar- 
lumbanan pam. 

8. Bar Pundgyl Marman tombuk, womear 
yangamut : bar yangamut woman. 

4. Bar Pundgyl Marman nangeit yangamut 
bar tombak boundup nge ; bar Pundgyl Marman 
borung^ergurk yangamut boormndara. 

5. Bar Pundgyl Marman nerreno yangamnt 
yellenwo, bar bomndara borundut. Bar krun- 
gnine bar banbaneram nerreno ganbronin yel- 
lenwi. 



* Abridged in lome of tlie venet, In order to limpiuy tbe cbapter to lult Aboriginal capsclty, bnt the foil purport ia 
retained. 



LANGUAGE. 



131 



6, 7. And God said, let there be a firmament. 
And God made the firmament ; and divided the 
waters which were nnder the firmament from 
the waters which were above the firmament : and 
it was so. 

8. And God named the firmament heaven. 
And the evening and the morning were the 
second day. 

9. And God said, let the waters nnder the 
heavens be gathered together nnto one phice, 
and let the dry land appear : and it was so. 

10. And God called the dry land earth ; and 
the gathering together of the waters called he 
seas: and God saw that it was good. 

11. IS, 13. And God said, let the earth bring 
forth grass, herb, and trees, whose seed is in 
itself : and it was so : and God saw that it was 
good. And the evening and the morning were 
the third day. 

14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. And God said, let there 
be light above, to divide the day from the night, 
and let them be for lights to give light npon the 
earth : and it was so : and God made two great 
lights ; the greater light to rule (or make) the 
day; and lesser light to mle (or make) the night. 
He made the stars also. And God saw that it 
was good. And the evening and the morning 
were the fourth day. 



20, 21, 82, 28. And God said, let the waters 
bring forth abundantly of fish, great and small, 
and fowl that may fiy above the earth. And 
God saw that it was good. And the evening 
and the morning were the fifth day. 

24, 25. And God said, let the earth bring forth 
all living creatures after its kind : and it was 
so. And God made beasts of the earth, and all 
cattle after its kind. And God saw that all was 
good. 

26, 27. And God said, let us make man in our 
image. And God made in his own image man ; 
in the image of God created he him ; male and 
female created he them. 



28, 29. And God blessed them, and said, in- 
crease and replenish the earth ; and have power 
over the fish of the sea, and fowl of the air, and 
all living things. And God gave man every 
tree and herb bearing fruit and seed for man's 
food. 



6, 7. Bar Pundgyl Marman tombak, malwo* 
mear firmament. Bar Pundgyl Marman mon- 
geit namg ; bar borungnergurk parn kubberdon 
beek, bar nungonuk parn kuding karboit tan- 
dowring nowdln netbo. 

8. Bar Pundgyl Marman nerreno firmament 
woorwoorrer. Bar krunguine bar banbaneram 
nerreno bengerrowlin yellenwS. 

9. Bar Pundgyl Marman tombit, malwomear 
parn kubberdon woorwoorrer kundee ganbony 
tombor, bar malwomear palletdebuk : bar now- 
din netbo. 

10. Bar Pundgyl Marman nerreno bidderup 
beek (earth); bar wotonno parn nerreno warreen- 
warreen : bar Pundgyl naogeit kooding nge 
mamameek. 

11. 12, 13. Bar Pundgyl Marman tombit, 
warra wee boit, bar kunnulderbil kurrenum, bar 
terrung willainer kooding nge: bar Pundgyl 
Marman ngerren bar tombak'mamameek. Bar 
krunguine bar banban eram jellingw& bengero 
ganmel. 

14, 16, 16, 17, 18, 19. Bar Pundgyl Marman 
tombak, malwomear yangamut karboit, bar nunr 
gonuk yellenwft bar borandut, tuduk yangamut 
beeker : tandowring netbo : bar Pundgyl Mar- 
man roonkeit bengero bullito yangamut ; koong^e 
bullito namgate yellenwft, bar wyebo yangamut 
namgate borundut. Mungither monkeit wo- 
tunno topiram nowdin netbo. Bar Pundgyl 
Marman nangeit koodin mamameek. Bar krun- 
guine bar banbaneram bengero bar bengerowlin 
yellenwS. 

20, 21, 22, 23. Bar Pundgyl Marman tombak, 
malwomear tuat wootxmno, wyebo bar bullito 
narlumbunner pam, bar koyup woolwoin kar- 
boit beeker. Bar Pundgyl Marman ngerreen 
boundup nge. Bar krunguine bar banban eram 
bengero bar bengero ganmelrowling yellenwX. 

24, 25. Bar Pundgyl Marman tombak, mallon- 
gener beek wantagee umarko kunup togan nge : 
bar tandowring nge. Bar Pundgyl Marman 
monkeit tukin ungut tandowring nge. Bar 
Pundgyl Marman nangeit mamameek kuding. 

2G, 27. Bar Pundgyl Marman tombak, mallun 
monkeit kooling tandowring murrumbunick. 
Bar Pundgyl Marman monkeit tandawring kar* 
geeiek koolinner ; nowdin kargeeiek monkeit 
munniger; kooling bar bagrook monkeit mur- 
rumnuUer. 

28, 29. Bar Pungyl Marman tombit boundup 
murrumnuller ; geanboon koolingee bagrook bar 
wootunno bopup kuding beekar ; bar umanaro 
umarko tuat kuding warreen, koyup worworrow 
bar umarko yeareit togan. Bar Pundgyl Mar- 
man uminarS koolin umarko turrung, bar umar- 
ko uungo tunganan koolinge bagrook« 



132 



THE ABOMGINBS OP VICTOEIA: 



80, 81. And Grod gare ererj liTing thing to 
man for food: and it was lo. And God saw 
•rerything that he had made, and hehold it was 
Tery good« And the erening and the morning 
were the sixth daj. 



30, 81. Bar Pondgjl Marman nmanarer knn- 
nnlwarrahle tnduk tanganan: knding nge. Bar 
Pnndgyl Marman ngarren nmarko kargee mon^ 
gon, bar wft tombak koongee boundop. Bar 
krungaine bar banban eram, nerreno bengero, 
bengero, bar bengerowling jellenwft. 



TBB OXBSD. 



I beliere in God the Father Almighty, Maker 
ol Heayen and Earth ; and in Jesns Christ His 
only Son onr Lord; who came down from 
hearen to sare man, and die for his people ; 
who was by wicked men killed and hanged on a 
tree ; who was dead and buried ; who rose again 
the third day iVom the dead, and ascended into 
heayen, and sat down at the right hand of God 
the Father ; from whence He shall come again 
and make all manUnd stand before Him ; and 
separate the good from tlie wicked. 



I beliere in the Holy Ghost, the resmrection 
of the body, and the life ererlasting. — ^Amen. 



Mnrmmbeek nmrarronkella knding Pnngdyl 
Marman, koongee palleek mongeit woorwoorrer 
bar beeker; bar knding Jesns Christ Tlndee 
mnmmnm murmmbunnnner Lord; wellainer 
bnrrawee woorwoorrer mongonner koolinge bag- 
rook mamameek ; wellainer nillam koolingUL 
buk weakeit bar berbnk, narlnmboon bnrmng ; 
wellainer weagoulaneit bar numbnk ; wellainer 
tinderbeek bengero ganmel yellenwS, knding 
comma^gee nnmnnmo, bar kubboweer woor- 
wooroit bar narlnmby nlbinaer mnnnng Pnndgyl 
Marmanieek ; nnngo yellenwS Jesns Christ ner- 
lingo mongoin nmarko koolinge bagrook terridee 
kargeeiek ; bar pindoner boundup bar menngo. 

Mnrmmbeek nnnnrrnnkelU Bonndnp Moor- 
rnp, commargee mnrmm, bar moormp, tillee 
miUee nangbo. — ^Amen. 



THE LOBD'S FRATBR. 



Onr Father who art in Heayen ; hallowed be 
Thy name ; Thy kingdom come ; Thy will be 
done on earth like it in heayen. Giye ns this 
day onr daily food; and forgiye ns onr bad 
deeds as we forgiye them that do ns bad ; and 
keep ns from sin this day, and from all eyil. 

Only Then, O Great Father, can keep ns now 
and ey«r.— Aman. 



Marmanellfl Marman wellainer narlnmboon 
l^arbolt ; nerrino mnrmmbinner koongee bonn- 
dnp ; woman traogbnlk mnrmmbinner mongon 
tandowring beeker. Umarleek nnmin yellenw& 
tanganan ; bar narlarnamy nnmin nowdin mur- 
mmarter narlarnamy ungo ; bar knnark nnmin 
watticar kooUn yellenwft nier nillam womeit. 

Tindn Marmmbinnez, Bonndnp Marman, nnl- 
worthen nnmin netbo bar panbo.— Amen. 



% 



FBOM OHUSOH SSnYIOB. 



My dear blackfellows,— God's book tells ns in 
many places to acknowledge and confess onr 
many sins, and that we shonld not hide them 
before the face of Almighty God, bnt confess 
them with sorrow, that we may haye forgiyeness 
of them through His great goodness; and though 
eyery day we onght to tell God onr sins, yet 
more so on Sunday, when we all meet together ; 
to thank him for all his goodness ; to hear His 
good book; and to ask all good for onr bodies 
and souls. So, let ns all, as many as are now 
here, fall upon onr knees, and pray to our 
Great Father in heayen, saying— &c., &c. 



Mnrrumbick koolin, — ^Knnne paper wS Pnnd- 
gyl Manqan tombak wongonon dado pardogmv 
rabun tomboon nillam nnmin koongee menngo, 
bar nier enletbee nillam nnmin tudnk nier won- 
grunin pallat Pnndgyl Marman, tindee mardon 
mallnn tombak mongderrewat mardoneit kun- 
nnp Pundgyl Marman yangally narrite nmarko 
bonndnp rige ; bar nelnwft pardognrrabun ban- 
ban eram bar kmngnite Pundgyl Maiman, 
nerdoit bnllito Sunday women wotunno pardo- 
gnrrabun narlnmby nmarko ; thank Mnngither 
tudnk nmarko boundup narngon kargeiek ber- 
kerk; tombarlamon yanite boundup' mnrrum 
bar moomp ; netbo, malpardognrrabun nmarko, 
marlumbunnn mihu buUito Pundgyl boundup 
Marman narlnmboon karboti tom-der-run en^r 
— &c., &c 



LANGUAGE. 133 

BTMN TO OLD HX7NBBBD.* 

1 Pnnd-gyl Mar-man, bar mar-na-ineek 
Nnn-gidc kub-ber-don mur-rum-beek 
H(M]grder-re-irat kpo-lin netbo 
Tan-dowrring koon-gee mur-mm-bo. 

8 Mal-jeng-erk par-do-crni'-ni-biiii 
Tn-duk yar-rite ko-dun>un-nn 
Ner-rem-bee bo>mn yel-len-wa. 
Nnl-wor-then bo-pap Koo-linner. 

8 Ker<loit je-men-ner mar-mm-bee]^ 
Lack-boo-ding myDg^ner kar-gee-iek 
Bar ner-doit yan-na-ner var-reet 
Kar-gee nger-ren?!er mnr-nim-beek. 

* T1i« biMk dilldm at Menl Oxeek tobool lued to dng this Admlmbljr. 

0ATB0HI8M. 

Q.«— Tell me, my child, who m^ ^01^? - t Q.—Tombannerel^ mnnmnbiek bopup, wel- 

lainer mongeit murmmbinner f 
A. — ^The Great God who puide the heaTen and A, — ^Piudgyl Marman weda mongat woor-woor- 
the earth. rer bar beeker. 



LANGUAGE OF THE ABORIGINES OP THE COLONY OF 

YICTORIA, 

This vocabnlary, compiled by the late Daniel Bunoe, Esq.^—" English — 
Native*' — ^is now arranged for greater convenience in a new form — " Native — 
English/' Mr. Bance was a careM and conscientious observer^ and, on the 
whole, his vocabnlary is very accT^te. It appears to relate almost exclusively 
to the dialects of the Yarra Yarra and Coast tribes. 

DirecHons in Pronunciation. — ^In all caaeB the rowels mnst be Bonnded, apd the Towel a aonnded 
broad as ah. Where a word terminates with tha, its sound is shfirp, as ifi thank. It thoiB the con- 
eluding syllable, it should be pronounced soft, as in though. 

By speaking this language with a soft Italian accent, the r^er wiU have little trouble In 
making himself understood by the natlTes. 

AboflgloaL Kng!lt1|. 

Ah -ah or weenthunga ... Peradyenture, perhaps, 

Allambee ...... To recline, seated, sitting, to sit on a seat, to sojourn, to 

remain a while. 

Allambee ba'anth - - • - To float, ducking under water. 

Allambee beek - - . . - To fall, to tumble down. 

Allambee myaring mulloko jeetho - A lodging, a temporary abode. 

Allambee weenth .... Inflame, to set on fire. 

Allambee willam .... Occupy, reside. 

Ba'anji myrring .... Tear, water from the eye. 

Ba'anji ba'anth . . • . - Water. 

Ba'anth mellaba - - .- - Bain, a shower. 



134 THE AB0BIGINE8 OF VICTORIA: 

AborUrtBtL EngUih. 

BAggarook ..... Female, woman. 

Baggarook bnlgana .... Cow. 

Baggarook n'u'dlam ... Beldam, a scolding woman. 

Bambra ...... Moshroom. 

Bang'ath ...... Oyercome, to sabdne. 

Banyock brearback .... Abjugate. 

Barawag ...... Breast-high. 

Barding ...... Knee. 

Barem-bnrbywa .... Lactation, giying suck, 

Bargan ...... Cool. 

Bargarro ...... Shoulder. 

Barmborrim ..... Clean, nnsoiled, pure, to deanse, to rinse. 

Bamboon ...... A load, a burden. 

Barraback ..... Bandage, knot, to tie. 

Barrowom ..... Magpie. 

Beall J goonong .... Loins of the bodj. 

Beebeethu'ung ..... Bed, oolor of blood. 

Beek ....... Clay, country, dirt, mud, earth, ground, land, soil, mould. 

Beelmeek ...... Pus, corrupt matter from a sore. 

Beelong ...... Bag. 

Beenack ...... Basket, flasket, hand-basket 

Beenthuck gooroomulla - . - Bleed, to let blood. 

Belling-atha ..... Abdomen, paunch, the belly. 

Beertherriboon ..... Bilk, to cheat. 

Benjeroo ...... Both, a couple, a brace, double, a pair, two, second, next to 

the first, two wlyes. 

Beigeroo allambee - - - - To brace, to bind together. 

Benjeroo baggarook .... Women (two). 

Benjeroo cooleenth jumbnck - - Dialogue. 

Benjeroo Tor camboo ... Three, third. 

Benjeroo yor benjeroo geenong . - Quadruped, four legs. 

Benjeroo yor benjeroo geenong'atha - Four-footed. 

Benjeroo yor benjeroo yor benjeroo - Six. 

Benjeroo yor benjeroo yor camboo <- Fiye. 

Benjeroo yor benjeroo yor benjeroo Seyen. 

yor camboo 

Benjeroo yor benjeroo yor benjeroo Nine. 

yor benjeroo yor camboo 

Benjeroo yor benjeroo yor benjeroo A week or seyen days. 

yor camboo noweenth 

Berring ...... Midwinter. 

Bibberoom ..... Abscess, sore, blotch, scabby. 

BUim ...... Alcohol, spirits, brandy. 

Bilim-bilim Ale or beer. 

Bilim ponraneen .... Stagger, to reeL 

Bilim umaraleek .... Intoxicate, to make drunk. 

Billamg ...--. A line, a string. 

Bindnck ..-..- To cut, to carye, to hew. 

Bindurk .----. Bowels. 

Birmabuck ----- A fly, an insect. 

Bolk Urine. 

Bollam-bollam ... - - Butterfly. 

BoUardy week ..... Shallow, not deep. 

Booboop - Baby, child, infant, offspring, children, urchin, young. 

Boobooroom ..... Scuryy or scabby. 

Booboop mongoobera ... Cygnet, young swan. 



LAKGUAOE. 



135 



Aboriginal. Eoglldi. 

Boolxx>p n'uther porbine n'uther mar- A foundling, 
moonth 

Boodankin ..... Deep, far from the bottom. 

Boodork co'ondo'ong - - - To choke, stifle, strangle, suffocate. 

Booith ...... Liyer, one of the entrails. 

Boonboop powreenth - - - Born. 

Boonduck .--.-- To gnash, to grind the teeth in rage. 

Boonthung thung alien ... To bite. 

Boorong ...... Firmament. 

Booran ...... An ant. 

Boorooee ...... Black, dark. 

Booroointh or lark .... Murky, dark, cloudy. 

Booroonth ..... Dark, gloom, want of light, obscure, to darken. 

Booronthooith ..... Midnight, night. 

Booronthooith yannathan ... Nightfaring, travelling in the night. 

Boorum ...... Sky, the heayens. 

Boothoon ...... Cancer, pustule, a pimple or sore, scabby, sores, a tender 

place. 

Boothonakoon ..... Cough. 

Boothoon geenong a'ta ... Chilblain* 

Booyboorooing ..... To-morrow. 

Borap ---... Debility, weakness, 

Borong ...... Lip of the mouth. 

Borong'ooth ..... Brittle, 

Bowyeeth ...... Bald. 

Brimbinuree ..... Bride. 

Brim-brim ..... Milk. 

Brim.brimgatha .... Bosom, breast, nipple, a teat. 

Brimbynthon ..... To find, to discoYer. 

Brimerribum ----- To burrow, to make holes, a hole, a hollow place. 

Bucknalook ..... Conjuror. 

Bulgana .-•-.. Beef, bull, meat, oz, buUock. 

BuUar-bullar ..... Light, not heary. 

Bullarto ...... Abundance, big, broad, bulky, capacious, colossal, large, 

copious, eztensiye, exuberant, abundant, fertile, fruitful, 
great, large, huge, immense, most, the greatest in quantity, 
much, a great deal, plenty, profusion, quantity, bulk, re- 
dundance, total, unirersal, all, vast, yery great, exceeding, 
satiate, full. 

Bullarto ba'anth .... Deluge, inundation, a lake, oyerflow of water. 

Bullarto ba'anth mellaba ... Storm, rain. 

Bullarto bilim ..... Bacchanalian, debauch, drunkenness, inebriated, drunken, 

sot, drunkard, tipsy, dnmk. 

Bullarto camdooth .... Concupiscence, sensuality, whorish, unchaste, wanton, lasci- 

yious. 

Bullarto conong .... Diarrhoea, 

Bullarto corong - - - - A ship or large yessel 

Bullarto cooleenth .... Chief, command, commander. 

Bullarto cooleenth allambee - - A gang, a number of men together, 

Bullarto cowongatha .... Chub-head, stupid. 

Bullarto dullally .... Inciyility. 

Bullarto dullallally - - - - To plume, to make proud. 

Bullarto dumbalk .... Winter. 

Bullarto eeip ----- A flock of sheep. 

BuUarto eumaraleek .... Hospitality, muniflcent, open-hearted, generous. 

Bullarto garng ..... Greedy, inhospitable, i^arsimony. 



136 



THE ABOBIOINES OF YICTOBIA: 



AborigliiAL BnglMi. 

BollArto jaalbnnna - - - - Cnt throat. 

Bullarto ja'alburt .... Slaughter, to slay. 

Bullarto jindivick .... DemoUuih, to laj waste. 

BnUarto jumbnck .... Brawling, loquacity, too much talk, rodilerona, noify. 

Bullarto jumbunna .... Babbler, to talk idly, chat, chatter, to duck, to talk fMl, 

damorouB, noisy, to expostulate, hubbub, great talkingy 
jabber, verbose. 

Bullarto jumbilnna euxnaraleek - - Importunate. 

Bullarto lark ..... Cloudy, fog, mistiness, overcast, clouded. 

BuUarto marden .... Deplore, to lament, dirge, funeral ditty, heartache, sorrow, 

inconsolable, misery, to pine, to grieve, sad, sorrowfuL 

Bullarto marmingatha ... Almighty God, clergyman, Qod, devotion, the Bupreme. 

Bullarto monomeeth .... Delight, enrapture. 

Bullarto mooyoopgo'onong - - Delusion, a cheat, sham. 

Bullarto mommoot - - • - Hurricane, a violent storm, storm, tempest. 

Bullarto nandubber .... Glut, overmuch. 

Bullarto nang'ana .... Btare, to look with wonder. 

Bullarto nerreburdin ... Ravenous, hungry, unfed. 

Bullarto noweenth .... Meridian, mid-day, noon-day. 

Bullarto n'u'dlam .... Dislike, to hate, to detest, scandalous, shaideftiL 

Bullarto n'ulam ... - Despicable, worthless, worse, worst. 

Bullarto nuroag .... Feast. 

Bullarto n'ya'alingo oonong - - Lax, diarrhcsa. 

Bullarto n'ya'arunning . • . Driveller, a fool, 

Bullarto n'yeelam .... Diabolical, abominable, damnable, most wicked. 

Bullarto n'yellam .... Enormity, villany, intolerable, very hard. 

Bullarto n'yoweenth .... Summer. 

Bullarto pa'amboonth - - - Coward, cowardice, daunted, dread, great fear, chicken- 
hearted, cowardly, to quake^ to shake with feac 

Bullarto porkwidding . .^ . Crabbed, peevish, impatient, passionate, impetooii^, fury, 

infuriate, enraged, rage, viotent anger, unpeaoeable, 
quarrelsome. 

Bullarto poromboon .... Mar, to spoil. 

Bullarto queeop-queeop ... Flock of birds. 

Bullarto torong .... Brig, a ship. 

Bullarto tutbyrum < • « ^ Comet* 

Bullarto umaleek .... Liberal. 

Bullarto umaraleek . - . ^ Munificent, open-handed, generoos, open hearted. 

Bullarto umina . . ^ -i. . Oversleep, outsleep. 

Bullarto weenth .... Blaze, flame, bright, conflagration, general fire^ hot. 

Bullarto weeakabull .... Longevity, length of Ule. 

Bullarto wonthaggi .... Gather, to collect. 

Bullarto yannathan .... Unfixed, vagrant. 

Bullarto yarragondock ... Unshaved. 

Bumbuck ...... Hack, to cut in pieces. 

Bundarraboon ..... Inhuman. 

Bundike Chip, to cut in pieces. 

Bungal ...... Division, equal, each. 

Bumbum ...... Burden, a load. 

Burra ...... Forbear, to pause, a pause, a stop, tosh, wait» stop, rapid. 

Bnrra-burra Abrupt, apt, quick, bestir, busy, directly, outright. Imme- 
diately. 

Burraguck morobeek ... Likeness. 

Bunlbarridth ..... Plover, a bird. 

Byawark lark ..... Incantation, a'charm. 

Ca'anboo mymongatha - . - - Digital, a finger. 



LANGUAGE. 137 

Aborigiiya. EngUab. 

Ga'anboo meni jan . • - - Month. 

Cft'andeet -»----- Amorous. 

Ck'andooith . . . - . Immodest, shameless^ impure, unchaste, indecently, indec- 
orous, indelicate. 

Caamdooith . - - . . Foul-mouthed, had language. 

Ga'ameek ------ Lonely. 

Ca'amduce ----- Ahuse. 

Ca'amthoolth - - . - - Lewd, wicked, hurtf^. 

Ca'andooee . - - . - Lust, carnal desire. 

Cahhe melemung'il - - - - Greeting, a salutation. 

Cabhin Chill, cold. 

Gabbing -•-.-- Snow, sleet. 

Carbeenthon w carbethon - - Gay, cheerful, hilarity, humorous, play, to sport, to chuckle^ 

to laugh, glad, gleeful, merry. 

Carmboonith • . « . - To amuse, merry. 

Carmuggy or carmuggie - - - To rouse up, ascend, to arise, awake, convalescent, to raise, 

to raise up, to rise, get up, up, waken, to rise from 
sleep. 

Carmuggy carmuggy - - - To rouse, to wake up. 

Carmuggy noweenth ... East. 

Carmuggy n'yoweenth - . - Sunrise. 

Camboo ------ A, one, once, unit. 

Camboo cooleenth • - - - Individual, one person. 

Camboo dandridibble - . - Shilling. 

Camboo myrring'atha . - . Monocular, one-eyed, one eye. 

Camboon -...-. Jesting, laughing, joke, joUy. 

Camboo meniyan - . . . Lunation, the revolution of the moon, month. 

Ckmboo n'uther ben jeroo - - - Entire. 

Camdeeth- ----- Lascivious, lustfuL 

Oumdooith . - - - . Carnal, sensual, unbecoming, indecent, unchaste, unseemly, 

vice, wicked, vicious, vile. 

Camic n'yallamboonon ... Alone, singly, by one's self. 

Oarrangall - . . . . Athletic. 

Caryoong - - . - . - A belt, a girdle of opossum wool. 

Chuck-chuck ----- Chanticleer, a cock. 

Cobbera cowong • - - - A cap, a hat. 

Cobbeya nerregootha ... Summit, top. 

Cobboboonee . . - - - To part, to separate. 

Cobborin .----. Local, in that place, there, at that plaoe^ thither, yonder, 

Coneenonm ----- To corrode. 

Cong'ack ------ Hold, to keep. 

Cong'atha ------ Nasal, belonging to the nose, nose. 

Conong • - - - - - Compost, dung, excrement of animals, human dung, excre- 
ment, manure, muck, soil, stool, evacuation. 

Coogurra ------ Clothe, to cover with a rug, covering, dress. 

Cooleenth ----->* Black man, creature, man, male, the he of any species, adult 

of the human species, a mortal, a human being, a person 
(man or woman). 

Cooleenth bullarto bilim - - - A drinker, a drunkard, drunk. 

Cooleenth bullarto jumbunna - - Gabbler, a prater. 

Cooleenth dullallally - - - - Uncivil. 

Cooleenthebaggarook - - - A person (man or woman). 

Cooleenth jeetho .... Delegate, to send away, 

Cooleenth mooyoop goonong • - Impostor, a cheat. 

Cooleenth nang'eeth - - - - Eye-witness. 

Cooleenth n'ya'alingo uong'a beek - A foreigner. 

VOL. n. B 



138 



THE ABOBIOINES OF YIGTORIA: 



Cooleenth n'ja'araiiiiixig ... Milkflop, derision, a langbing-^tock, dolt, itapid fellow, mad, 

a fop, humdrum, a stupid person, lunatic, madman, 
maniac. 

Cooleenth pimberlally ... Dishonestj, a thief. 

Ck>oleenth uther moojoop - - . Faithful. 

Coolenjeebaggarook .... Wife. 

CoomuckawabiUj .... Infold, imp up. 

Coong'ack ..... To feel, sense of touch. 

Coongamea brimbine ... Adultery. 

Coong-uck ..... Infection. 

CooDgurt ..---- To accept. 

Coonoojee ...... Nab, to catch. 

Coopbaminthjoowung ... Incurable. 

Cooragook ..... Stop, to pause. 

Coomburt- Chain, a necklace, ornaments worn round the neck. 

Coomg-uck ..... Impede, to hinder. 

Coommill ...... Serpent, a snake. 

Coomong ...... Brook, a creek. 

Cooroonoing ..... Athirst, thirstj. 

Coorowork ..... Interchange. 

Corowock .--.-- To wash, 

Corrobboree ..... Dance. 

Cowong ...... Costard, cranium, skull, head. 

Cowongatha ..... Fate, the head, skull, scalp. 

Cowong n'ja'arunning ... Deranged in mind, light-headed. 

Cowumdy ... - - Crawl, to creep. 

Croobuck ...... Clinch, to hold fiuit. 

Cubboot ...... Mute, silent, dumb. 

Cubbout nangooith .... Beware, mum, hush. 

Currumburra ..... Flesh-fly, a blow-fly. 

Dandredibble ..... Small change, money. 

Darnum ...... A parrot. 

Dirundirri I^gs of birds. 

Doonburrim ..... lizard. 

Dorong ...... Core, heart. 

DrumbuUabull ..... Blunderbuss, gun, carbine, detonation, thunder, a firelock, 

fowling-piece, a musket. 

Drumdlemera Bottle, a flask. 

DullallaUy ..... Brag, to boast, bounce, conceited, ambition, wish for power, 

arrogantly, proudly, audacious, bluster, to bully, boaster, 
swagger, coxcomb, a fop, despotic, egotist, eflronteiy, 
elated, pride, proud, gasconade, officious, ostentation, 
pert, saucy, pompous, presumptuous, arrogance, rudeness, 
shameless, impudent, to strut, to walk affectedly, upstart, 
Tain, yanity, to vaunt, grumbling, growling, opinionatire, 
bare&ced, flippancy, pertness, high-minded, Impeiious, 
impertinent, impudence, insolence, lofty, haughty. 

DullallaUy cooleenth ... Bouncer, a bully. 

Dumbalk or dumbulk ... Bleak, chilly, frosty, ice, freeze, frost, hail, frozen lain, 

hoar-frost. 

Durong'y bum Heel, the hind part of the foot. 

Durooke lark ..... Rainbow. 

Eeburra or yucca-yucca ... Anguish, pain, plaint, lamentation, plaintiye, shriek, a cry of 

anguish. 

Eeburra woorarra rummeethan - - Alas! denoting pity. 

Eeip Mutton, sheep. 



1 



LAlTaUAGK 



139 



Aboricriiud* EnglUh* 

Ellingiog Brow, forehead. 

Boke Bel. 

E'a'dlam cooleenth .... Scoundrel. 

Emnaleek ...... RecompenBe, to gain. 

Eomaleek bnlgana .... Meatoffering. 

Enmana ...... Dormant, sleeping. 

Emnaraleek ..... Ask, beseech, bestow, gire, cede, to give up, consign, to giye 

over to another, contribute, crave, demand, deign to give, 
to claim, entreat, furnish, supply, to hand, implore, beg, 
petition, supplicate, to present, to restore. 

Eumaraleek dandridribble - - Imburse, to give money. 

Eumaraleek mirambeek - - - To claim. 

Eumaraleek nurong .... Feed, to supply food. 

Eumina ...... Asleep, repose, sleep. 

Eyearoothin ..... Dream. 

Galbarmuck . . . . • Gash, a deep cut or wound. 

Galbiling n'garrook .... Tomahawk. 

Galboorack ..... Apiece, to divide. 

Galbumin ...... Broken, lame, cripple, to maim. 

Gallopinrgallopin gweeop ... Eiiife, penknife. 

Geenong ...... Mark, footmark. 

Geenongalook Boot, shoe. 

Geenonga'tha Ankle of the foot, foot, step, footstep, toes. 

Geerar -..--- Beed. 

Greerar oordlyalya .... Reedy, many reeds. 

Greetho -...-- Proceed. 

Geetho youarrabnck .... Run, to go quick. 

Gooroomul ..... Blood. 

Gooraog ...... Demon, evil spirit. 

Gullagothoon Inside. 

Gweeon Lance, a long spear. 

Iroontha wothoingim ... Pulse, motion of the blood. 

Ja'aburt ...... Injure. 

Ja'albnck - ..... Scream. 

Ja'albunna ..... Butchered, killed, massacre, murder, murderer. 

Ja'albunna booboop .... Infanticide. 

Ja'alburt Assault, to beat, to strike, destroy, kill, depriye of life, mur- 
der, scourge, punish, slay. 

Ja'alburt marmoonth ... Parricide, who kills his father. 

Ja'alburt parbine .... Matricide, killing a mother. 

Jajidtch ...... Marrow in bones. 

Jeed-tho ..--.. Abscond. 

Jeeluckgeerework .... Dandle, to play. 

Jeerar ...... Lance, a long spear (made of reeds). 

Jeeraboon ...... Ashamed, shy, bashful, coy, modest, coyish. 

Jeetho ...... Depart, detach, send away, dismiss, exit, fly, to go away, go, 

to walk off, hence, liberate, to set free, loose, on, go for- 
ward, onward, repulse, to drive away, retire, send, to 
despatch, went, gone, withdraw. 

Jeetho booroonthooith ... Nocturnal, by night. 

Jeetho corong .... - Ferry in a boat or canoe. 

Jeetho mornmoot .... Blow, driven by wind. 

Jeetho uonga beek . . - - Remove, to go away. 

Jeetho uonga wlllam .... Decamp, to shift, migration, removing, to move. 

Jeetho youarrabnck .... Hie, to go quickly. 

Jeetho uther jumbuck ... Elope. 



140 



THE ABORIGINES OF VICTOEIA: 



AborlglnaL Engliab. 

Jeetho willam .... Homewaiid. 

Jen-jen moon .... - Point, sharpened* 

Jim jermm ----- Cod-flBh. 

Jindaming thung'olth - . - Food, nourish, to support, nutriment, proTisions, Tictnals, 

refreshment. 

Jindy neelingo ----- Gaunt, thin, slender. 

Jindivic .----. Burst, asunder, consume, destroy, decay, falling off, deroid, 

empty, disappear, to yanish, eaten, all gone, emptiness, 
escaped, exhaust, extinct, ftide, wither, irrecoverahle, lost 
for good, lose, to suffer loss, none, out, not here, past, rid, 
clear away, vacant, gone, yanish, to disappear, went, fade 
away. 

Jindiyic ba'anth . . - - Leak, to vun out, parched, dried up. 

Jindiyic hoothoone .... Cure, heal up, heal, to cure, recoyer, get well ag^in. 

Jindivic hooyaroong - - - - Eunuch. 

Jindiyic kidnong - - - . Earless. 

Jindiyic n'yoweenth - - - - Sunset. 

Jindiyic weeinth - . - . Quench, to extinguish Are. 

Jindiyic yarragondock - - - Shaye. 

Jindi worahack Annex, to join together. 

Jingeelbark ----- Knock. 

Jimduck ----- Contempt, scorn. 

Jirnkee f > «• - - Cascade. 

Joomduck {----- Ah I denoting contempt. 

Jonediah myrrinbiangoo - - - Alike. 

Jumbuck ... - - Announce, confer, conyerse, declaim, to harangue, diyulge, 

to reyeal, impart, communicate, enquire, to ask, interpret, 
to explain, narrate, to tell, oration, a speech, to speak. 

Jumbunna - - . . . Colloquy, a conference, discourse, inform, to tell, language, 

mention, to repeat, pronounce, to speak, reply, to say, 
speech, talk, to utter. 

Jumbunna alien - - - ■ . Attention. 

Jumbunna porkwadding - - - Altercation, dispute. 

Kaarmbee . . - - . Blithe, merry. 

Kalbuming n'g narragoo - - - Misshapen, deformed. 

Kalk --...- Chump of wood, log, a piece of wood. 

Ealk-kalk ... - - Bludgeon, thick stick, cane, walking-stick, stick, pieo^ of 

wood. 

Eang'an -.-.-- Feather, plumage. 

Karbeethong --..,. Mirth. 

Sjirkarook ----- Sand, 

Karung - - r - - - Shin. 

Eeelonith ----- Suppose. 

Eidnong'atha . - , . - Ear. 

Kie I monomeeth - . - . Amaze, confusion, cheer, gaity, hurra I shout of triumph. 

Kirrack ...--- Kick, with the foot. 

Kirring ------ Hooked. 

Kirtkirtamook ----- Hackney, a horse, mare, steed. 

Kirtkirtamook geenong'alook f i- Horseshoe. 

Kirtkirtamook yarragong-atha - - Horsehair. 

Kong'arra muggy - - - - Regain. 

Kongwak • - . - , Catch, to stop. 

Koogurra ----- Apparel. 

Koonangonan - - - - - Childbearing. 

Koon-warra ----- Swan. 

Koorknatha ----- Calf of the leg. 



LAKaUAGB. 



141 



Aborigliial. EngUsh. 

Koom ....-• Keck, part of tbe body, throat. 

Koortworko ..... Beseire, keep some back, retain. 

KoroDg ...... Canoe, boat. 

Korramoonith ..... Betch, to vomit. 

Korrong - .» v - - - Gam, yiscpus juice of wattle and other trees. 

Eorroorook - - - • • A stork. 

Eormnbarra . . . - . Maggot. 

Kulbamin - - - r t Break, crash. 

Kullap ...... Needle of bone. 

Knrrambee ..... Langh. 

Eye ! ...... Acclamation ; Ha 1 an expression qf wonder ; O I interjec? 

tion; Bohol wonder. 

Kyel qnanthee! .... Hey I exclamation. 

Eye mlrambeena nang'ooith . • Lookl lol behold! 

Lark ...... Haze, doad. 

Leongatl^l ...... Cheek-tooth, dental, relating to the teeth, teeth, tooth, 

liketen ...... Borlesqne, to mimic 

lalleroboo . r - - - - Joioe. 

lang'an-ling'an ..... Hook» fish-hook. 

Long Cliif. 

Lo tqmeen ..... Deaf. 

Mailburiilngnul - - r - * Associate. 

Maimborogiil ..... Beetle, an insect. 

Mardan . . r - - - Bewail, calamity, cry, to weep, ddefal, dolour, pain, gloomy, 

melancholy, glnm, sullen, grief, groan, fetching deep sighs, 

lament, low-spirited, dejected, miserable, unhappy, moan, 

to grieve, pule, regret, sob, wail. 

Mardan bnllarto r - ? - Bemoan, sorry, weep, to cry, wept. 

Marguck ...... 8ew, to join together, unite. 

Marmingatha - . . . . Divine, minister. Lord, Sup^m^ Being, orison, a prayer, 

religion. 

Marmingatha nVunoojidtch - - Preacher. 

Marmoonth ..... Father of a family, papa or father, parent, father or mother, 

sire. 

Marp- ...... Bloat, pufiy, fleshy, inflation, obese, plump, fat, pot-bellied, 

stout. 

Matron ^ g r ' - • Leaf of trees or plants. 

Marrooing ...... Howl like a dog. 

Maynthook ..... Navel, part of the body. 

Meilburdeen ..... Permanent, perpetual. 

Meniyan ...... Moon, lunar, relating to the moon. 

Miarum-miarum .... Camp. 

Minejeerimering .... Deformed, ugly. 

Mlrambena vor mirambiak - . We, you and me. 

Miram ...... Bough of a tree, branch. 

Mirambeek ..... Dne, pne*s own, mine, belonging to m9> myself, own, belong* 

ing to one's self, prerogative. 

Mirambeek: aL|mbee . - - • Inhabit, to dwell. 

Mirambeek beek .... District, belonging to a tribe, indigenous, motive, 

Mirambeek byggargok marmoonth - Pather-in-law. 

Mirambeek eumaraleek ... Grant, a thing granted. 

Mirambeek jeetho r - - - Disunite from a Mend, leave, to go away, vacate. 

Mirambeek jeetho mirambeena- - Escort, to go with. 

Mirambeek jumhuck .... Intimate, to tell, to relate. 

Mirambeek nangana ... - Apparent, conspicuous, easily seen, saw, to see. 

Mirambeek nanglth .... Detect, to flnd out. 



142 



THE ABOBIGINES OF VIGTOBIA: 



AborlgiiiAL 



English. 



Mirambeek nangooith - - Becogniie. 

Mirambeek n'Ta'alingo ... Ingreas, entnmoe. 

Mirambeek wiUam .... Home. 

Mirambeek wonthuloDg . - - Intimate, familiar friend. 

Mirambeena ..... Thee, thou, thine; ye, nominatlTe, plural of thou; you, your- 
self, yonr, belonging to you. 

Mirambeena jetho - - - . Expel, to drire oat 

Mirambeena jeetho bnrra-bnrra - Despatch, to send away quick. 

Mhrambeena jombuck ... Answer, explain. 

Mirambeena mirambeek ... Oars, oarselres. 

Mirambeena mon(»neeth ... Esteem, to think well of. 

Mirambeena nangana ... Denote, to point oat, enlighten, exhibit, offer to yiew, show, 

to show to another. 

Mirambeena n'ya'alingo ... Remand, to call back, rerocate, calling back. 

Mirambiak ..... Appertain, belonging to, belong, self, one's self. 

Mirambiak booboop .... Son. 

Mirambiak nangooth ... See, to peroeiTe with the eye. 

Mlrboo -...-- Kidneys, reins, 

Mirmball Corpalence, fat. 

Mirring -..--- Hear. 

Mirring-ian ..... Pensire. 

Mogormeenth - - - - - SaUra, spittle. 

MoUokin Sister. 

Molong molook ..... Afternoon, erening, son-down. 

Monomeeth ..... Agree, amity, appreciate, approve, beauty, benerolence, 

brayo, generosity, gentle, mild, well done, charming, 
comely, commendation, darling, a favorite, desert, worthy, 
elegant, endearment, enjoyment, fair, beautiful, famous, 
fidelity, honesty, good, indulgent, kindness, kind, benero- 
lent, laud, to praise, merit, odoriferous, sweet, pleasant, 
precious, costly, pretty, handsome, prime, first-rate, pro- 
perly, pure, in a fit sense, not sullied, rapture, delight, 
rejoice, relish, right, proper, satisfied, seemly, decent, 
serene, splendid, spotless, deserring, zest, to relish. 

Honomeeth'baanth ... - Stream, running water. 

Monomeeth cong'atha ... Fragrance. 

Monomeeth cooleenth ... Ally, a friend, charitable, estimable, incorrupt, honesty just, 

plain-dealing, true-hearted, 

Monomeeth jumbunna ... Conrersable. 

Monomeeth mirambeek cooleenth • Chum, messmate. 

Monomeeth mirambeena ... Thanks. 

Monomeeth mirambeena n'ya'alingo - Welcome. 

Monomeeth myrring-atha ... Perspicuous, quick-sighted. 

Monomeeth nang'ooith ... Smile, to speak kindly. 

Monomeeth nojee .... Coincide, to agree with. 

Monomeeth n'uther pa'amboonth - Magnanimous, brave, manful, bold. 

Monomeeth n'uther pimberlally - Honest. 

Monomeetb poath . . ^ - A grassy plain, a lawn. 

Monomeeth worong'atha - - - Luscious, sweet. 

Mooboop wooringwillam ... Cub, young of native dog. 

Moola ...... Shadow, a shade. 

Moomgatha - - - - ' . Back, the hinder part, bottom, ftmdament. 

Moonmoondick ..... Damsel, young maid, deity, God, the Pleiades, dirinily, su- 
preme, girl, a young female, a virgin, miss, young un- 
married person, vestal, pure ; youth, past childhood, if a 
girl. 



LANGUAGE. 143 

Atwrigliua. English. 

Moongoobera . • - - - Wood-pigeon. 

Hoonip ...... Embers. 

Moonong ... ... Lome. 

Moorbamdiick ... - - Cazesf . 

Moordiyal jmnbimnA ... Carnage. 

Moort ...... Abridge. 

Moortring-an ..... Quake, to shake with cold. 

Moojoop ...... Artful, canning, daQj, to trifle, delude, to cheat, duplidtj, 

deceit, eraaion, flam, a pretext, flatter, hoax, imporitlony 
hjpocrite, a diBsembler, insincerity, misinf orn^ to gire a 
false account, OTcrreach, deceive, outreach, trick. 

Moojoop goonong or mjopego-onong Banter, crafty, deceitful, dissemble, finwn, to flatter, feign, to 

dissemble, fib, a lie, frivolous, gammon^ to decelye, gull, 
• to cajole, to cheat, incredible, not to be belieyed, a juggler, 

a cheat, a liar, ludicrous, burlesque, misguide, lead wrong, 
mockery, mummery, buffoonery, nonsense, palayer, talk 
idly, plot, to scheme, pretence, a pretext, pseudo, false, 
quibble, quirk, a taunt, ridicule, scofE, slyness, cunning, 
stratagem, unreal, not real, raUlery, satire^ to joke, to 
exaggerate. 

Mooyope --..-- Cheat. 

Morack HiU. 

Mommoot ..... Blast of wind, gale of wind, wind. 

Mommoot bullarto .... Windy, rery stormy. 

Mulloko ...-.- Defer, to put off, delay, ere long, immediate, postpone, 

presently, soon, refiain, by-and-by, shortly, quickly, 
soon. 

Mulloko booboop .... Breeding, to hatch, oonoeiye, pregnant^ pregnancy. 

Mulloko bullarto .... Enlarge, increasing. 

Mulloko carmuggy nowinth - - Dawn, break of day. 

Mulloko euminna .... Drowsy. 

Mulloko jeetho - - • . - Going. 

Mulloko jindiyic .... Wane, diminish. 

Mulloko monomeeth .... Hope. 

Mulloko murmbull ... - Dying. 

Mulloko nojee .... - Embryo, unfinished. 

Mulloko n'ya'alingo . - - - Coming, expectancy, something expected. 

Mulloko porkwadding ... Enrage, exasperation, offend, to make angiy, proroke. 

Mulloko umarrong^ook ... Fate, destined to die. 

Mulloko umina ..... Lethargic, sleepy. 

Mulloko weeakabull . - - - Elderly. 

Mulloko wyeeboo .... Beduce. 

Mung-mung ..... Note, obserre, remark, to mark, peroeire, recollect, re- 
member. 

Munnip ...... Ashes, cinder, dust. 

Murmbull Dead, death, die, lifeless, perish, deceased, inter, to boiy. 

Murra-murra bargoagan - . - Shiyer with' cold. 

Murrack .-..-• Grasshopper. 

Murringian ...... Ponder, to think. 

Myaring Before, here, in this place, local, present, not absent. 

Myarring'inna . - - . . Lag behind. 

Myarum-myanun .... Bower of bonghs. 

Myeering - Exterior. 

Myogo'onong ..... Belie. 

Myooith comae nonga n'gerroodjeeth After, behind. 

Myoop - Counterfeit. 



lU 



THE AB0BIGINE8 OF YIGTOBIA: 



Aboriginal. EnglUh. 

Myarring'ixma - - - • - Behindt 

Mymong ...--- Finger, thumb. 

Mjrmong kalk . - - - - Walking-stick. 

Mymongatha ----•< Claw, foot of a bird, flgt of the hand, paw, the forefoot of a 

beast. 

Myrongatha ..... Hand. 

Mjrringano .... - Countenance, form of the face, face. 

Myrringata porkwadding ... Frown. 

Mjrringatha ..... Eye. 

Myrring leong'atha ... - Bye-tooth. 

Myrwarradredoing noon - . - Benumbed. 

Na'aboonthang'arraboonth - - Fast, to abstain firom. 

Na'ang'naroonnm .... Bethink, to remember. 

Na'anwoodthina .... Breathless, fagged, harassed, tired, jaded, pant. 

Na'arangabbeemee - - - - Gently, slowly. 

Na'anmg'aith . . . .^ . Inaudible. 

N'allambee bangal .... Between, centre. 

Namburk ...... Burial, bung. 

Nangana ..... ^ Compare, to examine, distinguish, eyesight, to see, sight 

Nangana geenong .... Vestige, footmark. 

Nangana geenong'atha ... Track, to follow, tnuL 

Nang'ana mirambeek ... Erident. 

Nangana wirrate . ^ . ^ Bspy, see at a distance. 

Nang'ark ...... Peep, a sly look. 

Nangathan ... - . . Combine, to unite. 

Nangoolth . .^ . . . . Behold I lo 1 seen. 

Nangurk thurtbuck .... Caution. 

Napp *-.-.. Bridge. 

Narbeethong ..... Llrely. 

Narbethong ..... Cheerful, fun, lerity. 

Narring-oboomee .... Late, slow. 

Narringyan ..... Moody. 

Narrobuck ..... Smelli 

Nayook ...... Cockatoo. 

Needly-ooing ..... Paroquet. 

N'eelam Collusive, bad, corrupt, graoeless^ abandoned, to annoy. 

N'eelam baggarook - - - - Hussy, bad woman. 

N'eelam warrabuck .... Fetid, stink. 

Neelum ...... Prejudice, dislike. 

Neerim High, derated, long, not short, spear, long pointed weapon, 

taU. 

Nelwork ...... Heed, caution. 

Nenborongooith boganna ... Apologize^ 

Nerdunning ..... Faint, not strong. 

Nerreburdeen ..... Voracious, indigent, in want, starying, hungry. 

Nerrena -..--. Name. 

Nerrurt ...... Frog. 

N'ga'an ...... Breath, air drawn by the lungs, breathe. 

N'gaang ...... Hiccup, 

N'gammojiggerook .... Lady, white woman. 

N'gammoodjidtch .... Englishman or white man. 

N'gammoodjitdch marmingatha - Parson, priest. 

N'garrabooen ..... Limp, to halt 

N'garrambul Chalk, i>aint 

N'giaboopoop Lifertile, barren. 

N'gondook Chin. 



LAI^aUAOE. 



145 



Aboriglittl. English. 

N'gorack -«.-«« Motmtain, peak, a hill. 

N'gorack bullarto ... - Mountamous. 

N'groorook ----- Flint, a pebble. 

N'gabbomer ----- Grog. 

N'gull News. 

N'neemroon Cement, gum. 

Koobuck .... - ^ Drink, to swallow. 

Noogee ...... Complete, correct, content, desist, to leave off, end, finish, 

ho ! enough, hold, be still, mature, perfect, needless, that 
will do, cease, done, exactly, full, satisfied, clear, manifest, 
successfully, overmuch, quantum, sufficient, quash, to 
crush, quell, quietus, a full discharge, quite, completely, 
replete, ripe, settled, confirmed, suffice, suitable, agreeable, 
unnecessary, satisfactory, valid, well, properly, satiate. 

Noogee-noogee (spoken sharply) - Wearied, harassed by another. 

Noogee monomeeth . - . « Concur, to agree. 

Noolenthethan ..... Miss, not to hit. 

Noongoong jeeraing nuit - . -• Asunder. 

Noortuminum ..... PaJn. 

Notti run joomboilong'oith - - Promise. 

Noweenth . ^ - <- ^ . Disc, face of the sun, light, rays of the sun, sun. 

N'u'dlam .'.'•..- Antipathy, dislike, depravity, disreputable, evil, false, faulty, 

infamous, bad, insipid, want of taste, knave, a rascal, mean, 
contemptible, misbecoming, unseemly, naughty, wicked, 
nuisance, obscene, disgusting, odious, opprobrium, disgrace, 
perfidious, prevaricate, to lie, refuse, worthless, shameful, 
unfaithful, treacherous, unpalatable, unsound, corrupt. 

NVdIam cong'atha .... Fusty. 

N'u'dlam cooleeiith .««.'. Fibber, one who lies, ignoble, worthless, ingrate, an Ungrate- 
ful person. 

N'a'dlam cowong • « ^ . Loggerhead, thick skull, a dolt. 

NVdIam jumbuck .... Evil speaking. 

N'n'dlee -..-•- Bound, to spring. 

N'ulam . . ^ . - . Horrible, shocking, paltry, pollution, shabby^ mean, sinful, 

wicked, unmeet, improper, venal, bad. 

N'nlam cooleenth .... Desperado, faithless, miscreant, a wretch, reprobate, aban- 
doned, rogue, vagabond, villain, a wicked wretch, a worth- 
less person. 

N'nlam cong^atha - «. . • Rancour, striking. 

N'nlam jumbuck - . . « Falteif in speech. 

N'nlam jumbunna ... - Swear. 

Nulling'amng ..<... Shark, sea fish. 

Numbuck ...... Chamel, place of sepulchre, grave for the dead. 

Nnngooiing ..... Cockle. 

Nuringian ..... Sedate, quiet. 

Nurong . - . ^ . ^ Bread, flour, loaf of bread. 

Nurring'ian . . - - . Meditate, think, study, melancholy, quiet, not to speak, 

quietude, muse, to study, consider, contemplate. 

N'uther Denial, to deny, nay, no, negation, not^ refuse. 

N'uther allambee willam ... Away, absent. 

N'uther ba'anth ..... Drought, dry weather. 

N'uther baggarook .... Unmarried, single man. 

N'uther barmburrlm ... Nasty, dirty. 

N'uther booboop .... Childless. 

N'uther boolong .... Nothing. 

N'uther booboop carmuggy - - Barren. 

VOL. n. T 



146 



THE ABOSIOmES OF YIGTOBIA: 



AboriftnaL 

N'nther biiUuto ... 
N'uther bollarto norong - 
N'nther bum^bnrra ... 
N'ather ca'anthooith ... 
N'uther cannaggie ... 
K'ather cooleenth ... 
N'ather cooleenth allambee willam 
N'nther dandridibble 
N'nther dullaUallj ... 
N'nther enmaleek ... 
N'nther geenong'alook 
N'nther jeetho .... 
N'nther jindiTic 
N'nther jnmbnck ... 

N'nther jnmbuima . • - 
N'nther knrrambnll ... 
N'nther knrrick-knrrick - 
N'nther lark .... 
N'nther ma'amoonth n'nther parbine 
N'nther mardan ... 
N'nther marming'atha 
N'ather marmoonth ... 
N'nther marp .... 



N'nther marron 
N'nther mirambeek - 
N'uther mirambiak nang'ana 
N'nther monomeeth - 



N'nther monomeeth cooleenth - 
N'uther monomeeth jnmbnck - 
N'uther moojoop ... 



BagUali. 

Dearth, want, indigence, scarce. 
Famine. 
Tardy, slow. 
Decent, becoming. 

Cureless, incurable, restire^ nnwilUng to stir. 
Unmarried, single woman. 
Uninhabited, untenanted, unoccupied. 
Penniless, no money, moneyless, poor. 
Humble, lowly. 
Disallow, to deny. 
.Unshod, no shoes, barefoot. 
Continue, to remain, stay, don't go. 
Dnrable, ezhanstless. 
InconTersable, nnaocial, silent, sulky, sullen, surly, unsaid, 

not yet uttered. 
Dumb, incapable of speech. 
Cogitation, thought. 
Blunt-pointed, not sharp. 
Unclouded, no clouds. 
Orphan. 

Callous, light-hearted, unmoumed, not wept for. 
Blasphemous, immoral, irreligious, profanely, wickedly. 
Fatherless. 
Lank, long and thin, lean, without fat, meagre, thin, skinny, 

wanting flesh, slender. 



N'nther mooyoopgoonong 
N'uther mooyoop myrring'ata 
N'uther myamm-myarum 
N'uther nangana 

N'uther nang'ooith - 



N'nther noogee 



N'uther n'ya'alingo - 
N'nther n'ya'alingo conong 
N'uther n'ya'anmning 



N'uther n'ya'anmning mirambeek 
N'uther oodiyalyal umaraleek - 



Disown, renounce. 

Unforeseen. 

Abject, dir^, clumsy, nasty, inferior, inharmonions, not 
sweet, loathe, to hate, repugnant, uigust, unkind, unneigh- 
bourly, unfriendly, wrong, iigury, scnrrily. 

Brutal. 

Inarticulately, to speak indistinctly. 

Credit, belief, determination, discreet, earnest, fact, frankly, 
without resenre, genuine, real, heartiness, sincerity, inno- 
cence, matchless, natural, unaffected, powerful, profess 
openly, punctual renowned, Terify, to prove true, eminent, 
truth, true, undeoeire, unfeigned, sincere. 

Serious. ' 

Sheeps' eyes, loTing look. 

Houseless. 

Blindfold, inyisible, miss, not to be seen, unperoeiTaUe, not 
to see, unseen. 

Imperceptible, not seen, indiscernible, not to be seen, seal, 
to dose the eyes. 

Imperfect, unfinished. Incapable, unfit, incomplete, incor- 
rect, inept, unfit, insufllcient, nugatory, no good, no use, 
unserriceable. 

Absence. 

Costire. 

Dignify, experienced, handily, with skfll. Ingenious, learned, 
defer, manoBUTre, skilful, sagacity, sane, sound of mind, 
science, knowledge, sensible, understand, wise, wot, to 
know. 

Comprehend, fscnlty, ability. 

Frugal, miserly. 



LAKGVAOE. 



147 



AboriglnaL 



English. 



K'uther oodthenong - - . - Few, a small number. 

N'nther paimboonth - - . . Dare, to defy, daring, gallant, braye, heroic, intrepid, fear- 
less, champion, prowess, brayery, bold, confident, resolute, 
firm, undaunted, unterrifled, yaliant, yalour, courage, 
courageous. 

N'nther pardin Pathless, trackless. 

M'uther permberlallj ... Equity, justice, fairly, honestly, commit, to entrust. 

N'uther porkwadding ... Composed, calm, conyiyiaJ, gay, diyerting, merry, lenity, 

kindness, merciful, compassionate, passiye, easy, patient, 
peaceable, quiet. 

N'uther tartbanerra ... - listless, heedless, negligent, careless, unguarded, unmindful. 

N'nther tutbyrum .... Starless, no stars. 

N'uther umaleek .... Illiberal, mean, niggard, coyetous, ungenerous. 

M'uther umaraleek .... Grudgingly, unwillingly, rapacious, greedy. 

N'uther umina - - . - . Awake, not asleep, restire, without sleep, wakeful. 

N'nther u myoa .... Preserye, to keep, proyident. 

N'nther uonga - - . • - Nobody, not any one, not another, unparalleled, none other 

Uke it. 

N'nther uonga cooleenth nangana - Secret, priyate. 

N'nther weeakabull .... Juyenile, young, youthAiL 

N'nther wirrate .... Enyirons, not distant, near, close at hand, nigh, yicinity. 

N'nther yan yean .... Bridegroom. 

N'nther yarragondock ... Smock-faced. 

N'nther youarrabuck ... Easily, gently. 

N'ya'alingo ..... Aback, backwards, appear, approach, come, to draw near, 

to countermarch, emerge, enter, hither, recede, fall back, 
return, to come back. 

N'ya'alingo ba'anth ... - Fountain, a spring. 

N'ya'alingo willam .... Inyite. 

N'ya'armming ..... Absurdity, to make a blunder, weak, brainless, silly, clod- 
pole, stupid, confound, perplex, crack-brained, crazy, 
delirium, loss of mind, dull, fimtastical, finical, foppish, 
folly, fool, half-witted, ignorant, lapse, to forget, impolitic, 
imprudent, inadyertence, carelessness, incongruity, indis- 
creet, to act foolishly, insane, mad, madly, misapprehend, 
mistake, not to understand, omit, forgot, preposterous, 
absurd, puerile, childish, remiss, careless, silliness, simple- 
ton, unintelligent, unknowing, unmeaning, unskilful. 

N'ya'anmning cooleenth . - - Natural, fool, ninny, noddy, a simpleton, numskull. 

N'ya'amnning cowong ... Distraction, madness, f orgetfulness, loss of memory, idiot, 

a fool. 

N'yallambee ba'anth ... Drench, to soak in water. 

N'yalUmbee moomgatha - . - Couchant, squatting on the hams, couch, to lie down. 

N'yeehun ..... Crime, wicked. 

N'yeelam baggarook - ... Coquette. 

N'yeelang ..... Bone, bony. 

N'yeelingo tumin .... Rib. 

li'yeemoosith or yallambee - - Bask, couch, to lie down, lay, lie, prostrate, laid flat, recum- 
bent, lying. 

N'yeerurkooleen .... Snore. 

N'yelam beek ..... Desert, a wildnemess. 

N'yelambooreen .... Abhor. 

N'yellam ..... Bad, base, mean, execrable, hateful, incorrigible, iniquitous, 

sinful, mischief. 

N'yellam cooleenth ... - Rascal, profligate, wicked. 

N'yellam myrring'ata ... Blear-eyed, dimness, dullness of sight. 



148 



THE ABOEIGUraS OF VICTOEIA: 



Aboriginal. 



Engliili. 



N'yellam warrobnck ... gtiiik, 

K'jellan therrongatha ... Bow-legged. 

N'jnther wirrate .... Cloee, not distant. 

Odthenong ..... Conntless, hmnmerable. 

Odthenong qneeop-qneeop - - Coyey, a nnmber of birds. 

Ongue hook ..... Indebted, to owe. 

Oodiyalyal cooleenth » -r - Crowd, a multitude. 

Oodthenong ..... Congregation, many, 

Oodthenong cooleenth ... Confluence, a multitude, party, a number of indlTiduals. 

Oodthenong jindiTic ... Desolate, laid waste. 

Oodthenong umaraleel^ ... Berote, give up. 

Oodyyallyal tootbymm ... Constellation. 

Oordiyalyal allambee ... Altogether. 

Oordiyalyal . p r - - Hundred, divers, seyeral, droye, a crowd, {nezhanstible, 

infinite, immense, manifold, many in numbers, many, 
numerous, most, the greatest in nnmber, multiplicity, 
myriads, great numbers, nnmber, plural, quantity, num- 
bers, sundry, swarm. 

Oordiyalyal baggarook ... Throng, multitude. 

Oordiyalyal cooleenth ... Throng, multitude. 

Oordiyalyal cooleenth geetho - - Procession, a train marching. 

Oordiyalyal cowong'atha ... Many-headed. 

Oordiyalyal jumbuck ... Communicatiye. 

Oordiyalyal nang'ana ... Frequent, often seen. 

Oordiyalyal nang'ooith - i - Gaze, to look earnestly. 

Oordiyalyal n'ya'alingo - ^ - Collect together, muster, to assemble, 

Oordiyalyal jindiyic - - - . pestitution. 

Oothanong booboop .... Children. 

Fa'amboontb r * * - « I>astard, coward, dismay, fidnt-hearted, cowardly, flinch, to 

shrink from pain, heartless, wanting courage, poltroon, 
pusillanimous, terror, fear. 

Palmrt . , . . . Able, able-bodied, actiye, brawny, dexterity, indefatigable, 

industrious, lustily, with yigor, mighty, powerful, muscular, 
strong, robust 

Pany'ath Capture. 

Parbine ..... Dam, mother, mamma. 

Parbine n'uther booboop ... Motherless. 

Pardin ...... Path, footpath, track, road, a way, 

Parmboonth ..... Afraid, consternation, fear, dread, fright, recreant, cowardly, 

scare, frighten, shudder, quake with t^ti^, timid, fearful^ 

Parmboonth n'uther ... Fearless. 

Parooth ..... Mouse. 

Parramoutl; , ^ ^ - . 3lind. 

Path'eron . , . , . Caterpillar, a grub, a destmctiye worm. 

Pellong . . . r r - Net. 

Permberlally or pimbullaUy - - Defraud, to rob, depredate, fllch, to steal, ftraud, to cheat, 

despoil, imposition, light-fingered, thieyish, x>eculate, pilfer, 
pillage, plunder, purloin, ransack, rifle, theft, stealing. 

Permberlally baggarook . v - Seduction, 

Permberlally booboop ... Kidnap. 

Pidjering ..... Scar, mark of a wound. 

Po'ath ...... Blade of grass, grass, turf, coyered with grass. 

Poggoomuck . . . . , Qui, to draw ont the guts. 

Poojeering myrringa ... Blink, to winkf 

Poomeet - - - • - . - Tadpole. 

Poowong ...... Carrion, putrefaction, rottenness. 



LANGUAGE. 149 

AborlglnaL Engltsb. 

Porkwadding or porqaarrin • - Chafe, to fret, anger, crossgrained, discord, dupleasure, fend, 

quarrel, fretfal, furj, passion, gruff, surlj, harsh, austere, 
hotheaded, passionate, incensed, proYoked, indignation, ire, 
malice, spite, morose, peerish, wrath, rancorous, malicious, 
umhrage, choler, contentious, quarrelsome. 

Powerding ..... Accident, fell down, tumble. 

Pundruyong cowong'onock - - Nod, to bend the head. 

Pung'ock ------ Nip, to pinch. 

Purring ..---- Highway, roitd. 

Quanthee ------ How, query, question, to enquire, what, 

Quanthee n'y'aling - * - - Whence, from what place. 

Quanthueeneera - . . , Sudden, surprise, what for, why. 

Quanthueeneera n'ya'alingo - - Intrusion. 

Queeop-que^op ,.---- Bird. 

Qneeop-queeop willam . . - Nest, bird's nest. 

Quinkee monomeeth - - - - Lore, affection, limpid, clear, pure. 

Boatuminang ----- Incision, a wound. 

Tany a goon Taste. 

Tarkeeth -,---- Marsh, a bog, swamp. 

Tarmbuck - lift up. 

Tamook -...-- Basin, to hold water, bowl, a ressel, bucket, cup, a drinking 

Tcssel, jug, mug, a yessd to drink from, pot, pannikin. 

Tartbanerra - . - . . Care, careful. 

Tatbee .---., Hide, a skin. 

Tatekorhee Blab, to tell tales. 

Teed'thung ..... Bat-mouse. 

Tha'ambuck ..... Heave, to lift. 

Tha'arabuck ..... Itch, scratch, tear with the nails, 

Thallarabegoon Gorge, the throat. 

Thang'arth - - - - - Eat. 

Thang'arreeoath - - . - Breakfast. 

Tharrack gully1t>uyth . - - Chase, to hunt, to course, pursue. 

Tharrajidtch ...-., Cessation, stop. 

Tharrin ------ Buttock. 

Theema koing^ack - . . . Procrastination, delay. 

Therrangalook ----,. Apparel. 

Thcrray ------ Aloud. 

Therreoermymong - - * - Nails on the flngers or toes. 

Thirrock ------ Arm, limb of the body. 

Thirrong Thigh. 

Thirrong^alook - - » . - Breeches, trousers, cloak, to cover, coat, frock, gown, shirt. 

Thirrong'atha - . * - - Elbow, haunch, thigh, leg. 

Thirumaleek - ... - Horseleech, leech. 

Thittle ---..- Glutton, gormandizer. 

Thooamee Ebrk I listen I to hearken, listen. 

Thoomee Peace, silence. 

Thooraweenth - - , - - Noise, outcry, report, a loud noise, riot, an uproar, squall, to 

scream. 

Thoronee --««•-- Abdomen, belly. 

Thort borra boon - . . . Precaution. 

Thoumeenmella - - . r Mouth, to grumble, mumbler, a mutterer, murmur, pout, to 

look sullen. 

Thoumeenmeenmella . , . Peevish, pettish, quarrelsome, scold, to chide, scowl, to frowu, 

snappish, cross-tempered, snarl, spleen. 

Thullarabeegoon ... - Weasand, windpipe. 

Thung'ook ..... Mastication, chewing. 



150 



THE ABORIGINES OF YICTOBIA: 



AborlgliiAL Eoffllsh. 

Thurrijee Halt, to itop. 

Thyowon - . - - - - HI, uck, illness, sickness, indisposition, inTslid, sick person, 

languid. 

Tonimbnck ..... Bum, to char, scorch. 

Tooiyong ...... Cray-flsh. 

Toolome ...... Duck, a bird. 

Toona'gin ..... Blight, a sore. 

Toombyling goonock ... Conqueror. 

Toorong'a - New, not old, modem. 

Torndoin ...... Brain. 

Torra'aweenth .... - Loud, much noise. 

Totekarrawa ..... Incarcerate, tie, to fiuiten. 

Tote kooda waugh .... Shut, close the door. 

Tote konawaugh .... Bind, confine, detain, keep in custody, to join together. 

Touit Fish. 

Towrambuck ..... lick, to touch with the tongue. 

T'see waugh cr jimduck . . - Contempt, soom, despise, to scorn, detest, disdain, hoot, shout 

of contempt, insult, jeer, to treat with soom, nausea, feel- 
ing of disgust, pish I pshaw ! interjection. 

Turkeeth ...... Moorland, marshy ground, morass. 

Turnoma'ay ..... Eyebrow. 

Tutbyrum ..... Star. 

Uarrabuck ..... Begin, quick. 

Uguck ...... Grease, to smear with Ikt. 

Ulertbee ...... AToid, to shun. 

Umaleek Delirer, distribute, relief, render, to giTe, request, to ask, 

reward, solicit, vouchsafe. 

Umaleek booboop brimbrim'gatha - Suckle, a child at the breast. 

Umaraleek ..... Beg, dun, to ask, offer, to gire. 

Umaraleek nurong .... Diet, supplying with food. 

Umarongack ..... Corpse, a dead body. 

Umarraleek ..... Aooonmiodate. 

Umina ...... Doze, to slumber, rest, sleep. 

Uminan'uther ..... Sleepless. 

Umina uther carmuggy ... Drowsily, idly. 

Umuck ...... Cast, to throw, hurl, fling. 

Umuck yang'ana .... Gasp f6r breath. 

Um-um ...... Aye, yes, sign of compliance, yea. 

Um-um monomeeth .... Like, pleased with. 

Um-um noogee ..... Conclude, to determine, penetrate, to understand. 

Uonga ...... Alteration, change, to alter, lieu, taking another thing 

instead, other, not the same, reyerse. 

Uonga beek ..... Abroad, outlandish, foreign. 

Uonga camboo ..... Encore. 

Uonga oooleenth booboop ... Bastard. 

Uonga oooleenth n'ya'alingo ndram- Visitor, 
beek willam 

Uonga umaraleek .... More, in greater number. 

Uonga willam ..... Elsewhere. 

Urimembergat Couple, to many. 

Urongee jaalbnrt .... Belabor, to beat soundly. 

Uther jumbuck ..... OraTC, serious. 

Uther mooyoop - .... Candid, downri^t, open-minded, 

Uther mooyoop myrring'ata - - Eagle-eyed. 

Uther myoop ..... Cleyer. 

Uther n'ya'alin .... Exclude, to shut out. 



LANGFAGE. 151 

Aboriginal. BngllBh. 

Uther ifyeelam ChMte, pure. 

XJther umaleek .... - m-natare. 

Uther mnina ..... Disquiet. 

Uthiir weeakabull .... Energy, power. 

Wa'ajuck Chide. 

Wa'aog ---... Crow, a bircU 

Warragal ...... Ferocious, savage, wild, opponent, an enemy. 

Warragul cooleenth .... Enemy, foe, hostile, savage, wild, antagonist. 

Warrain - ' - . . . - Beach, marine, belonging to the sea, ocean, sea, coast. 

Warrain ba'anth .... Brackish. 

Warring-«boomee .... Linger, to remain, to loiter. 

Waugh kyel ..... Holla I stop I shout. 

Weeagoon -...-- Life, animal being, lire, to be in a state of life. 

Weeakabull ..... Aged, ancient, senior, oldest, antique, old, decrepitude, old 

age, dotage, dotard, inferior. 

Weeakowleen ..... Carcass. 

Ween'gamool currungmeen - - Alarm. 

Weenth ..-.-- Fiery, Are. 

Weenth kalk ..... Fire-brand. 

Weenthunga ..... Doubt,toque8tion,dubiouB, mistrustful, doubtftil, perplexed, 

misunderstand, precarious, seemingly, doubtfully, sus- 
picion, uncertain, unsettled, vague. 

Weenthuga-weenthunga - . - Lidecision, hesitation. 

WDgul Hawk, a bird. 

Willam - Building, a habitation, cottage, hut, dwelling, house, place of 

abode, rind, bark of trees, residence. 

Winjeel Eagle. 

Winter Where. 

Wintharra n'gurrung'uith - - Harbinger, a messenger. 

Winthathith koordee ... Crack, noise. 

Winthoonth ..... Birth, CQming into life. 

Winthonga ..... Somewhere. 

Wintowrding ..... Whereabouts, whither, where. 

Wintowring ba'anth ... Dry, thirsty. 

Wirrack ...... Clamber, to climb. 

Wirram ...... Left, opposite to the right. 

Wirrate ...... Afar, beneath, beyond, bottomless, distance, far, distant, 

furthest off, remote, wide, remotely, at a distance. 

Wirrate bullarto .... Farther, more distant. 

Wirraway ..... Challenge, incite, to stir up, menace, to threaten, dare, to 

defy, daring. 

Wirock weenth .... Kindle, to set on fire, enkindle, ignite, Ught, kindle a fire, a 

fire.' 

Wollard-woUard .... Fur, opossum rug. 

Wollawordock .... - Unimportant, never mind. 

Wong -.-.-. Cheek. 

Wonthaggarook .... Mealy-mouthed, meek, gentle, mild, kind, reserved, modest. 

Wonthaggi ..... Borne, drag, to pull along, get, to bring, haul, to drag, lug, 

procure, to fetch, obtain, convey. 

Wonthulong ..... Acquaintance, confederacy, Mend, fitvorite, neighbour, part- 
ner, a sharer, companion, brother. 

Woodheno ..... Abound, plenty. 

Wookooar^jiUy .... Labor, to work. 

Woolen boorin - - ... . Warm, not cold. 

Woolerreby Whistle. 

Woolwee - Flee, to run away, fleet. 



152 



THE ABORIGINES OF YICTOBIA: 



WooomaUll « • • . . Bnitard, naiire toAe j. 

WoonthaloDgooth .... BrethxeiL 

Woonq» ---..- Ochre. 

WootheeLwootheel .... Cord. 

Woowookunog . . • . Bomiteoiu. 

Wordijal^al geenong'atA ... Centipede. 

Worong'atha Moath. 

Worrowing ..... Birer, a ftretm. 

Worrowing wyeeboo ... Bimlet, a small riref. 

Worthaggarook .... Shame-faoed, modett. 

Wnrrook Flat,leTel. 

Wnrroor ...... Penpiration. 

Wjandoorin - - - . . Bow, to stoop. 

Wyeebee yeeram . . . « Betimes, early, daylight. 

Wyeeboo Brief, condse, short, jot, a tittle, least, RiperlatiTe of little, 

less, little, small in quantity, minikin, small, minnte, 

mite, modicnm, morsel, a small piece, petty, puny, scnp, 

a bit, shred, tiny, wee. 

Wyeeboo ba'anth .... Damp, dew, ford, shallow water, hnmid, moist. 

Wyeeboo ba'anth mellaba • - Mizzle, rain in small drops, drizzly. 

Wyeeboo bilim .... Dram of spirits, a nobbier. 

Wyeeboo bnlgana . » . . Calf. 

Wyeeboo chnck-chnck ... Chicken. 

Wyeeboo cooleenth .... Dwarf, small man, Tn^nnnrfa^ a little man, pigmy, ranL 

Wyeeboo drombollaball ... Pistol. 

Wyeeboo eeip . . • - * Lamb, a young sheep. 

Wyeeboo jumbuck .... Calm, laconic, whisper. 

Wyeeboo klrtkirtamock * - . Colt, young horse, foal, nag, yoong of horse, pony. 

Wyeebob lark . - . - . Mist, a low thin cloud, misty. 

Wyeeboo mommoot ... Paff of wind. 

Wyeeboo nang'ana .... Glance, quick yiew, half-aighted. 

Wyeeboo noweenth .... Early, soon. 

Wyeeboo nurong ..... Crumble of bread. 

Wyeeboo n'uther wirrate ... Short, not long. 

Wyeeboo weenth .... Spark of fire. 

Wyeeboo pa'amboonth ... Apprehension. 

Wyeeboo roomera «... Half. 

Wyeeboo toolome .... Duckling, young duck. 

Wyeeboo umina .... Kap, a short sleep, slumber, light deep. 

Wyeeboo warrin .... Channel, narrow sea. 

Wyeeringana n'gell .... Abettor, aid, help, assist, to help, conduce. 

Ya'ammowgarangamite . ^ . Combat, to fight, conflict, contention, strife, content, fight, 

quarrel. 

Yainyaing ...... Sing, music, carol, chant 

Yallambee ^ Bide, to remain, dwell, ease, quiet, put, to plao^ lay, tarry, 

stay. 

Yallambee ba'anth ... - Bathe, dabble in water. 

Yallambee beek - - - - To lie on the ground, motionless, lying down. 

Yallambee brimbrimgatha - - - Imbosom, to hold in the bosom. 

Yallambee lark Aloft. 

Yallambee uonga beek • . . Bzile. 

Yallanibberon Blanket, bedding. 

Yallund'amck ..... Chaplet, wreath round the head. 

Yan-boomeen ..... Kaked, uncoyered, nudity, nakedness. 

Yannaboothoointh .... Pass, to go beyond. 

Yannanayowoit Always. 



LANGUAaE. 



153 



Aboriginal. EogllBb. 

Yannathan . - . • - Jaunt, to walk abont, motion, the act of moying, perambu- 
lation, promenade, walking, ramble, to wander, roam, rore, 
travel, walk. 

Yannathan ba'anth - - - - Wade, to walk through water. 

Yannatherra aha . . - . Adieu. 

Yannathooee .... - More, to change place. 

Yannaj wirrate ..... Joumej, to trayel. 

Yannethoee - . . - . Messenger, scout, one sent to look for an enemy, courier. 

Yan yean --.-.- Bachelor, unmarried, boy, boyish, lad, minor, not of age^ 

stripling, youth, a youth, past childhood if a boy. 

Yarragondock ..... Beard, moustache. 

Yarragondockatha ... - Whiskers. 

Yarragongatha ..... Curl, a ringlet of hair, forelock, hair on the forehead, hair. 

Yarragongatha bullarto ... Hairy, coyered with hair. 

Yarrarthinmingan .... Bustle. 

Yarwee ...... Swine. 

Yeanurk ...... Chine, back-bone. 

Yeeleelinthung ..... Bruise. 

Yeerang ...... Brake, a thicket. 

Yellana durruk - - - - - Decorate. 

Yellingbo To-day. 

Yellingbo marming'atha . . - Sabbath, a day of worship, Sunday, 

Yellingboith ..... Daily, diurnal. 

Yellingoith ..... Oyemight, yesterday. 

Yerralleming ..... Idleness, lazy, inactiye, indolent, inert, sluggish. 

Yetyeteemyrring - - . - Eyelash. 

Yillertbee ...... Coyer, to hide, deposit, screen. 

Yimmerboordy ..... Jacent, lying at length. 

Yonduck ...... Jostle, to push. 

Yon myoo --..-. Prodigality, wasteful. 

Youanga .--..- Another. 

Youarrabuck . - . . .^ Accelerate, eagerly, keenly, haste, expedite, fast, quick, 

hasten, hurry, be quick, instant, the present moment, 
precipitate, to hurry, prepare, prompt, to make ready, 
readily, with speed, smartly, briskly, speed, swift, yelocity, 
brisk. 

Youarrabuck geetho - - - - Scamper, to run with speed. 

Youdlee ...... Jump, leap. 

Youdleenth ..... Agility, nimble, quick. 

Youeyook Oily, greasy. 

Young'yee ...... Hum, to sing low. 

Youonga -...-. Anew, oyer again. 

Youonga oooleenth .... Follower, attendant. 

Yucca-yucca ..... lackaday ! alas I oh ! smart pain, denoting sorrow. 

4 



VOL. n. 



154 THE ABOMGINES OF VICTORIA: 

DIALECT OF THE JA-JOW-EBrONG RACE, 
With a short account of their Traditional History and SuperstitionSj fc.y fc. 

(Bt Joseph Pabkbs, FsAMKLiinroBD.) 

[The following paper and vocabulary have been prepared by Joseph Parker, 
Esq., son of the late Edward Stone Parker, Esq., some time Member of the 
Legislative Council of Victoria, and for many years Assistant Protector of 
Aborigines. Mr. Joseph Parker has had unusually favorable opportunities of 
learning the native language and of becoming acquainted with the manners 
and customs of the Aboriginal natives of Victoria.] 

The JorjOTo-er^ng race at a remote period numbered about one thousand 
beings, and were divided into seven distinct tribes — ^the Leark-Or-bullukj* the 
PiUoruhin-goon-deetch* the Kalk^kalk-^oon-deetch^ the Wong-hurror^hee^ar^ 
goon-deetchj the Gal-gal-iulluk, the Tow-nimrburr-lar^goon-deetch^ and the 
Way-^e-^ong-goonndeetch. They claimed as their territory the country extend- 
ing from Ballan on the south to the junction of the Serpentine and the Loddon 
on the north, and from the eastern slopes of Mount Macedon on the east to the 
Pyrenees on the west. 

With but a few trifling exceptions, the dialect of these tribes was the same. 
They were considered by all other Aborigines a formidable and important race 
of people, not merely because they possessed a large extent of fine country 
especially adapted for hunting and other purposes, but because within their 
territory was found the only rock known from which their Bur-^'eeks (toma- 
hawks) were made ; and the locality in which this rock was found bears the 
name of Bur-reek to this very day, the literal English of which is " axe." 

It was their custom at certain seasons of the year, usually spring or sum- 
mer, to meet on friendly terms the natives of other tribes who came from all 
quarters to procure portions of this stone. Though the sanguinary propensities 
of the Jorjow-er-ongs made them a terror to all other Aborigines, the messen- 
gers from the distant tribes were treated as sacred visitors. 

These messengers travelled by means of friendly signals, and when passing 
through hilly and timbered country they would fill a hollow tree (generally on 
some elevated spot) with green boughs and set fire to it at the base, thus 
causing a column of smoke to ascend to such a height that it could be seen 
many miles off. If it were found necessary for these messengers to send up a 
signal in country void of timber, they would careftilly cut the bark off a stout 
sapling, from fifteen to twenty feet in length, thus forming a tube or frmnel, 
which was filled with boughs and carried by them until required. They would 
generally select a calm and clear day for these signals, and if no return signal 
was given, they would retrace their steps with all possible speed, believing that 
those natives to whom they had been sent were at enmity with them. But 
when approaching those they intended visiting, they would carry a green bough 
in their right hands, which was an emblem of peace. 

* The teims ''buHuk" and " goon^deetch*' signify "people" and <'men." 



LANGUAGE. 155 

No distinct and settled form of religion or worship existed among them. 
They, however, believed in the existence of an evil spirit, and the occasional 
existence of a good one whose powers were limited to certain periods. 

The "Eagle," "Crow," and "Bat" were regarded as sacred animals, each 
having distinct powers. The Eagle and Crow possessed, at a remote period, 
the same influence and power, and worked their "miracles" in harmony 
together; but having quarrelled and fought, they separated for ever, and 
worked "miracles" and "wonders" distinct and at variance with each other. 
The Eagle was " lord of the forests aad mountains," and the Crow " lord of the 
hills and plains." The Bat, it was affirmed, had certain protective and en- 
chanting powers : it would watch over the lonely and weary traveller, and could 
warn him of impending danger, and guide him into the path of safety. 

They did not believe in death firom natural causes, except in the two 
extremes of life— old age and infancy ; but assert that there were two forms of 
death — ^the Moo-char-mocHroop (literally, "take the spirit") and the Boor-kur- 
mao-rar (or, "break the kidney-fat"). The first of these terms, Moo^har- 
mao-roopj applied only to those who had been removed by a very sudden death 
without any apparently previous illness. The spirits of those who died in this 
way were said to have gone to the West ( Whar-ree-whin^knam^mytch^o^y and 
would re-appear at some future time brighter and more perfect beings. Under 
this belief, mothers, whose infants had died in the way here described, have 
been known to carry the dead body on their backs for months after death, 
affirming that the longer they carried the corpse in this way the more future 
happiness would their child and themselves enjoy, and believed that its 
departed spirit had the power of granting to its parents the influence of 
" witchcraftism." 

The other form of death — Boor^kur-moo-rar — a horrid superstition, was the 
cause of perpetual murder and blood-shedding. K one of their number died 
from natural causes, or was killed, no matter how, the moment life was extinct 
the body was tied up and prepared for interment, and carried to a piece of clear 
soil ; two of the companions of deceased would then dig a small trench round 
the body, generally of an elliptical form, which would be carefully swept and 
minutely examined in order to find a hole. Should they succeed in finding 
one, they would place a straw in it, and carefully mark the bearing it pointed 
to. They would then proceed in the direction indicated by the straw, and take 
a similar life to the one they had lost ; that is to say, should a man die, the life 
of another man would be taken, and if that of a woman or child, a similar life 
would also be taken. 

In the year 1846 an incident occurred which painfully illustrated this super- 
stition. The Melbourne or Coast natives lost a man of their tribe, generally 
supposed from natural causes. A number of the deceased's friends resorted to 
the usual mode of trench-digging, and, strictly in accordance with the straw- 
pointing, proceeded to Knee-rarp — now known as Joyce's Creek — ^and there at 
mid-day attacked a party of the Jorjow-er^ong natives, who were at the time 
hunting, and killed a fine young man who was at the time unable to defend 
himself. The friends of this young man, although eye-witnesses to his murder. 



156 THE ABOEIGINESOP VICTOEIA: 

and in the fhll knowledge of who the guilty parties were, proceeded in the nsnal 
way to tie up the body and dig the trench. The straw pointing in the direction 
of the Goulbum, a strong party, consisting of eighteen men, were then 
equipped with spears, &c., and in about a week from the Enee-rarp tragedy a 
similar life was taken by this party in the locality named. Thus it was that 
this horrible superstition kept these people in constant fear of molestation, and 
caused them to be continually moving from place to place. 

Their burial ceremonies were characteristic of their life. In preparing the 
corpse for interment, they would double it up in the smallest possible compass, 
and wrap the body in all the articles of clothing the deceased possessed, and 
generally bury the body in a grave from four to five feet deep, and all the 
deceased's property would be placed in the grave at the time of interment. 
The grave would be finished off in an oblong form, and the ground carefidly 
scraped and swept for some distance around it. A small tuft of emu feathers 
tied on a stick would be placed at the head of the grave, and a fire kindled and 
kept constantly burning for eighteen or twenty days at the foot of it. 

Their lamentations were of the most savage description ; they would resort 
to various methods of torturing themselves, in order that they might suffer 
pain for those they had lost. The men would cut their heads with any sharp- 
edged instrument that was available, and the women scratch the flesh from 
their cheeks, and sear their legs and arms with fire, and break their heads with 
sticks. 

The &mily and social relationship of these people was one of the darkest 
features of their history. No marriage bond or law of any kind existed 
among them, and in the matter of choice or selection the woman had no voice, 
for she was virtually the property of her nearest male relative, and in a matri- 
monial sense could be disposed of by him at any time. Plurality of wives was 
very common among them, and any of the women could be put away at the will 
of the husband, and the strongest mark of friendship that could be displayed 
by one man to another was to present him with one of his superfluous wives. 

A stupid custom existed among them, which they called " Knal^ne.^^ 
Whenever a female child was promised in marriage to any man, from that very 
hour neither he nor the child's mother were permitted to look upon or hear 
each other speak nor hear their names mentioned by others; for, if they did, 
they would immediately grow prematurely old and die. 

If the term " intelligent" could be applied to a people who were so natu- 
rally low and ignorant, and as devoid of moral restraint as the Aborigines of 
Australia were reputed to be, certainly that term could be applied to the Jir- 
jam-er-ongsj for they displayed marked aptness and ability and were highly 
imitative. Their skill and aptitude have been clearly shown in the preparation 
and manufacture of their native weapons and other articles of war, and their 
imitative powers on their opossum-skin rugs, on the furless side of which, with 
the assistance of sharpened mussel-shells, they have scratched all kinds of 
figures and characters, some of which were copied from nature ; and their 
accuracy and correctness have often been a matter of astonishment to the more 
skilful and cultivated eye of the European. 



LANGUAGE. 



157 



This short and frail narrative aUndes only to a few of the many pecnliar 
habits and traditions of a race once numerous and strong, and whose voice yet 
calls for the solving of that question which asks — ^Why is it that, in a country 
where colonization and Christianily have made such marked progress, this race, 
who but a quarter of a century since could be counted by the thousand, are 
now virtually a people of the past ? 



VOCABULABY. 

The correct pronandation of the words in this Tocabulaiy can only be arriyed at by adopting 
the simple rule of giying to every letter nsed its fall sounds and the long sound in the case of ee, 
oo, and rr. It wiU be obserred that the Ja-jow-er^cng alphabet contains neither F, Q, S, V, X, 
nor Z. 



EDglklu 



▲boriginAl (witb Uteml English). 



Man (white) 
Men (white) 
Woman (white) * 
Women (white) - 



Enam-i-gheetch. 
Enam-i-gheetch-bul-lnk. 
Knam-i-gheetch-goork. 
Knam-i-gheetch-bul-lnk- 
goork. 
Han (half-caste) - Moo-coo-lom-beetoh. 
Men (half-caste) - Moo-coo-lom-beetch-bnl- 

luk. 
Women (half-caste) Moo-coo-lom-beetch-bnl- 



Man (black) 
Men (bhu;k) 
Woman (black) 
Women (black) 
Grandfather 
Father - 
Son - 
Sons - 
Stepfather - 
Father-in-law 
Old man 
Yoong man - 
Youth - 
Boy - 
Child - 
Infant - 
Children 
Brother (elder) 
Bachelor 



Ink-goork. 
Goo-lee. 

Goo-lee-bul-luk. 
Too-ree. 
Too-ree-bul-luk. 
Knam-jam. 
Marm. 
War-reip. 
War-reip-kal-ick. 
Ear-re-kar-rim-book. 
Kar-re-kar-rim-book. 
Enar-em-been. 
Eool-koon. 
Eool-koon. 
Boorp-boorp. 
Boorp-boorp. 
Eneel-lar-moom. 
Boorp-boorp-kal-ick. 
Wharr. 
Eneel-la mnr-ram. 



Brother (younger) Eoot. 

My brother (elder) Wharr-eck. 

My biother(yonnger)Eoot-eck. 



Your brother 
His brother - 
Our brother - 

Their brother 

Husband 

Widower 



Wharr-inn or koot-in. 
Wharr-wook or koot-ook. 
Wharr-ell or koot-ell 

(brother ours). 
Wharr-jhan-uck. 
Enan-eitch. 
Doo-ring-yetch. 



EngUah. 

Son-in-law - 

Stepson 

Brother-in-law - 

Uncle - - - 

Nephew 

Cousin - 

Old woman - 

Young woman 

Girl - - - 

Grandmother 

Mother 

Mother-in-law 

Stepmother - 

Wife - 

Widow 

Daughter (elder) - 

Daughter (younger) 

Stepdaughter 

Sister (elder) 

Sister (younger) - 

Aunt - - - 

Niece - - - 

Marriage 

Widowhood - 

Family 

Male - - - 

Bace - - - 

Tribe - 

Female 

Man and woman - 

Men and women - 

God - - - 
God - - - 

God - - - 

Body - 

Spirit - - - 



Aboriginal (with literal EngUsh). 

Enal-oyne. 

Enan-nap. 

Coo-reetch. 

Char-chi. 

Coor-whan-dook. 

Co6-ki. 

Moyn-nim-goork. 

Biang-biang-go. 

Bo6-ni-bo6-ni. 

Me-man-dook. 

B&rp. 

Enal-oyne-goork. 

Ber-men-lui-goork. 

Mur-ram. 

Doo-ring-yetch-goork. 

Mang-gap. 

Jhin-narp-ang-goork. 

Enan-nap-goork 

Ch4r-cho6k. 

Eoo-took-goork. 

Blur-rip-jar-bine. 

Yee-rat-goork. 

Marn-ga-long. 

Doo-ring-yetch-goork. 

Woi-noit-yere-bil. 

Goo-lee. 

Goon-deetch. 

Bul-luk. 

Too-ree or goork. 

Goo-lee-bar too-ree. 

Goo-lee-bar too-ree-bul- 
luk. 

Wo-reip-ar-pel (prayerful). 

Marm-ing knoo-rack (Fa- 
ther of us). 

Enoo-rar-rook-knair-kne- 

etch (Great Master). 
Bang. 
Mo6-ro6p. 



158 



THE ABOBIGINES OF VICTOEIA: 



Bngllah. 



Aborlgliial (with Utoral EngUab). 



English. 



AhorigliiAl (with Uteiml Englldi). 



Ghost - 


- 


Eoo-ch6L 


Shoulder 


- Buk-er-ro6. 


Head - 


- 


Boorp. 


Arm - 


- Tar-ruck. 


Forehead - 


- 


Ghin-nee. 


Upper-arm - 


- Bun-dar-rfip. 


Back of head 


- 


Knan-ning-e-boorp. 


Elbow - 


- Bol-loitch. 


Temples 


- 


Tor-toitch. 


Fore-arm - 


- Cun-darp. 


Face - 


- 


Myrr-bar-karr (eyes and 


Wrist - 


- Toor-nen. 






nose). 


Hand - 


- Mun-nar. 


Cheek - 


- 


Moo-rark. 


Palm of hand 


- Boitche-mnn-nar. 


Eyehall 


- 


Woorr-woorer-myrr. 


Hand (back of) 


- Wharr-ym-e-mun-nar 


Eyebrow 


- 


Tar-n6-myTr. 


Thumb 


- Barp-e-mun-nar (mother of 


Eyelash 


- 


Wir-ren-e-myrr (father of 




hand). 






the eyes). 


Finger (first) 


- Win-dar-rap. 


EyeUd - 


- 


Knar-ree-myrr. 


Finger (second) 


- Mar-ron dyarp. 


Tear - 


- 


Whyne-yer-am-e-myrr 


Finger (third) 


- Kiam-bul-lar. 






(water of the eye). 


Finger (fourth) 


- Kir-ring-mun-nar. 


Cross-eyed - 


- 


Dur-rick-myrr. 


Right hand - 


- Yoolp. 


Nostril 


- 


Boitche-karr. 


Left hand > 


- Whar-rum. 


Nose - 


- 


Bout. 


Finger nails - 


- Lietch-e-mun-nar (scales 


Smell - 


- 


Enar-riip. 




of the hand). 


Mouth - 


- 


Woo-roo. 


Knuckle 


- Tar-ro-gee-mun-nar. 


lip (npper) - 


~ 


Mee-chee-woo-roo (skin of 
the mouth). 


Fist - - 


- Moo-ree-mar-mun-nar (a 
crooked hand). 


lip (lower) - 


- 


Yam-ba-y6e-woo-roo. 


Leg - 


- Kar-rip. 


Gum - 


- 


Bang-ge6-]e£r (flesh of the 


Hip - 


- Kalk-e-m6o-16o. 






teeth). 


Thigh - 


- M60.I60. 


Tooth or teeth 


- 


Lear. 


Knee - 


- Bar-ring. 


Front teeth - 


- 


Wamg-gfim-lear. 


Knee-cap - 


- Boorp-e-bar-ring (head of 


Back or double 


Terr-kee-lear. 




the knee). 


teeth 






CSalf of the leg 


- Boor-rarp. 


Tongue 


- 


Cha].le6. 


Ankle - 


- Mark. 


Jaw - 


- 


Moo-rark. 


Instep - 


- Jhung-gee-jhin-nar (the 


Chin - 


- 


Boorp-e-knar-nee (head of 




breast of the foot). 






the beard). 


Foot - 


- Jhin-nar. 


Spittle - 


- 


Chow-iire. 


Foot (sole of) 


- Boitch -e-jhin-nar ( the 


Ear - 


- 


Wirr-m-bool. 




stomach of the foot). 


Lobe of the ear 


- 


Boiche-wirr-m-bool. 


Heel - 


- Kun-n&rk. 


Hearing 


- 


Enare-nar. 


Toe (large) - 


- Barp-e-jhin-nar (the mo- 


Hair - 


- 


Knar-arr. 




ther of the foot). 


Whisker 


- 


Kneen-nee or knar-ree. 


Toe (second) 


- Why-knam-e-jhin-nar. 


Moustache - 


- 


Koy-on-e-woo-roo (spear 


Toe (third) - 


- Boorp-boorp-e-jhin-nar. 






of the mouth). 


Toe (fourth) 


- Boorp-boorp-ook. 


Beard - 


- 


Knun-nee or knar-nee. 


Toe (fifth) - 


- Kiam-goork (a lonely girl). 


Neck . 


- 


Coom. 


Skin - 


- Meetch. 


Throat- 


- 


Coorn-de-chow-irre. 


Flesh - 


- Bang. 


Back - 


- 


Wharr-yin, 


Muscle 


- Knar-rim. 


Chest - 


- 


Jhung. 


Bone « 


- Kalk (stick). 


Belly - 


- 


Boitch. 


Joint - 


- Tor-ring. 


Ribs - 


- 


Lun-ing. 


Blood - 


• Goo-rook. 


Side - 


- 


Chool-loom.* 


Matter - 


•r Boi-chun. 


Friyate parts (male] 


) Whirr-er. 


Brain - 


- Toorr-toin. 


Testicles 


- 


Boo-nar. 


Heart - 


- Toor-wg. 


Private parts (fe- 


Boi-yurre. 


Lungs - 


- Jhar-jha-rook. 


male) 






Liver - 


- Boitch. 


Nayel - 


- 


Warr-o6. 


Stomach 


• Boo-ring-godp. 



• The '* C " in this word should be soaaded like ** c'* in cheese. 



LANOUAGE. 



159 



English. 

Bowels 

Vein or artery 

Bung - - - 

Urine - - - 

Sweat - . - 

Bump ... 

Breast or paps - 

Hair of the head - 

SknU - 

Temples 

Jaw (upper) 

Gnllet - 

Windpipe - 

Armpit 

Collar-bone - 

Spleen - 

Breath - 

Kidney-fat - 

Gall - 

Bladder 

Kidney 

Blister - 

Blow - - - 

Cut - - - 

Kick - 

Wound 

Horse - - - 

Horses- 
Cattle - 

Sheep ... 
Swine ... 
Kangaroo - 
Wombat 
Australian bear - 

Dog (natiye) 
Dog (common) - 
Natiye cat - 
Kangaroo rat 
Babbit rat - 
Burrowing rat - 
Water rat - 
Common mouse - 
Opossum 

Bing-tailed opossum 
Squirrel (grey) - 
Small blue squirrel 
Black flying cat - 
Bandicoot - 
Ant-eater or hedge- 
hog 
Platypus 
Wallaby 

Bat - - - 
Bmu ... 



Aborlgiiial (with lltenl EngliBb). 

Boo-re6tch-loo-reetch, 

Knir-riun. 

Koo-nir. 

Ghy-rre. 

Woo-r6r. 

Moom. 

Coormb or coormb-ook. 

Knar-rar-knee-boorp. 

Kalk-e-boorp. 

Toor-toitch. 

Kalk-e-lear. 

Jhee-co6rn« 

Jhal-larp-e-co6m. 

Kar-rarp. 

Wee-ring. 

Baa-reetch. 

Bee-raF-wer-coom. 

Pap-ool-e-marrk. 

Ming. 

Larr-nee-ghyrre. 

Marrk or marrp. 

Bil-nil-long. 

Mairrmre-Iong. 

T^l-len. 

Kur-riick. 

W€e-re4p. 

Kfit-kfit-tar-nook (many 

Tessels). 
Kut-ku t-poo-piArr^. 
Koo-roo-m'n. 
Yeep. 

Pig-pig. 
Go6-r&. 

Knoorre-knoorre. 
Knurrm-bul-moom (forked 

rump) 
WhiU-kfir. 
Karl. 
Yoom. 
Bar-rook. 
Chu-roytch. 
Bar-row-eitch. 
Yerr-ek. 
Tfir-nine. 
Wee-liur. 
Bun-n&r. 
Poo-ro61. 
Knoorre ky^. 
Yun-dool. 
Bo6. 
Yool-a-niL 

Wy-ch£r-amg. 
Jhin-bong-goore. 
Knun-ar-knun-mytch. 
Bar-ra-mtU. 



Elngliah. 

Swan (black) 
Eagle ... 
Eagle hawk - 
Large ground hawk 
Falcon hawk 
Sparrow hawk - 
Wood duck - 
Black duck - 
Mountain duck - 
Musk duck - 
Teal - 
Little grebe - 
Blue crane - 
Nankeen heron - 
Ibis - - - 
Native companion 
Turkey bustard - 
Curlew 
Pelican 

Spur- winged ployer 
Snipe - - - 
Landrail 

Partridge quail - 
Common quail 
Three-toed quail - 
Small yellow quail 
Small ployer 
Pigeon (bronze- 
wing) 
Cockatoo (black)- 
Cockatoo (white) - 
Parrot (white) 
Bosella parrot 
Crimson parrot - 
Green leek parrot 
Blue mountain 

parrot 
C!ockatoo parrot - 
Small paroquet 

(green) 
Small paroquet - 
Ground paroquet - 
Large grey parrot 
Laughing jackass- 
Swallow 
Martin 
Magpie 
Small magpie 
Black magpie 
Crow ... 
Owl - - - 
Cuckoo 

Small ant-eater - 
Large ant-eater - 
Minah (grey) 
Small ground lark 



Aboriginal (witb Utenl ISoflflUh). 

Koon-o6-worra. 

Wairrp-iL 

Knear-aytch. 

Bee-y^mg. 

Yan-y^mg. 

Wher-rain wher-rain. 

Knun-nuck. 

Knarr-ee. 

Mein-yee-luck. 

Knfin-ne^niL 

Ban-nalrre. 

Koo-ra-noo-ri. 

Karr-naine. 

Yap-pe^l. 

Pyte-pyte-char-ro6k. 

Koo-rodn. 

Knar-row. 

Koo-hy-eirrp. - 

Bar-rang-gUl. 

Baa-ritch-baar-ritch. 

Ming-eS-waller. 

liCrrp. 

Choo-inp. 

Boo-rong-gL 

Koo-n&m-mo61. 

Kn^-n&p. 

Moon-yar-reetch. 

Dupp. 

Ware-aine, 

Jhin-nfip. 

Kar-rar-kur. 

Tur-nim-burt. 

Poo-roo-kil. 

Moo-ra-kane. 

Kul-ling-er. 

Woo-re^p. 
Ukip. 

Knil-le^-noyne. 

Derre-nfil. 

Yaa-r&r. 

Koo-nork. 

Wool-^r-ing-boitch. 

Lel-lerrp-koon. 

Koo-roork. 

Jheerm-jheerm. 

Mooyn-un-kiL 

Warr. 

Wheer-miiL 

Kar-ro6k. 

Beeyng. 

Bul-l^n bnl-len. 

Burrp-pur. 

Wheet-goork. 



160 



THE ABOBIGINiiS OF YICTOSIA: 



Englkh. 


Aborlglasl (wltli Uteisl EngUab). 


Large groand lark 


Toort-ee-chi]vo6k. 


Rook - 


Mar-rang-un. 


Blue jay 


Yar-ra-yar-ak. 


Brush turkey 


Low-an. 


Eingfiiher - 


Dy-ring dy-ring-uong. 


Swift - - 


My-erre. 


Murray ood - 


Wee-r&p. 


BlAck-flsh - 


Woo-lk. 


Perch - . - 


Ghee-rar-n6L 


Bel - - - 


Boyn-kniirt 


Cray-fish - 


Yap-peetch. 


Mussel (fresh- 


Chal-loop. 


water) 




Mussel (salt-water) Byte-bytch. 


Turtle (fresh- 


Woo-room-o6k. 


water) 




Minnow 


Bimm. 


Whitebait (Aus- 


Wool-coot. 


tralian) 




Water frog - 


Dehi. 


Large brown frog 


Doom. 


Leech - - - 


Pil-leetch. 


Carpet snake 


Koom-nuL 


Black snake 


Koo-loo-nOng. 


Whip snake 


Kiur-rodk. 


Large Murray 


Min^ye. 


snake 




Sand snake - 


Bein-garL 


Small brown lizard 


Enark-e-knoo-&ik. 


Spotted lizard 


Dong-dong. 


Jew lizard - 


Eann. 


Grey lizard - 


Bein-beirrk. 


Iguana 


Yoxur-koon. 


Scorpion 


Be-ree-kiL 


Centipede - 


Jhe-reen-nu-rark. 


Tarantula spider - 


Mun-nar-kar-reek. 


Ant - 


Ma-rah. 


March fly - 


Moo-roon. 


Mosquito - 


Lee-ree. 


Sand fly 


Moon-keen. 


Bee - - - 


Moom-oom-bor-ar. 


Flea - 


Lain. 


Louse - - - 


Moon-yir. 


Ilesh fly - - 


Bee-reek. 


House fly - 


Toor-toytch. 


Butterfly - 


Ballam-ballam. 


Large moth - 


Boo-room-beetch. 


Earth-worm 


Jhoom-pilleetch. 


PnpeoofantB 


Kal-keetch. 


Eucalyptus — 




Stringybark - 


Wong-hurra. 


Messmate 


Boorr-knfLl-o6k. 



Bngliili. 



Aboilgfosl (wttli UtsnJ EoffUah). 



Eucalyptus— 




White-gum - 


Ban-napp. 


Blue-gum - 


Bapp. 


Bed-gum - 


Bu-aL 


Lronbark - 


Yee-ripp. 


Grey-boz - 


Boo-loitch. 


Yellow-box - 


Tarrk. 


Bed-box - 


Tee-ring. 


Brown-box 


Wy-alL 


Acacia — 




Golden-wattle - 


Wy-kalk. 


Lightwood 


Mootch-ong. 


SilTcr-watUe - 


Whar-rar-rark. 


Brown-wattle - 


Too-lain. 


Gallitiis (Murray 


Mnrr-nroong. 


pine) 




ExocarpuB or Aus- 


Pnl-Ioit4^h« 


tralian cherry 




Banksia, common- 


Woo-rack. 


ly called Austra^ 




lian Honeysuckle 




Myrtle (natiye) - 


Tch-o6p. 


Teartree(natiTe)- 


Foo-no6. 


Natire peach 


Bee-ree-kiiL 


Casuarina — 




Sh&KMik - 


Koo-loitch. 


Foreslroak 


Chu-ramg. 


Grass-tree - 


Buck-kup. 


Eeed or Victorian 


Charr-ak. 


bamboo 




Edible rush, com- 


Boo-reetch. 


monly called 




Loddon down 




Basket rush- 


Wit-chee. 


Grass (genezilly)- 


Booyn. 


Fem - - - 


Moo-lai. 


Tubular rush 


Boong-kn6ort. 


Underbush or brarn* 


- Jheerp-jheerp. 


ble 




Yam - - - 


Moo-nar. 


Orchis (yellow) - 


Boo-ni-loo-ni (a young 




woman). 


Orchis (brown) - 


Kool-ko6n (a yoimg man). 


Brown-wattle gum 


Too-lam. 


Gum or resin 


Choo-tch. 


Honey - - - 


Chee-noyne. 




Leirp. 


Native Weapont, 


Large spear - 


Yal-Utch. 


Jagged spear 


Eby-oon. 


Beedspear - 


Charr-ik. 



• This tree was higVly prtxed by tlM Ja-JoV'-tr-^ngt, from ths fMt that it mm nid the Jolos of Its 
■ore antidote for meke-bltey and tbay afflrmed that In namberleM caaes the Ttottans of oake-blte 
application of this Jnioe. 



baifc was a powerfol and 
had been cozed by aa 





TiANGUAGB. 




101 


Engllih. 


Aboxlginal (with Uteml EngUdi). 


EnglUh. 


Alxnrigiiua (with UtenUEngUib). 


Small spear - 


Taire. 


Ck>ld - 


- 


- Bine-jhul. 


Throwing-Btick - 


Yer-rick. 


Warm- 


- 


- Woym-ber. 


Boomerang - 


Tat-tem tat-tem. 


Hot - 


- 


- Woo-koo-kooL 


Battle-axe - 


Leer-uiL 


Dirty - 


- 


- Woo-koo-rong. 


Round-headed club 


Moo-noop. 


Clean - 


- 


- Peetch-un-doo-rong. 


Stone tomahawk - 


Moon-oo-ban-goit or barr- 


Strong - 


- 


- Pal-lert 




eek. « 


Weak - 


- 


- Yil-lert. 


Pointed club 


Woy-woytdL 


Kaw - 


- 


- Koo-mar. 


Iron tomahawk - 


Barr-eek. 


Cooked 


- 


- Joy-coy-knin. 


SmaU bent stick - 


Bee-rip-ayne. 


Withered 


- 


- Koi-yu-wharr. 


Shield (large> - 


Mul-kur. 


Blunt - 


- 


- Too-roop. 


Small light shield- 


Gearra>muL 


Sharp - 


- 


- Knar-rytch. 


Yam-stick - 


Earr-n6e. 


Sharp-pointed 


- Knar-rytch mirrh. 


Weapons coUeo- 


Bulk-blDk. 


Pregnant 


m 


- Boorp-boorp-or-rong. 


tiTdy 




Dazzling 


- 


- Biil-Up-par. 


MiseeUaneotu. 


Bald - 


- 


- Bil-lick boorp (bare 


Bag - - - 


Mook-oor mook-oor. 






head). 


Beed-necUaoe - 


Char-ak-koon. 


Tkll - 


- 


- Kar-pool. 


Head-band - 


Mul-lar-kar-wyne. 


Fond - 


- 


- Wart-yee-long. 


Wooden shoyel - 


Lan-kat. 


Bipe - 


m 


- Lein-yer. 


Opossum rug 


Jhar-roon. 


Lofty - 


- 


- Tur-rer-an-gu-long 


Apron of feathers 


Tirree-burnee. 


Best - 


- 


- Boo-noong-loo-nocmg 


Fishing-net - 


Ear-lyne bar-mirree. 


Shining 


- 


- Bee-la-rong. 


Canoe - - - 


Yoong-goip. 


Hanging 


- 


- Ban-doo-rong. 


Dagger and cord - 


Knar-rarm. 


New - 


- 


- Dermg-knet-took 


Net - - - 


Koo-rare. 


Old . 


> 


- Jhew-an-dook 


Apron (men's) - 


Bar-rine-jhim. 


Dark - 


- 


- Boo-royne. 


Apron (women's) - 


Enoo-roytch. 


BashAil 


- 


- Koo-looL 


Mat - - - 


Yal-lan. 


Smashed 


- 


- Jhal-jhal-ly-en. 


Basket 


Balk. 


Careless 


- 


- Lang-lang moo-roop. 


Wooden bucket - 


Tarr-no6k. 


Worry - 


- 


- Whir-ring-mil-long. 


Good - 


Tol-kook. 


Botten- 


- 


- Boytch-boytch. 


Bad - - - 


Yur-ring. 


Double 


- 


- Boo-lan.yer-boorp (double 


Great - - - 


Knoo-rar-ook. 






head). 


little - 


Why-nee-mook. 


Enough 


- 


- Kar-chew-min. 


Alire - 


Moo-ro6n. 


Grey-headed 


- Lar-chick-boorp. 


Dead - 


Dee-ri-ung. 


Gorged (with food) Too-hire-ung. 


Hungry 


Mahr-re-ung. 


Angry - 


- 


- Koo-room-by-ung. 


Thirsty 


Goom-m4r. 


White - 


- 


- Tarrh-noo-rong. 


Frightened - 


Parm-ber. 


BUck - 


- 


- Woor-koo-rong. 


Long - - - 


Kar-pooL 


Red - 


- 


- Bit-too-rong. 


SbOTt - 


Moort 


Green - 


- 


- Mal-lak. 


Lazy - • - 


Terrm-mil-ong. 


Blue - 


- 


- Woorer-woorer (sky). 


Stupid - 


Bnng-lung-gil. 


Yellow - 


m 


- Ghee-rar-mil-ong. 


Active- 


Knen-knen. 


Brown- 


- 


- Koorm-koormmur-meetch. 


Dark - 


Boo-royne. 


Sleepy - 


- 


- Knoo>rar-kooL 


Light - 


Bairrp. 


Drowsy 


- 


- Bool-ar-ong. 


Fast - 


We-ra-poo-nong. 


Tired - 


- 


- Bar-rap goo-rong. 


Slow - - - 


Wom-boo-nong. 


Heavy - 


• 


- Poon-woort. 


FuU - 


Knoop-x>o-rong. 


Light . 


- 


- Wool-loong. 


Empty- 


Dak-coo-rong, 


Straight 


- 


- Yoolp. 


Sick - 


Jon-er-ong. 


Crooked 


- 


- Wy-an-du-rong. 


Lame - - - 


Knurrp-per. 


One - 


- 


- Eiarrp. 


Blind - - - 


Knee-mar. 


Two - 


- 


- Boo-laytch. 


Deaf - 


Knock - in - wirr - m - bool 
(shut ear). 


Three - 


m 


- Boo-laytch kiarrp (two and 
one). 



VOL. IL 



162 



THE ABORIGINES OP VICTOEIA: 



EngllBh. 



Aboriginal (wltli Utena BngUah). 



Bngliili. 



AborigliMl (with Utenl EnglUh). 



Four - 


m 


- 


BoO'laytch boo-lay tch (two, 


Snow - 


m 


- 


Eap-p4ng. 








two). 


HaU - 


- 


- 


Larr-nee-wol-ler (house of 


Fiye - 


m 


- 


Kiarrp - mun - nar ( one 








the rain). 








hand). 


A spring 


- 


- 


Ifer-rann, 


Six - 


m 


w 


Boo-laytch hoo-laytch boo- 


Lake or pond 


- 


Bo-lok. 








laytch (three twos). 


Sea - 


- 


- 


Wharr-ree. 


Eight - 


- 


- 


Pan-yer-an-geetch. 


lUver - 


- 


- 


Burr or gun-bung-goorre. 


Ten - 


- 


- 


Boo-laytch mun-nar (two 


Ware - 


- 


- 


Boolng-boolng. 








hands). 


Creek - 


- 


- 


Burr. 


Twenty 


* 


- 


Boo-lar-ra. 


Drop - 


- 


- 


Doorm-mar. 


Many or 


plenty 


- 


Eut-kat 


Stream 


A 


- 


Ya-lo6k. 


All - 


- 


- 


Knul-doo-rong. 


Flood - 


- 


- 


Wol-ler-wol-ler 


Pretty or 


handsome Yar-rang-ghin. 


Marsh or bog 


- 




Greedy 


- 


• 


Lair-lait. 


Earth or ground 


^ 


' Jharr. 


Strange 


m 


- 


Main-maytch. 


Dry ground - 


- 


Boi-boi-e-jhan. 


Cruel • 


- 


- 


Boo.gil. 


Mud - 


■• 


- 


Bup-&1. 


Fierce - 


- 


- 


Eooloo-mun-dar. 


Loam - 


- 


- 


Bup- jharr. 


Like • 


- 


- 


Knoo-lar-go-rong . 


Sand - 


- 


- 


Eoo-ruk. 


Soft - 


m 


• 


Boolk. 


Dust - 


M 


- 


Moo-nil. 


Hard - 


. 


. 


Pal-lert. 


Stone - 


- 


- 


Larr. 


Mistake 


• 


- 


Knut-tow-er-rong. 


Pipeclay 


m 


- 


Bup-al. 


Mad - 


* 


- 


Bung-lung-geo-long. 


Mountain 


- 


- 


By-noodL 


First - 


- 


- 


Earl-lee-goon-deetch. 


Hill - 


- 


- 


Yon-amg. 


Last * 


- 


« 


Bark-goon-deetch. 


Plain - 


- 


- 


Wherrk. 


Quiet - 


- 


- 


Tam-mia-long. 


Country 


- 


- 


Tar-bilk. 


Sweet - 


- 


• 


Gheerm-gheerm. 


Valley or gully 


•• 


Tar-rar-rark. 


Bitter - 


m 


- 


Ghurr-ghurr. 


Road - 


- 


- 


Bar-ring. 


Sour - 


- 


- 


Girre-girre. 


Track - 


- 


- 


Bark. 


Diseased 


- 


- 


Wee-rip nee-rip. 


Wind - 


- 


- 


Myrr-ine. 


Wide - 


• 


- 


MeMapp. 


Thunder 


- 


- 


Mun-dar. 


Narrow 


• 


- 


Whin-n^e. 


Lightning 


- 


m 


Mil-lark-ook. 


Deep - 


- 


- 


Tee-ytt. 


Sky - 


- 


« 


Woop^r-woor-et. 


Shallow 


* 


• 


Eu-r6ng. 


Cloud - 


- 


- 


Mamg. 


Near - 


• 


* 


Doo-mee. 


Rainbow 


- 


- 


Tar-ruck-e-woorer-woorer 


Far - 


. 


• 


Boo-rre. 








(arm of the sky). 


Bound - 


m 


- 


Men-goo-rong. 


Fog - 


- 


- 


Woo-room e woUer. 


Square 


- 


- 


Bil-bU-ung. 


Fine weather 


- 


Woo-roo-kooL 


Hollow 


. 


m 


Knar-no5n. 


Cold - 


- 


- 


Byne-jhdl. 


Bent - 


m 


' 


Mil-pa-long. 


Heat - 


- 


a 


Woym-ber. 


Smooth 


- 


m 


Main-main. 


Sun - 


- 


- 


Now-ey. 


Distant 


- 


- 


Whar-reetoh-oo. 


Moon - 


- 


- 


Yearn. 


Dry - 


- 


- 


Boi-boi. 


Stai^-Jupiter 


- 


Boond-jhil (bold). 


Wet - 


- 


m 


Nim-meetch. 


Star— Venus 


- 


Charch-e-now-ey (sister of 


Poor - 


- 


A 


Oyn-nim-6ok. 








the sun). 


Fire - 


• 


- 


Wee. 


Stars (generally] 


1- 


Toort. 


Flame - 


- 


- 


Tal-lan-yer. 


A meteor 


- 


- 


Yal-lee-niMong (tumbling 


Smoke- 


- 


- 


Boort. 








over). 


Spark - 


- 


* 


Enen-knen (quick). 


Comet - 


M 


- 


Boi-woo-ramg. 


Ashes - 


- 


- 


Jule-jule. 


To-day 


- 


- 


Now-ey-u-mong. 


Ashes (hot) - 


- 


Bar-ree. 


Day - 


A 


•t 


Now-ey-u. 


Charcoal 


•• 


* 


Wir-ring. 


Morning 


- 


* 


Bairp-er-now-ey (morning 


Water - 


- 


- 


Wy-knurr-4m. 








sun). 


Bain - 


- 


- 


Wol-ler. 


To-morrow 


mom- 


Bairp-hair-baJrp. 


Mist - 


- 


- 


Boo-rong. 


ing 








Dew - 


• 


- 


Toor-meetch. 


Sunrise 


- 


- 


Bang-ar-now-ey (the son 


Frost - 


- 


- 


Tarn. 








climbs). 





LANGUAGE. 




109 


EngUth. 


AborlglDal (with Utenl English). 


EogUah. 




Aboriginal (with Utenl English) 


Noon - 


- Ear-pool-e-now-ey (long 


Pot or kettle 


m 


Tar-nook. 




sun). 


Bottle - 


. 


Doom-doom-e-bur-ra>mul. 


This evening 


- Chal-lik chaMik. 


Bucket 


• 


Tar-nook. 


Last erening 


- &hal-]lk-gee. 


Doctor 


- 


Bamg-bar-knul. 


Sunset 


- Knock-er-now-ey (gone in 


Boil or abscess 


- 


Boitchun. 




sun). 


Scab - 


- 


Bar- bar-room. 


To-night 


- Boo-rojne-nu. 


Cold - 


- 


Boit-chun-e-coorn (matter 


Midnight - 


- Ear-pool-e-loo royne-nu 






in the throat). 




(long night). 


Dysentery - 


m 


Jhu-row-er. 


Light - - 


- Yap. 


Syphilis or excres- 


Wombi. 


To-morrow - 


- Bair-re-hee. 


cence 






Darkness 


- Boo^royne. 


Small-pox - 


- 


Moo-nool-e-min-dye (the 


A month 


- Yearn. 






dust of the serpent). 


A year 


- Kar-rie bur mir-reen (sum- 
mer and winter). 


Pox-marked 


- 


Lil-lipp-e-min-dye (the 
scales of the serpent). 


Spring 


- Knal-low. 


Headache - 


- 


Lar-ly-ang-boorp (split 


Summer 


- Ear-rie. 






head). 


Autumn 


- Woo-reetch. 


Bheumatlsm 


- 


Tur-ree-nil-long. 


Winter 


- Mir-reen. 


Blight (eye) 


- 


Ear-ring-e-myrre. 


Kew moon - 


- Why-nee-me-yerm (small 


A vomit 


9 


Eerre-m^. 




moon). 


Invalid 


- 


Jow-er-ar-pil. 


Full moon - 


- Knoo-rar-ook-yerm (great 


I or me 


- 


Wan or un. 




moon). 


Thou or you 


- 


Warr. 


North - - 


- Knar-ram-e-now-ey (rays 


He, she, or it 


m 


Marl. 




of the sun). 


We - - 


. 


EnelL 


South - 


- Coo-marr (cool). 


Ye 


- 


Warr. 


East - 


- Bairp (morning). 


Mine - - 


- 


Wang-eck. 


West - 


- Knam mytch (white or 


Thine - - 


- 


Warng-knen. 




bright). 


His or hers • 


- 


Warr-nook. 


North-west «- 


- Wee-rin-mal-lee. 


Ours - 


- 


Warr-knen-deek. 


North-east ^ 


- Kail-lee-bairp (mark of 


Yours - 


- 


Warr-knen. 




the morning). 


Theirs - 


- 


Warr-jban-nook. 


South-east • 


- Mar-reen mar-reet. 


Us - - 


- 


Warn-do6ng. 


South-west <• 


- Larr-nee-kap-pang (house 


Myself 


- 


Eian-eck. 




of the snow). 


Yourself 


- 


Eian-in. 


House • 


- Larr. 


Himself or herself 


Eian-ook. 


Native hut - 


- My-am-bert. 


They - 


- 


Hytch. 


Chimney 


- Ghee-ree-kil-moom. 


This - - 


- 


Mong. 


Window 


- Whar-lun-dool-myrre. 


That - 


- 


Nuyne-ar. 


Door - 


- Eal-lee-Iarr. 


That's it - 


- 


Nuyne-ar-min. 


Boof - 


- Boorp-e-larr (head of the 


Where - 


- 


Whin-jar. 




house). 


To sleep 


- 


Enoo-ra-kool. 


Forked stick 


- Enam-bool-kalk. 


To find 


- 


Tum-bar. 


Fence - 


- Knal-lap-coon. 


To tear 


- 


Choo-roo-nar. 


Food - 


- Yarre-boo-gar. 


To speak r 


m 


Woo-ra-kur. 


Bread - 


- Nurong. 


To tell 


- 


Ghee*3rin. 


Meat - 


- Bapg. 


To give 


- 


Woo-kin. 


Milk - 


- Ckx>rm. 


Togo - 


- 


Yan-knar or knun-nee. 


Sugar - 


- Gheerm-gheerm. 


To walk 


- 


Yar-rin or kar-rim-bin. 


Bice - r 


- Ear-rine. 


To run 


- 


Wheerr-win. 


A drink 


- Enoo-per. 


To make 


- 


Moong-garr. 


A knif^ 


- Eal-poon kal-poon (cut, 


To form 


^ 


Birm-nin. 




cut). 


To buUd - 


- 


Barrp-per. 


A plate 


- Wel-lain wel-lain. 


To swim 


- 


Whe-rar-kor. 


Spoon - 


- Woo -roo- knee -chal- loop 


To eat 


m 


Jhak-er. 




(mouth of the mussel). 


To drink - 


- 


Enoo-per. 



164 



THE ABORIGINES OF VICTOBIA: 



To hear 
To see 
To feel 
To smell - 
To sneeze - 
To laagh - 
To cry- 
To beat 
To split 
To bake 
To rise 
To kneel - 
To shoot • 
To turn 
To fetch - 
To scratch - 
To jump 
To creep 
To grow 
To sack 
To Uck 
To Tomit 
To blow 
To pick np - 
To chop 
To send 
To wrestle - 
To hate 
To breathe - 
To make haste 
To hold 
To tie - 
To shake - 
TospiU 
To take 
To bark 
To hide 
To return - 
To twirl - 
To whisper - 
To swell 
To plaj 
To fling 
To scatter • 
To pinch 
To lend 
To teach - 
To show 
To rest 
To mark - 
To cut - 
To paint 
To Ught 
To forget - 
To remember 
To thrash - 



AborlgtiMl (witb Ittenl EngUab). 

- Enair-nur. 

- Knar*kar. 

- Carrk-er. 

- Knar-roop-per. 

- Chee-koom-der. 

- Wairk-er 

- Mar-ree. 

• Chil-pin. 

- lArl-groo-war. 

- Mar-roo-knar. 

- Py-keen. 

- Bar-ring-coo-uee. 

- Dok-ker. 

- Wil-keen. 
«• Moo-cheen. 

- Eul-lar mil-leen. 

- Birrp-jhan-nin. 

- Eow-in-deen. 

- Kar-ring-in. 

- Barp-pa-lin. 

- Chow-am-bm. 

- Kurr-min. 

- Boo-roo-knin, 

- Tum-bin. 

- Tel-leen. 

- Jhar-ra-mln. 

- Bar-room -jhar-reen. 

- Me-tow-e-yur. 

- Enamg goytch-oo-nar. 

- Yon-harrp'-er. 

- Kark-keen. 

- Bairp-peen. 

- Til-Iing-ghin. 

- Eamg-knil-lin. 

- Mootch-al-le. 

- XfOorrp per. 

- Non-rar. 

- Choo-wen-u-war. 

- Moo-ree-moo-ree-mar. 

- Wo(y-yam-^lar. 

- Ear-ring-er. 

- Wee-ra-mar. 

- Toong-gee-lee. 

- Mee-ta^ra-mar. 

- Win-nee-puok. 

- "Woo-ra-mar. 

- Jim-baa-yer. 

- Chew-y-mar. 

• Eoo-man-goo-nong. 

- Choorn gar. 

- Tel-luck. 

- Bee-kar-mil-leen, 

- Yapp-uck. 

- Enar-knootch-who-ar. 

- Jhal-poon-dar. 

- Berr-marr. 



English. 

To put- 
To pray 

To put (down) - 
To boast 
To lift- 
To lie (in ambush) 

To whistle - 
To shirer - 
To change - 
To peep 
To mix 
To rub 
To scratch - 
To extinguish 
To dry- 
To form 
To tread 
To fly - 
To sweep ^ 
To watch - 
To straighten - 

To feed 

To stink 

To descend - 

To go (up) ,. 

To climb - 

To open 

To shut 

Yes . - - 

No - - - 

Presently - 

By-and-by - 

Long since - 

Here - - - 

Where- 

There - 

When - - - 

Not - - - 

More ... 

Always 

Across - . - 

Gently 
Enough 

Oyer there - 

What for - 
And - 

For - - - 

In - - - 

Of - - - 

Under - - - 

Orer . - - 

Down . - - 
Beneath 



Atwrlglnid (with UtenaEngUah). 

Yoorrp'per. 

Woi-woi-pee. 

Jhar-ree-muck. 

Boom^dar. 

Wy-mar. 

Ghee- ram -bein (in the 

boughs or leares). 
Whee-ree-len. 
Moorr.moorr.ne-long. 
Wook>jha-rong. 
Eay.pa-long. 
Eur-ree-pee-nng. 
Enar-ree-muck. 
Wol-lin-go-mar. 
Boot-koo-mar. 
Boitch-koo-nar. 
Enar-roo-kur. 
Ear-reen. 
Py-keen. 
Enar-row-neen. 
Eoom-be-rar. 
Buck-am-en-darr or yoolp^ 

uck. 
■Jock-kaa-leen. 
Boo-ang-ghin. 
C^ew-lak-kee. 
Bang-kneen. 
Bang.knee, 
Bart-koo-nar. 
Mum-goorr.ween. 
Yearyea. 
Low-nee-rong. 
Ying-oo>nee. 
Nee mytch. 
Jhoo^an-^ook, 
Mong>mere. 
Whin-jhar. 
Ghin-ym. 
Nar-roo-gee, 
Enul-lar. 
Jhool-loo. 
Mell-loo-rarpyang. 
Wharr-am-jee-rong or kar- 

roong-ee. 
Wom-boo-nee. 
Ear-chew. 
Yer-hytch-jhee-oree. 
Eoon-dee-nar (for what). 
Bar. 

Enoonnlee. 
Ee. 
Yu. 

Wai-char or my-er-ghar. 
Wharr-ym-ee. 
My.er>ghar or koomb ui>. 
Eoorn.ee. 









LANGUAGE. 




16 




Aborlgliua (with Utoral English). 


Engllah. 


Aboriginal (with Utenl Englis 


Beyond 


- 


- Ging-gow-er-ong. 




Upon - 


- 


- Jha-ra-mim. 


Inside - 


- 


- Boitch-ee. 




Within 


- 


- Boitch-ec-nook. 


Before - 


- 


- Knnn-go. 




Without 


- 


- EnuUa - boitch - ee nook 


Behind 


- 


- Earr-oong or m^you-ghar. 






(not within). 


If 


- 


. Knet-toong. 










Below - 


- 


- Lim-ning-gee. 




• 




Farta of Birds, J-c. 


After - 


- 


- Knar-rook-gee. 




Wing - 


- 


- Tar-rark. 


From - 


- 


- Ghee-jm. 




TaU . 


- 


- Beer-ak. 


Past - 


- 


- Lat-tj-in. 




Claws - 


. 


- Leetch-e-jhin-nar. 


Since - 


- 


- Ying-oo-nee. 




Feathers 


. 


- Whee-rain. 


Through 


- 


- Bree nane. 




Nest - 


. 


- Larr. 


Unta - 


- 


- Marl-hytch-oong. 




Egg - 


«» 


- Boom-boom. 


Up - 




- Fy-kee. 




Fin . 


• 


- Ballin-ook. 



A FEW Pbomiscjuous Sentences, with their Literal Translations. 

Aboriginal. English. 



Emm neen-in-hairp hair bairp yerrk keen mi 

koon dee goo-ra. 
Idarl-nn-mooch-ar-why knmr-am . . - 
Whin knar knat knmi neen? .... 
Wharr-tin main maytch goo-lee yerrk kee long 

lytch kondee jhnck keetch. 
Knul-lar bnrt koo nnk ..... 
Bnrt-tnk loorp pa long karl .... 
Ghee ynck-en dayne knar wharr knar kin jhal-la 

gee. 
Enar-kin-mi kulng ga long knam nu geetch 

goork. 



Groing me to-morrow morning look me for kan- 
garoo. 
Let me fetch water. 
Where are you going ? 
Come strange men looking for food. 

Don't wake (him or her). 

How bark the dogs. 

Tell us what you saw yesterday. 

Saw me dancing white women. 



The following tables illustrative of the dialects spoken by the natives of 
Greelong, Colac, Goulbum, Murray, and Campaspe, and those of the Witouroy 
Jajawrongj KnenkoreiMmtrrOj BurappeVj and Tonoungurong tribes are ex- 
tracted from Mr. Eyre's work. He states* that they were published for the 
House of Commons, with other papers on the Aborigines, in August 1844.* 





CORIO 


AND COLAC. 




English. 


Woddowrong* or Gorio 
Natives. 


Kollgon, or Colac Na^TCS. 


Daulgart, or Nattvea to the 
west of Colac 


Head - - 


Mor-rok-gnet-ok - 


Mor-rok-grun-ok - 


Be-nisruen 


Eyes 


Mer-gnet-ok r . . 


Merg-nen-^k -^ - - 


Mer-gnaruen 


Forehead - 


Ment-gnet-ok 


Gner-on-gnen-ok - 


Mer-then-quan-nen 


Nose 


Eanug-gnet-ok 


Eong-gnen-ok 




Lips - - 


Wor-ung-gnet-ok - 


Wor-ung-gnen-ok - 




Arm 


Far-ong-gnet-ok - 


Een-e-gnen-ok 




Leg - - - 


Ear-gnet-ok . - - 


Ear-e-gnen-ok 




Poot 


Gen-ong-gnet-ok - 


Een-ong-gnen*ok - 





* Journals of Expeditions of Discovery, yoL u., pp. 399 to 402. 



166 



THE AB0BIGINE8 OF VICTORIA: 



CORIO AND COLAC. 



mm If A^ 


Woddowrong, or Corio 




Daatgart, or KattTw to tlie 


Engliui. 


NattTM. 


KoUgon, or Colac Katlvet. 


wast or Golac. 


Snn . • - 


Itf Pf*vA • K B — 


Na - - - - - 


Derug 
Bar-i-nan-nen 


Moon 


JBLCa*0 " " • " 

Yem - - - - 


Ha * . • • - 

Bard-bard ... 


Star- 


Fot-ba-mm - - - 


Kar-art-kar-art 


Bom-mar-a-momg 


Earth 


"Dn - , - - 


Ta. - 


Mering 
Mor-i 


Stone 


i^ix » » « « 

Lu - - . - 


±m " • " ~ 

Tre - - - * 


Fire- 


Weaog - - - - 


Wean - . . - 




water - 


Qno-bet - - - - 


Kan ... - 


Baret 


Kangaroo - 


Ko-im - - - - 


Ko-ra ... - 


Ko-rin 


Emu 


Kar-wer - -^ - - 


Por-i-mul ... 


Por-i-mul 


Opossum - 


Wol-ard - - - 


Pong-o . . - - 


Pi-e 


One r 


Ko-i-moil ... 






Two and two - 


Bul-ad-bfup-bul-«d 


Bul-ad-duk-bul.ad-duk - 


Bul-ad-darbul-d»^ 



GOULBUBN, MURRAY, AND CAHPASPE, 



EngUflh. 


Jtaongworong, or Goalbnm 
Natlyei. 


Ptne-gorlna, or Kattres 

of Janotlon of Oonlbum with 

tboMoxxaj. 


Onimlleaa, or Kattres WMt 
of Campaspe. 


Head 


Mor-rom-gna-ta 


. . 


Po-ko - . 


. 


Tong-go-gnen-a 


Eyes 


Mer-ing-gnarta 


- 


Ma 


- 


Mer-e-gnen-a 


Forehead - 


Me^-gnen-gna-ta 


r - 


- 


T " 


Meani4e-gnen-a 


Nose 


Kaw-ing-gna-ta 


. 


Kow^ - 


- 


Tan-de-gnen-a 


Lips - - 


Wor-ro-gn»-ta 


- 


Wor-o - 


- 


Wor-om-de-gnen-A 


Arm 


Far-ok-gna^ta 


" «to 


Po-re-ne 


. 


Tar-ok-e-gnen-a 


Leg. - - 


Ho-ra-gnarta - 


* V 


Tut-en-ga 


- 


Ko-rom.bo-gnen-a 


Foot 


Gnen-ong-gna-ta 


- 


Gen-a - 


- 


Gen-ong-be-gneuHt 


Sun - . - 


Now- an - 


. 


Yourug-ga 


m m 


Now-wer 


Moon - •• 


Yambuk 


- 


Yourug-kud-a 


- 


To-rong-i 


Star 


Fort 


. 


Tut-ta - 


- 


Tort-tok 


Earth 


Beak 


- 


Wok-a - 


- 


Mil-a 


Stone 


Lang - 


- 


Bo-ren-a 


- 


Kor-dob-e 


Virtk ... 






Pe-da - 




Wembe 
Kor-den'K>k 


X lie • . . 

Water - 


... 


m 


- * 


Kangaroo - 


Mar-ons - 


- 


Ki-e-me 


- 


Kori-e 


Emu » 


- 


- 


. . - 


. 


Kow-wer 


Opossum - 


- 


- 


. 


- 


Wo-i»« 


One ... 


Kap 


. 


You-a - 


- 


Lu-a 


Two and two - 


Bul-mo-gur-nen-1 


i>ul-mo- 


Bul-tu-bul-bol-tu-bol 


Bo-ri-de-bo-ri-de 




gur-nen 











Mr. Eyre says that the letters "^»" at the commencement of words and 
syllables represent a peculiar nasal sound common in the dialects of Port 
Phillip : to form this sound, the organs of speech must be placed in the same 
position as they are to sound ff hard, and then the sound is emitted through the 
nose like the letter u. 



LANGUAGE* 



167 



WITOUBO^ JAJOWBONG; ENENKOBEN-WUBBO, BUBAFPEB^ AND TA-OUNGUBONG 

TBIBES. 



Bngliah. 


Wltoaro. 


Jajowrong. 




Banpper. 


Ta^)iuigaroiig. 


Father 


Pedonringettok- 


Marmook - 


Marmak - 


Marmook - 


Warredoo 


Mother 


Knardonknettnk 


Barbook - 


Barpanorook - 


Barbook - 


Barbanook 


Son - 


Boron 


Boboop - 


Wat ye pook - 


- - - - 


Boboop 


Daughter - 


Bagorook - 


Tor roi - 


Mangapook 


Layurook - 


Baguroo 


Brother - 


Wamoong - 


Warwook - 


Warwook - 


Warwook - 


Faragannoo 


Sister 


Waim ga knet- 

tuk 
Warringoortan- 


Kotook - 


Kotooglin garook 


Eotook mennook 


Bainbainoo 


Husbaad - 


Nannetook 


Nannetook 


Nannetook 


Nangoronoo 




nooh 










Wife 


Nannapoon goo- 
ranook 


Marrarbook 


Nettargorook - 


Mater mennook- 


Beembannoo 


Man- - 


Gole 


Gole - 


Gole- 


Woitu-bnllar(pL) 


Goleen 


Woman - 


Bagorook - 


Tnre 


Bienbiengubul- 
lar 


Layurook - 


Badyuroo 


Old man - 


Wooriog-wooring 


Knarmbeet 


uu 

Lalli bullar - 


Onyim 


Tiyingular 


Old woman 


Mondegorook - 


Ony im gorook - 


Ony im gorook - 


Ony im gorook - 


Week-week 


Black man- 


Bangondedook - 


Bango-dedook - 


Bangodedook - 


Bangondeyook - 


Mararmgondeg 


Body 


Bangik - 


Bangook - 


Bangook - 


Bangook - 


Marramboo 


Soul 


Murmmknook- 


Mooroopook 


Mooroopook 


Ejianbileknook- 


Moorooboo 


White man 


Amygeet - 


Amygeet - 


Amygeet - 


Moandeet - 


Amygee 


Skin- - 


Tallanook- - 


Meetook - 


Meetook - 


Meetook - 


Darboo 


Eat - 


Eoreetook 


Bairpnlluk 


Bairpnlluk 


Bairpnlluk 


Mambooloo 


Bone- 


Goorook - 


Ealkook - 


Ealkook - 


Mairderook 


Ealgoo 


Blood 


Goortan yook - 


Gorook - 


Goorkook- 


Goorookook 


Gurugoo 


Head- 


Moomyook 


Bourpook - 


Bonrpook- 


Bourpook 


Eowanoo 


Eyes- 


Mirrook - 


Minnook - 


Minnook - 


Minnook - 


Mingoo 


Ears - 


Wingook - 


Wimbulook 


Wimbulook 


Wimbulook 


Wirringoo 


Month 


Woomtanyook - 


Woomknook - 


Wooranyook - 


Wooranook 


Woomngoo 


Nose- - 


Karn yook 


Gamook - 


Garnook - 


Gamook - 


Garknoo 


Beard 


Nareen gan dan 
yook 


Knameknook - 


Enamiknook - 


Nannin yook - 


Ener nin yoo 


Teeth 


Lean yook 


Leamook - 


Leamook - 


Leamook - 


Leangoo 


Tongue 


Tallan yook 


Tallknook- 


Tallknook 


Talleknook 


Tallanoo 


Fore-arm - 


Yoondap - 


Yoondap - 


Yoondap - 


Nanne wannoo - 


Yoondaboo 


Hand 


Munangin 


Munnar - 


Mun ne knook - 


Munnanook 


Munangoo 


Thigh 


Sarreem nook - 


Karrepook 


Earrepook 


Earreboo - 


Tarrangknoo 


Leg - 


Loortamnook - 


Bnrapook- 


Burapook - 


Burapook - 


Gooramboo 


Foot- 


Tinnanook 


Tionanyook 


Tinnan jowook- 


Tinnanook 


Tinnanoo 


Flre - 


Whig 


Wee- 


Wee - - - 


Wannap • 


Wein 


Water 


Moabeet - 


Wonyeram 


Eatyin - 


Earteen - 


Pam 


Bain- 


Mnndnr - 


WoUer - 


WoUer - 


Metark - 


Yayal 


Thnnder - 


Mundnr - 


Mundnr - 


Mundnr - 


Mundarra 


Moondabil 


Earth 


Dar - - - 


Dar - 


Dar - 


Dar - 


Be-eek 


Stone 


Ler - - . 


Lar - - - 


Lar - - 


Lar ... 


Moid yerre 


Wind 


Moonmoot 


Mirreen - 


Mya- 


My-ya - 


Gooree 


Sky - . 


Woorer-woorer- 


Woorer-woorer- 


Woorer-woorer- 


Woorer-kalkook 


Woorer-woorer 


Sun - 


MuTi 


Nowe 


Nowe 


Nowee 


Nummi 



168 



THE ABOEIGINBS OF VICTOBIA: 



WITOTJRO, JAJOWBONG, KNENKORKN-WURRO, BURAPPIER, AND TA-OXJNGURONO 

TRIBES. 



Engllib. 


Wltouro. 


Jajowrong. 




Barapper. 


Ta-onngiiraiif. 


Moon 


Minyan - 


Yem 


Yem 


Wiying wil 


Minnun 


Stan 


Toort baram - 


Toort 


Toort 


Toort 


Toort 


Cloud 


Lark- 


Murrong - 


Murrong - 


Murrong - 


Lark 


Yesterday - 


Taleyu - 


Talege 


Talege - 


TaUegallegor - 


Yullongoi 


To-morrow 


Yeramun - 


Bairpobarrah - 


Bairpobarrah - 


Bairpoorm 


Yeramboin 


Day - 


Mlmyu - 


Noweyu - 


Noweyu - 


Nowegal - 


Earremeen 


Kight 


Moorkalyn 


Boorroinyu 


Boorroinyu 


Booroinyetta - 


Booroindyee 


Kangaroo - 


Goim 


Goora 


Goora 


Gooreyeer 


Marram 


Opossum - 


WoUert - 


Weila 


Wdla - 


Weela 


WoUert 


Dog - 


Garl 


Garl . - - 


Garl- 


Werengun 


Yerangun 


Emu - 


Eowe 


Barramul - 


Yowerre - 


Kowe 


Barramul 


Tree - 


Koor par gerong 


Ealk pu gherra- 


Ealk pu gherra- 


Tark tawooh - 


Ealk -par -ge- 
rong 


Grass 


Bohiet - - 


Boin 


Bohiet - 


Bohiet - 


Bamoom 


Bark- 


Mooriet - 


Myabert - 


Marrartak 


Moorartap 


Moorartap 


Leaf- 


Mooran - 


Gerrar 


Gerrar 


Gerrar 


Gerong 


Flower 


Goora 


Duwin 


iGoen-goen 


Goorr 


Gooroo 


Large spear 


Karp 


Eouiyun - 


Eoiyun - 


Eoiyun - 


Eoiyun 


Beed spear 


Tark 


Tark 


Dark 


Tarr 


Derar 


Boomerang 


Wangim - 


Tatim-tatim - 


Tatoom-tatoom- 


Warn 


Wangim 


Battle-axe 


Leangil - 


Learwil - 


Learwil - 


Learwil - 


Leungail 


Uouse 


Earrong - 


Lar - - - 


Lar - - - 


Larr- 


YiUum 


Great 


Detarbul - 


Knooreetabook - 


Murtyowook - 


Eooroonandook- 


Woortabook 


Little 


Nany a korooh - 


Wanemook 


Wardebook 


Murtook - 


Wikorook 


AliTe 


Mooron - 


Mooron - 


Mooron - 


Moorun - 


Mooron 


Dead- 


Detarwa - 


Deryung - 


Detyung - 


WeeWn - - 


Werregi 


Bad . 


Noolam - 


Yurrong - 


Yartin yar 


Yettowamdook- 


Noolam 


Good- 


Eoenebanyook - 


Talkook - 


Talkook - 


Talkoolc - 


Wan-wan goo 


Long- 


Nerrlm 


Earpool - 


Tuwumge 


Tuwamandook • 


Yurobot 


8hort 


Moert 


Moet 


Moet 


Tuluwandook - 


Moert 


Cold - 


Molongetting - 


Motangln - 


Motangorin 


Lokan yurain - 


Motangan 


Warm 


Narwoorarning - 


Wootyeep - 


Wootyeep 


Boorook - 


Narworing 


One - 


Eoen moet 


Eiarp 


Kiarp 


Eiarp 


Eoopt you 


Two - 


Biillait - - 


Bollait - 


Bullait - 


Bullait - 


BullarbU 


Three 


Bullaitparkoen- 
moet 


Bullaitparkiarp 


Bullaitparkiarp 


Bullait kiarp - 


Bullarhil bar- 
boop 


Four - 


Bullait-bullait - 


Bullait-bullait - 


Bullait yown bul- 
lait 


Bullait-bullait - 


BullarbU-bnU- 
arbii 


Plenty 


Wurreyoolyool- 


Kurt-kurt 


Kurt-kurt yar - 


Parrook - 


Woortyaonoo 


I 


Bangeek - 


Bangak - 


Bangak - . - 


Bangak - 


Murrumbik 


You - 


Bangen - 


Bang-in - 


Bang-in - 


Bang-in - 


Murrumbyen 


Where 


Wear 


Windya - 


Windyaya 


Windya - 


Inda 


Here- 


Kimbame - 


Kinkio - 


Kinkio - 


Eingooda - 


Ealarwe 


Another - 


Yarknook 


Yuwannook 


Yuwannook 


Yuwannook 


Yuwangoo 


What for - 


Wekartook 


Wenarra - 


Wenarra - 


Wenarra - 


Nanningartook 


To tell - 


Eeyak - 


Keyak 


Eeyak 


Eoongak - 


Toombak 


To give - 


Wowak - 


Wokah - 


Wokak - 


Wohak - 


Wooknak 



LANGUAGE. 



169 



WITOUEO, JAJOWBONO, KNBNKOBKN-WURRO, BURAPPER, AND TA-OUNaURONG 

TRIBES. 



EngUflh. 


Wltonro. 


JaJowroDg. 


Knenkoren-wurro. 


Bonpper. 


Ta-oongarong. 


To speak - 


Nartnn whoora- 
keeh 


Woorakeyak - 


Woorakeyaku - 


Woorakeyar - 


Mallam doon 
yer 


To eat 


- - - - 


Mnllun tak-kah- 


M oUon tank-bekn 


Takkwannek-nin 


Tangeyer 


To drink - 


Enurtnl-nopeet- 


— oppellar 


— opeUanyook- 


Eopallanyoo - 


Opear 


To hear - 


Gnarwah - 


Eneerknak 


Eneerknak 


Knaryin - 


Enamgak 


To see 


- - 


Nark ar - 


Narkinnewa-no- 


Naryin 


T^niiT nar 


To sleep - 


Eomkarneetyan 


Eombeyan ak - 


ong 
Eombeyanak - 


Eombeyan win - 


Eamambeyan 


To steal - 


Pilmirringoora- 


Ennnnndillar - 


Eannand yinnar 


Mongka^gnrar- 


Peart yin 


To flght - 


Feet yalleet yan 


Dorkt yezar 


Dorkelyeer 


Dork alley an - 


Wialley an 


To kill . 


Bannargak - j Berkagak- 


Berkin agak - 


Talkowak 


Berkagat 


To dance - 


Eneerekeyan - 


Yepenyon 


Yepenneknen - 


Warrepin knan- 


Enarger nan 


To make - 


Mongak - 


Mongak - 


Moyoopah 


Tal gonak 




Yes - 


Ye-ye - - Ye-ye 


Ye-ye 


Enaar 


Enary ea 


No . - 


Borack - • Lownrrong 


Nullnn yer 


Bnrapper - 


Targoon 


By-and-by- 


Nnmiet - 


Nnmiet - 


Mallin yook 


Eimbarm - 


Mallemal 


A long time 


Tnwnmgee-yo- 


Tnwurn keey 


Mallarmeer 


Eimbowa 


Parmboet 


since 


meer 


oomeer 









NATIVE NAMES OF TREES, SHRUBS, PLANTS, ETC. 

Some years ago I sent paper covers, properly arranged for preserving 
botanical specimens, to three of the Managers of Aboriginal Stations in 
Victoria, with the request that they would collect specimens of the foliaffe of 
trees, shrube, and plants, and obiin from the natives their names fof the 
trees, &c. 

The Managers very kindly undertook the task. Prom Mr. John Green, of 
Coranderrk (greatly assisted by Mrs. Green, to whom I am much indebted), I 
obtained sixty-nine specimens ; from the Rev. Mr. Hartmann, of Lake Hind- 
marsh, fifty-nine ; and from Mr. Joseph Shaw, of Lake Condah, twenty-four ; 
all admirably arranged and neatly labelled. 

These fasciculi were placed in the hands of the Government Botanist, and 
he was asked to write opposite to each native name the correct botanical name ; 
and, owing to his zeal, I am now able to give these lists to the public in such 
a form as to be of permanent value. If I had contented myself with setting 
against the native names the corresponding English names, the work would 
have been valueless; as the latter are applied often carelessly and without 
knowledge. Baron von Mueller's determinations make — ^what was a mere 
collection of strange words — a list which will be of great interest hereafter ; 

VOL. II. T 



170 



THE ABOBIGINES OP YIGTOBIA: 



because nearly all the trees and plants here named by the natives can now be 
easily identified. 

It will be observed that in some cases the natives have given different 
names to the same plant. Great care was taken by my correspondents^ and I 
cannot believe that any error has crept in. It is not improbable that there are, 
in the same tribe, more names than one for a plant, and that a plant in one 
stage of development may have a different name when it is in another stage. 

In Mr. Green's list, Wetomellen (No. 2), collected by Mrs. Green, is not to 
be distinguished from Minamberang (No. 63), collected by Mr. Green; and 
No. 30 {Menvan) is exactly like No. 31 {Ngaring). 

I point out these apparent discrepancies, not to lessen the value of the work, 
but to increase it. Probably Mr. and Mrs. Green had not with them on every 
occasion the same native ; and a native might on one occasion give the name 
of the foliage, on another that of the fruit, and on another perhaps that of the 
root. It is exceedingly difficult to procure information from the natives with 
respect to these matters ; but I am satisfied that the work has been done with 
every regard to accuracy. 

The collection of plants and the list of native names received from the Bev. 
Mr. Hartmann are of more than ordinary value. He has taken the greatest 
care in performing the work ; and his abilities and his education are sufficient 
guarantees that it is accurate, and as complete as one man, with other heavy 
duties to attend to, could make it. 

The contributions of the Managers of the Stations are not alone of impor- 
tance as showing what names the natives give to plants ; but the plants having 
been gathered in the several localities specified at the head of each list, some- 
thing is added to our knowledge of the geographical distribution of some 
species ; and even from a strictly botanical point of view are worthy of pre- 
servation. 



Plants, with native names, received from Mr. John Green, of Coranderrk : — 

{Examined and named by Baron von Mueller j C.M.G.y F.R.S,, Government 

Botanistj j'c.) 



No. 


KathrvNaiiM. 


IdentUM b7 Bnoa too M mUct m— 


10 


Knnraii - . - - - 
WetomeUen .... 
FUiarjle . . - - - 
Oonnderrk .... 
Eepaeep . . . - - 
Hooivng . . . - - 

Wyett 

Kaleitiwan .... 

Wiar 

Fooibooj 


Bomrim gpinott. CaTmilles. 
Clemmtifi ftrisUU. R. Brown. 
Mentha Australia. R. Brown. 

Rnbnt parTifbltna. linne. 

Apparently the young state of Acada mdanoxylon. 

R. Brown. 
Tonng state ci some species of encalyptas. 
FOmaderris i^etala. Labillaididre. 
Leaf only. 
Hdichrysiim femiginemn. Lessing. 



LANGUAGE. 



171 



Ko. 



NatlTB Name. 



Identified by Baron von MaeUer i 



11 
12 
IS 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
SO 
21 
22 

23 
24 
25 
26 
27 

28 

29 

30 
31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

89 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

47a 

48 



Daloip ..... 
Memderrt . - - - - 
Neiingnerit .... 
Ballang^ . . ^ . . 
Marrejuke - . . - 
Buninbeet - - - - 

Bummlnilwill .... 
Eoolm(the natiye word foreman") 
Pimpat ..... 
Ballangin - . . - . 
Bargilborgil . . . - 
Eadsekadsek* (one can scarcely 

obserye the sound of **«*') 
KnTrannngnn .... 
Errienellam .... 
Pimpat ..... 

Terrat 

Nerringnganin (the root is eaten 

by the natires) 
Molling-mulliDg (the root is eaten ' 

by the natires) 
Tabnngin (the root is eaten by the 

natires) 
Merwan ..... 
Ngaring (the root is eaten by the 

natiyes) 
Pike (the root is eaten by the na- 

tl?es) 
Eaannng (the root is eaten by the 

natiyes) 
Tabemp ..... 
TaUak-taUak .... 
Moriyoke - - - . - 
Genineemoongoon ... 
Naringamik .... 
Moambill - . . . . 

Toolimerin 

Toolim 

Tangnan ..... 
Mndmrt ..... 
Woomn ..... 
Nareengnan (eaten by the natiyes)t 

Daal 

Toolemerin .... 

Woolerp . - - - . 
Berry ynng - - . - 



Sonchus oleraceus. Linn& 
No flower nor fruit. 

Helichrysum scorpioides. Labillardidre. 
Cymbonotus Lawsonianus. Gaudichaud. 
Actena sanguisorbflo. Yahl. 
Platylobium obtusangulum. Hooker. 
Leaf only. 

Caladenia pulcherrima. F. yon Mueller. 
Craspedia Richea. Cassini 
Erechtites argnta. Gandolle. 
Aroctriche serrulata. R. Brown. 
Bumex Brownii. Campdira. 

Pimelia humilis. R. Brown. 
Drosera auriculata. Backhouse. 
Brachycome cardiocarpa. F. yon Mueller. 
Geranium dissectum. linne. 
No name giyen. 

No name giyen. 

No name giyen. 

Diuris pedunculata. R. Brown. 
Diuris pedunculata. B. Brown. 

Bulbine bulbosa. Haworth. 

No name. 

Villanda renif ormis. R. Brown. 
Eryngium yesiculosum. Labillardidre. 
Acana sanguisorbsB. Yahl. 
Epacris impressa. Labillardi^re. 
Diuris corymbosa. Lindley. 
No name. 

XanthorrhcBa minor. R. Brown. 
Juncus yaginatus. R. Brown, 
Gratiola Peruyiana. linnl. 
CiBsia corymbosa. R. Brown. 
Eucalyptus amygdalina. Labillardidre. 
HypochsBris glabra. Linnd. 
Aster argophyllus. Labillardi^re. 
Xanthorrhosa minor. R Brown. 
Leptospermum lanigerum. Smith. 
Acacia stricta. Willdenow. 



* More like KadiMtadthek. 

t Ifr. Oraen statee that tbe natlree eat thli plant, and protebly the roots afford them food In oertain seaaona. **ffiipoehoeHi, 
BerMa, SoUrUa, ftc., form Leeaing's tab-tribe Hypochaurlda. Swine are lald to be fond of the roots of ffvpochoerit txkUaUa, 
the long rooted cat*8-ear, whence indeed its generic name.** — Burnetii p. 936. 

It is not referred to in Hooker's Flora Cfbaria as glron in his great work on the Jntfra <tf TMmxmia, 



172 



THE ABOEIGINBS OF VICTOEIA: 



No. 



49 
50 
51 
52 

63 
54 
56 

66 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 

65 
66 
67 
68 



KfttlTe N«me. 



Barny-bnrny - . . - 
Tirbatirebin - - - - 
Karrawftng - - . - 

Einkinqnonggerin (a thrub of 
wbich opossums are rery fond) 
Moeang - - - - - 

Tretal 

Koonadlang (bearing froit like 

white cnrrants) 
Warraworup • - - - 
Morr - - - - - 

Gaggairar 

Kabin . - - - - 
Boe-boe - - - - - 
Kanberr - - - - - 
Nanggert - - - - - 
Minamberang .... 
Pooeet (the heart of this fern is 

eaten by the natiyes) 
Kombadlk . - - - - 
Wyeeboo gaggawar - - ^ 
Koordrong .... 

Woorike (a cone of the honey- 
suckle ; the natires soaked the 
coQes in water, and obtained 
therefrom a pleasant drink) 



Identified by Baron Ton Maeller 



Dinrls maculata. Smith. 
Eucalyptus flssilis. F. Ton Mueller. 
Billardiera scandens. Smith. 
Dayiesia corymboea. Smith. 

Acacia melanozylon. B. Brown* 

Qoodia lotifolia. Salisbury. 

Panax sambucifoliuB. Sieber. (Yarietas dsndroides.) 

Acacia decurrens. Willdenow. (Yarietas molliaamu^) 

Coprosma microphylla. Allan Chmningham. 

Lomaria Capensis. Willdenow. 

Kennedya prostrata. R. Brown. 

Aster ramulosus. All. Cunningham. 

Pultenna juniperina. LabiUardi^re. 

Glycine clandestina. Willdenow. 

Clematis aristata. R. Brown. 

AUophila Australis. B. Brown. 

Dicksonia antarctica. Labillardidre. 
Lomaria discolor. WiUdenow. 
Dayallia dubia. B. Brown. 
Banksia Australis. R. Browii. 



Plants, with native names, received from the Bev. Mr. Hartmann, of the 
Aboriginal Station at Lake Hindmarsh : — 

{Examined and named by Baron Von Mueller ^ CM.G.y F.R.S.y Government 

Botanisty ^c.) 



Ko. 




XTatiye Name. 


Identlfled hj Baron too Mueller ae — 


1 


Shrub .... 


Gingimrick ... 


Dodonsa cuneata. Rudge, 


2 




WatchtLpga ... 


Dodonssa yiscoea. Linn& 


3 


Shrub - - - . 


Liriginangijooytl - 


fiakea flexilis. Ferd. yon Mueller. 


4 


Shrub - - - - 


Ngiiral- 


Myoporum platycarpum. R. Brown. 


5 


Shrub - - - - 


KWmdet - 


Cassia artemisioides, Gfaudichaud. 


6 


Box-tree . - - 


BuUoitch - 


Eucalyptus. 


7 


Tea-tree ... 


BOntt - - - . 


Melaleuca. 


8 


MaUee, No. 3 


OCinamalary ... 


Eucalyptus undnata. Turganinow. 


9 


Mallee, No. 2 


Bftnilrduk - 


Eucalyptus dumosa. A. Cunulngham. 


10 


Mallee, No. 1 


TyaJla .... 


Eucalyptus. 


11 


Bitter quandong-tree - 


Gtltchtl- 


Santalum acuminatum. CandoUe. 


12 


Pine-tree ... 


Marung ... 


Callitris yerrucosa. R Brown. 


18 


White gum-tree - 


Beyal .... 


Eucalyptus. 


14 


He-oak tree 


Ngaree- 


Casuarina glauca. Sieber. 



LANGUAGE. 



173 



Ko. 



EngllBh Kamo. 



15 
16 
17 
18 

19 
20 
SI 
22 

23 

24 
26 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 

44 

45 

46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 

99 



Shrab - 
Shrub - 

Shrub - - - 
Honeysuckle-tr^e 

Shrub - - - 

QuDndongvtree - 

Shrub - . r 

Shxtib . - , 

Natiye curraQts - 

Shrub - - - 
Shrub - 

Shrab - - - 
Shrub - - - 
Native yams 
Wild rhubarb - 
(Used aa medicine) 



Kind of yam 
Mallep - 
Mallee- «• 

Kind of yam 
SheK>ak 



{ 



ITatlTe Name. 



Currant 
White-gmn - 



Oats - 



One-leared wild potato 
Broom, No. 2 - - 
Broom, No. 1 - 
Golden-wattle 
N^tiye cherry 



Gtn - - - - 
GiUcwonbeyurgalk 

BremgtL - - - 

Woreck - - - 

Gfttcham&l - 

Bltchigal 

Biinipga ... 

Dertick 

1. GUinyHgiir 

2. Goring 
Giikerbiik - 
Witchwn ... 

NyJrpIm ... 

Wallowa 

Bam — ^MiLnyil 

Lanangirangal 

GUkwondertLk 

GtLtyamul - - - 

Biirorong ... 

DyarrtLk ... 

Gllnamalang 

Panyo - - - . 

Tow&ndilk - 

Brftkbrilk ... 

Bftal . - - . 
Btlrpangoreetch - 

Geapga - - - 

Wining- . . - 

Gartiya ... 

Bap - r r - 

Etirung buwitch - r 
M^mbal - r ? 
B&rep - r - - 
Manginbuwitcb r 
Gdrayb^witch 
WYrpmrr . . - 
Gullibftrkityallan - 
B(im - . . . 
Marmoitch . . - 
Yullam ... 
Marungtn ... 
Bewiirr ... 
DyArr - - - - 
Witch - - - . 
NyOra - - - - 
Ngenyeny^^wandullang 



Ideiitlfled by Baron von Mueller aa— 



Hakea leucoptera. R. Brown. 
Grevillea ilicif olia. R Brown, 
Acacia salicina. Lindley. 
Bankaia marginata. Cayanilles. 
(B. Australia. Br.) 
Melaleuca pustulata. J. Hooker. 
Santalum Preissianum. Miquel, 
Acacia argyrophylla. Hooker. 
Beyera ledifolia. Elotzsch. 

1. Stenanthiraconostephoides. 1^ 

2. Brachyloma ericoides. ) 
Casuarina atricta. Alton. 
I^ptospermum myroinoides. Schlech- 

tendahl. 

Neither flower nor fruit. 

Acacia calamif olia. Sweet. 

Microseria Forateri. J. Hooker. 

Bumex (neither flower nor fruit), 

Myriogyne minuta. Lesaing. 

Melaleuca parnflora. Lindley. 

Neither flowera nor fruita. 

Geranium diaaectum. Unn^. 

Eucalyptua (wanta flowera and fruita). 

Eucalyptua (no deyeloped flowera or 
fruit). 

Conyolyulua erubeacena. Sima. 

Caauarina quadriyalyia. Pentenat. 

Loranthua pendulua. Sieber. 

No flower or fruit. 

Bursaria apinoaa. Cayanillea. 

Exocarpua aphylla. B. Brown. 

Acacia (no flowera, no fruit). 

Young ahoot of an eucalyptua (with- 
out flowera and fruit). 

Ju^cua pallidua. R. Brown. 

Dianella peyoluta. R. Brown. 

No flower or trvdt. 

No Qower or fruit. 

No flower or fruit. 

Zerotea (no fruit). 

S'estuca diatichophylla. J. Hooker. 

No flower or fruit. 

No flower or fruit 

Erodium clcutariun}. (X Heritier. 

No flower or fruit. 

Baeckia Behrii F. yon Mueller. 

Melaleuca undnata. R. BrowQ. 

Acacia pycnantha. 

Exocarpua apartea. R. Brown. 

Aater pimeloides. Ferd. yon Mueller. 



174 



THE ABOEIGINES OP VICTOEIA: 



Plants, with native names, received from Mr. Joseph Shaw, of the Abori- 
ginal Station at Lake Condah : — 

(^Examined and named by Baron wn Mtieller, C.M.G,y -F.i2.5., Government 

Botanist, ^c.) 



Ko. 


Katlye Name. 


Identified by Baron von Maeller as— 


1 

2 

S 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 


Karingan ..... 

Wikerich 

Popoto ..... 

Nallako 

Wanworan 

Pokancheong . - - . 
Pinnong - - - . . 
Mawkun - . . . - 

Nail - 

Punnun . - - . - 
Thingan-pattherat ... 

Mookich 

Tharook 

Currong 

Bumbume - . - - . 

Billhook 

Parrapurpun .... 

Ballot 

Murinmuch .... 
Poopnnong - . . . - 
Mawkum ..... 

Wankutch 

Mayakich .-..'. 
Wingoyan 


Pultensea atricta. Sims. 

Pimelea humilia. B. Brown. 

Burchardia umbellata. B. Brown. 

Leptospermum juniperinum. Smith. 

Caledenia pulcherrima. Ferd. Ton Mueller. 

Eryngium rostratum. Cayanilles. 

Stylidium gramlnifolium. Swartz. 

Cheilanthes tenuifolia. Swartz. 

Kennedja prostrata. B. Brown. 

Leptospermum lanigerum. Smith. 

Potentilla anserina. linne. 

Solanum ayiculare. Forster. 

Conyolyulus sepinm. Linne. 

Acada decurrens. Willdenow. (An older name for 

Acacia mollissima.) 
Sambucus Gaudichaudiana. Candolle. 
Cassinia longif olia. R. Brown. 
Pteris rotundifolia. Forster. (Yar. falcata.) 
Exocarpus cupressiformis. Labillardi^re. 
CynogloBsum Australe. R. Brown. 
HeUchrysum bracteatum. Willdenow. 
Pteris aqullina. Linn6. 
Veronica Derwentia. Littlejohn. 
Solanum aviculare. Forster. 
Correa speciosa. Alton. 



NATIVE NAMES OP PLACES IN VICTORIA. 

(CoifPILBD BT THE LoCAL GUASDIANS OF ABORIGIirBS.) 

On the 3l8t July 1869, 1 forwarded a circular letter, with a portion of the 
map of Victoria, to each of the Local Guardians of Aborigines, with the 
request that they would ascertain the native names of the rivers, creeks, hills, 
ranges, and other natural features in their several districts, and the results are 
contained in the following papers : — 

NATIVE NAMES OF PLACES IN THE UPPER MURRAY DISTRICT. 

(Compiled bt T. Mitchisll, Esq.) 

Meaning In Kngllnh. 



Kame as given on Map. 

Mitta Mitta Riyer - 
Beethan . - - 
House Creek - 
Huon's Creek - 
Toolangatta - 



Native Kame. 

Mida-modunga - - . From reeds called modunga, 

Beeth-an-da ... From weed called monafida, 

Tarrdo-uriDga-minga - - Mussel Creek. 

Koan-dudda ... From hill so called (Lady Franklin). 

Toolan'gutta ... Currejong trees abound. 



LANGUAaK 



175 



Name m glyen on Map. 

Tan-gam-ba-langa - 
Little River 



Katlre Kame. 

Tan-gam-boo-lam 
Kiewa 



Marra-ma-rang-bun - Mari-ga-mng-doon 



Tackandandah 

Barranduda 
EerguiDa 
Sandy Creek 
Middle Creek 

Wagra - 
Oooy-ya-long 
Oranya - 
Talgama - 
Thnrandolong 
Cndgewong 
Womaatong 
BoDgella - 
Belroir - 



- Yag-gnn-doo-na - 

- Bar-ran*di-da 

- Eur-ra-gui-na 

- Eurrain-ga-ah 

- Eerree-bana 

- Wagra. 

- Coo-ye-dong. 

- Cranya. 

- Talgama. 

- Thur-an-do6-long 

- Cnd-ya-wa - 

- Wair-me-^ 

- Bongella 

- Woodanga - 



Meaning in Engllab. 

Cray-fish. 

Berived from ey-o-nun-a, sweet, and 

wher-ra, water. 
Derived from mung-ga-rung-Of tall, and 

doon^ a bill. 
From yog-gun, native name for the 

country, and dootij a hill. 
Swamp. 

From kur^a-iti^de^ silent camp. 
Windy Mountains, where it rises. 
Green Creek, from numerous weeds 

growing in it. 



From hill near of same name. 
From cud-ya-wa'da, skin of kangaroo. 
Big water-hole at Junction. 
Small island. 

From an edible nut or plant found in 
lagoons. 



NATIVE NAMES OF PLACES ON THE LOWER MURRAY. 
(Compiled bt B. W. Gummow, Esq.) 
Name aa given on Map. ItraUre Name. Meaning In EngUsh. 



Lake Yanga - 

Funbaw - 

Weimey - 

Cuttanb - 

No. I . - 

Naroween 

No. 2 

YolWe - 

Bung 

Mount Templar 

No. 8 (creek) - 

Calandom 

Burra-burra 

No. 4 

No. 6 

Toliobook 

Coomaroop 

Palk 

Pianeill - 

No. 6 

Woortwort 

No. 7 

Byndir - 

Guyer 

Eorondorchieur 

Tyntynder 

Babel 

Gunboa - 



- Yalingro 

- Pum-pum - 

- W4iUe 

- Cutiup 

- Wen'domel - 

- Nor6wong - 

- Buck-buck - 

- Yi'lkie 

- Bo'inghoo. 

- Nanowie 

- WirraUie - 

- Not known. 

- Burra-biirra 

- G(inb6wer 

- Maipie 

- To'oUbo6ck - 

- Co'omaroo - 

- Palkie 

- Pi'anghiU - 

- Jerowe 

- Wo'ort-po'or 

- Pa'ni-miUie - 

- Pu'nbi 

- Ngighyer - 

- E6r6ng'olotchieur 

- Tyntyndye'rr 

- Babel - 

- Gunbour 



First view narrow, then spreading out 

into an expanse of water. 
Dwarf Mallee pine. 
Name of the curlew. 
Pine resin. 

Where are you going ? 
I want to go along a blackfellow. 
Bubbling of water. 
Not known. 

A comer. 
Black cockatoo. 

The cord that bears a satchel 

Tortuous. 

I made a spear. 

The yolk of an egg, 

A species of acacia. 

Enlarged abdomen. 

Not known. 

Large smoke. 

Bulrush. 

Little river. 

A small oven. 

A waist -belt. 

Large sheet of water. 

An acrid lichen. 

A dull heavy thud. 

Tortuous. 



176 



THE ABORIGINES OF YICTO&IA: 



Kame u giyen on Mftp. 

Swan Hill 
Marraboor River 
Lake Baker 
Towan - - - 
Lake Boga 
Gramouk - - - 
Manuaor . . - 
Bingeroup 

Bael-bael ... 
Eerang - - - 
Mering ~ . - 
Leagar . . - 
Quambartook . 
Lalbert - 
Titybong - - - 
Towaniny 



Katiye Name. 

Martyrocqueit - 
Fani-millie - 
Bormbendil 
Towan 
Kooem 
Gamook . - 
Mimsngwoore 
Binjarap - * 
Bael-bael - 
Kerang 
Merinkie 
Leargnr 
Quambartook 
Lalbert 
Tltybonga - 
Towaninie - 



PlatypuB. 

little ilyer. 

Honey-dew. 

Being speared^ 

Milk. 

Al^. 

A louse. 

A shoulder. 

Gum-trees. 

A parasite^ 

It will stick. 

Teeth. 

A rat. 

A creeper. 

Root of a tree. 

A blow on the back of the head. 



NATIVE NAMES OF PLACES IN THE DISTRICT OF LAKE HINDMARSH. 

(COMFILBD BT THB RbY. A. HaBTICAMV.) 

Name aa given on Map. NatlTe Kama. '**'^«**"ir in Englbdi. 

The Rirer Wimmera, and the adjoining Burr. 

country as far as Lake Hindmarsh 

Lake Hindmarsh .... Gum. 

Rocky Point - . . - . Gamdagauer . « . Oauer miWDB earn. 

The outlet creek between Lalces Hind- Krumelak. 

marsh and Albacutya 

Lake Albacutjra ---•>- Ngelbakutya ... Kutya, sour quandong. 

Outlet creek and country below Lake Tyflkil ba tySkiL 

Albacutya 

Jerrewirrup .... - Jerriwirrup -. - - Wart on a tree. 

Mount Jenkins .... - Gamditg. 

Wirringres Plains * - - - Wirringer. 

Sandhills at Pine Plains ... Gardennung wftndyel. 

Yallamjib --.-.- Yallamjap . . ^ Ciftb-hole. 

Tarriambiak Creek . « . . Tarriambiuk. 

Lake Coorong, and country round about Tarak. 

Avon Riyer, and country ... Wityellibal*. 

Mount Jeffcott Bnlbrauer. 

Bnloke Btdtlk. 

Morton Plains country ... Windyin marungtl. 

Tyrrell Tiril. 

To most of these names, as you will obserre, the blacks could gire no meaniag.~A. H. 



NATIVE NAMES OF PLACES IN THE GLENBLG DISTRICT. 

(COMPILBD BT H. L. McLbOD^ EsQ.) 
Name as glren on Hap. Katlve Name. Meaalsg in Xnfflish. 

Crimugal - Crimugal .... Riding up. 

Mongrel -.-..- Moangull .... Well, come up. 

Cadnite ...... Canite .... Hot known. 

Koom ...... Koomboomambarambum - Lying dowiL 

Wooratanbulli WooratanbulU - - - Stomach. 



LANaUAOE. 



177 



Name m glren on Map. Xattre Name. Meaning In iBngHah 

Cuapinjo ------ Bunnia .... Ring-tailed opoasum. 

Biniiin ------ Binnum-biimiim - . - She-oak. 

Benajeo ------ Benyeo . - - - The act of throwing. 

Sandy Creek ... - - Brum-bmm mome - - A kind of rush. 

Warknr .----- Not known. 

Mosquito Creek .... Brah ..... To stab. 

Boraocrooer ..... Not known. 

Tor Tor Water-hole. 

Penola ...... Boyngburk - - - Sandy back. 

Apsley ...... Kidtacha .... Natiye cat. 

Camm -.-..- Ghar .... - Nose. 

Elderslie ...... Laugap - - - - A hollow in the ground. 

Carrante .-.*.. Carrante .... Cherry-tree. 

licmon Springs ----- Gnalp .... Spring. 

Bring Albert ..... Bring albit . - . - Sandy spring. 

Edenhope ..... Guniah .... Green bank. 

Power's Creek .... Guagaguck ... Emu. 

Glenelg ...... Barker. 

Mooree ...... Moree . . * . Middle of a tree. 

Chetwynd ..... Gunarry .... Swamp-oak. 

MuUach ...... Mullengera ... Ferns. 

Eont Mann ..... Not known. 

liOnglands ..... Not known. 

Koolomert ..... Eoolermert ... little bird. 

Pigeon Ponds • . - - - Not known. 



NATIVE NAMES OF PLACES IN THE WANNON DISTRICT. 

(COXPILBB BT PbTBB LbABXOHTH, fSSQ.) 



Hame as giren on Map. Kattre Name. 

Mountains, 
Monnt Napier - - Tapook. 
Monnt Bouse - - - Eollor-kollor. 
Mount Bainbridge - - Kreekore. 
I>andas Ranges - - Pnoyole. 
Victorian Ranges - - Pilleweane. 

jRivers, 
Wannon . - - Boar-ang. 



Name as giren on Mapw NatlTe Nameu 

Lakea, 

Lake Linlithgow - - Tunneyare. 
Kennedy ... Mumyawoune. 

Fknns, 
Linlithgow Plains - - Warrock Plains. 

Creeks, 
Muddy Creek - - Not known. 
Muston's Creek - - Bunyong. 



NATIVE NAMES OF PLACES IN THE VICINITY OF GLBNORCHY. 

(CoxpiLBD BT S. Wilson, Esq.) 
Name as given on Map. Vative Kama. Meaning in Unglish. 



Lake Lonsdale 
Glenwylln - - - 
HUl near Glenwylln 
Horsham ... 
Longerenong ... 
Sandhill at Longerenong - 
Ashens - - - - 
Glenorchy . . . 

VOL. n. 



Pyacl or jackle - 
Aring . - - 
Woorao-woorac - 
Wopet-bungundllar 
Longerenong 
Wyn-wyn-ballyma 
Langanong-joruk 
Djarrah 



- Swamp. 

- She-oak or casuarina. 

- Honeysuckle or Banksia. 

- House of feathers. 

- The diTiding of the waters. 

- The direction of the mouse's dwelling. 

- The reedy branch or fork. 

- A job, a piece of work. 



178 



THE ABOBiaiNES OF YICTOBIA: 



KuDfl M flTwii on Uapt 



KatlT« Namo. 



Pleasant Creek * - Terip . . - 

Grampians - - - Cowa - - - 

Monnt Zero ... Mallap-coira 

Boga Lakes— Pine Lake Boninjeb - 

(No. 2 in map) 

Boga Lakes-'Dack Lake Backanjany-jowk 

(No. 3 in map) 

Boga Lakes— DnmgHlnuig Dning-drung. 

(No 1 in map) 

Walmer ... - Tnlgamuruj catyin 

Vectis - - . - Tawmbol - 

Polkemmet - - - Witchi - - 

Norton Creek - . - Malibar 

McKenzie River «> - Bon-nah 

Burnt Creek - - • Pnrtit 

North Brighton (in map Becatyin - 

Darlot and KcLachlan) 

Swamp at North Brighton Dooen. 



lUsafof lBBi«11rii. 

Ironbark gum-tree. 
Mountain. 
Little mountain. 
Salt water. 

Beedy-neck (descriptiye of the shape 
of this lake). 



- Water of the Tisitors. 

- A swim. 

• Sedges or bulrushes. 

- A blind creek. 

- Tea^tree scrub. 

. Bulrush or sedges. 

- Cbalk (or lime) water. 



Wimmera Rlrer 


- 


Barrh - - - . • 




Half-way Inn - 


- 


Greech* - - - 


- Fat 


Irrewarra 


- 


Nawallah - 


- What's that? 


Rosebrook 


« 


Boyop-butyum-butynm 


* Meeembryanthemum or pigVftuse. 


Bose's Gap 


- 


Barregowa - - - 




Ledcourt 


- 


Ledcourt - - - 


- A spear-point. 


Richardson Rirer - 


- 


WirchiUeba 


- A dry watercourse. 


Mamoo . - . 


- 


Mamoo ... 


- Finger. 


Carr's Plains - 


- 


Cattiong nyam-nyamt - 


• Flowering climber* 


Warranooke (Nicol 


and 


Warranooke 


- The upper lip. 


Ayrey's station) 








• Tbt blAckiMiiire mt it ti tlie natlye nsine, aUhongh ttM mesnliig •iiggwts an Engliih origtiL— S.W. 






• t Pronoanoed om i 


l7UsbU. 

m 



KATIVB NAMES OF PLACES IN THE DISTRICT OF CARNGHAM. 

(COMTILBD BT A. POBTXOUSy ESQ.) 
Kuu ■• giT«ii OD aUp. Ksttre Ksme. Kesolaff In Bng Uth. 



Mount Cole 
Fiery Creek •> 
Middle Creek - 

Raglan - 
Shhrley - 
Beaufort - 
Trawalla 
Mount Beckworth 
Mount Mitchell 
Mount Bolton 
Mount Misery (No. 1) 
The Cardinal - 
Peak of Almond 
Lady Mount 
White-stone Lagoon 
0)ckpit Lagoon 
Burrumbeet 



Bereep-by-bereep 
Baringa yalUr • 
Calpin bartic 

(}ereep-gereep 
Wonagarack 
Tarram-yarram • 
TrawaUa - 
Nananook - 
Omop bonark. 
Boriga 
Langayan - 
Largagorockfort. 
Kam-kam« 
Lepokworan. 
Pore. 

Morekana - 
Bormbeet - 



Wild mount, 
lEUipid floods. 
Resort of many 

birds. 
A rough country. 
Sandy ground. 
Cannot interpret. 
Much rain, 
Behhid. 

Loose ground. 
Mo(»i. 



Wild. 

Muddy, dirty water. 



LAIfGUAOE. 



179 



Hame as giren on Map. 

Mount Bou - . . 
Spring Hill (Na 1) 
St. Mai7*8 mu - - 
Barenscroft Hill - 
Lake Learmonth 
Mount Blowhard - 
Hepburn ... 
Birch Hill - 
CoghilPs mil > 
Forest Hill 
Spring Hill (No. 2) 
Creswick ... 
Hollow-back - 
Miners' Best . . . 
Ballarat .... 
Mount Pleasant 
Yuille's Swamp 
Mount Warrenheip 
Sebastopol ... 
Monnt Buninyong - 
Tarrowee Creek 
Hardie*sHill - 
Smjthesdale ... 
Black Hill - 
Camgham ... 
Gold workings. Snake 

Valley 
Baillie's Creek 
Chepstowe ... 
Mount Emu . . . 
Bainjamie . . . 
Skipton .... 
Borriyallack ... 
Anderson's Hill 
Caramballack 
Mount Yite-Tite • 
Mount Bute - - . 
Happy Valley 
Lucky Woman's - 
Mount Erip . - . 
Pitfleld . . . . 
Mount Misery (No. 2) - 
Mount Mercer - « 
Bokewood . » . 
Gnarkeet 
Woady Taloak 
Monnt Elephant - 
Lismore- • . . 
Mount dark • 
Tooliorook 
Little CoraDgamite 
Foxhow - - . . 
Cressy .... 
Weering . . . 



KatlTB Num. 

Jame. 

Warra. 

Waranganack. 

Bungel. 

Tombine. 

Mortello. 

Morakile. 

Michacola. 

Coratcoork. 

Lightyarang. 

Barangoan. 

Calembeen. 

Langerguping. 

Drawill. 

Ballarat. 

Portollo. 

Wendouree. 

Warraneip. 

Uran-oran. 

Bonanyong. 

Yaramlock. 

BarengleowelL 

Naringook. 

Nawrightwidwid. 

Kumum. 

Nimbuck. 

Neperiok. 
Ganing-gering. 
Tokorambeet 
Langi Willi. 
Woran. 
Borriyallaok. 
Widderin. 
Welergate. 
Molo-molo. 
Coromellock. 
Melong.gap. 
Workgogerk. 
Nollo. 
Mindi. 

Wadgap pyangra. 
Garang goUock. 
Conyreyalk. 
Noran ket. 
Woady Yaloak. 
Gerinyelam. 
Bongerem-muen. 
Larra. 
Lar. 
Napart. 
Miter. 
Bitup. 

WopUlingcalebgee- 
ing. 



Fame at glTen on Map. 

Shelford ... 
Green Hill - 
Mount Hesse ... 
Lake Murdeduke - 
Mount Gellibrand - 
Birregurra ... 
Eerangemoorah 
Lake Colac ... 
Lake Eorangamite - 
Pnrmmbete ... 
Mount Pomdon 
Mount Woridgil - 
Mount Myrtoon 
Pirron Yalloak 
Morass . . . . 
Great Warrion Hill 
Elephant Bridge - 
Colac .... 
Mount Poolongoork 
Lake Gnarpart 
Mount Cayem 
Mount Pisgah 
Lake Goldsmith* - 
Stockyard Hill* - 
Bald Hill, west of Bur* 

rumbeet Lake* 
Small hiU near Skip- 

ton* 

Forest around Bean- 
fort 
Lexton - . • . 

Head of Wimmera 

Creek 
HiU east of Skipton 
Small hills south of Mount 

Emu 
Amphitheatre 
A forest hill north of 

Baglan 
Glenlogie station - 
Mr. George Thomson's 

hill 

Mr. Ware's hill - 
Mr. Bitchie's hill - 
Sago Hill • . . 
Black Hill . 
Burmmbeet Creek 
Mr. F. Ormond's hill - 
A large cave in ditto 
Leigh Creek - . . 
Emu Creek, after junc- 
tion with Baillie's 
Creek 
Moorabool Oeek - 



KatiTB Name. 

Lany-y-pigan« 

Beringworwor. 

Mokatook. 

Mundeduke. 

Walaiwwalar. 

Birregurra. 

Worayan. 

Koram. 

Korangamite. 

Purrumbete. 

Bondon. 

YaretgalL 

Meton. 

Pirron Yalloak. 

Eupurp. 

Eoirurk. 

Cocom. 

Bobonorok. 

Mecomam. 

Gnarpart. 

Bangeratcoret. 

Morambuelbullet. 

Yangrawill. 

Bapel, 

Gunapan. 

Monmot. 

Eurambeen. 

Culcotok. 

C!hilerep. 
NanamL 

Yapal. 
Bork-bork. 

Bemmgower. 
Gaymorran. 

Coron. 

Allaynep. 

Collargateyaller. 

Collargateyaller. 

Drawill. 

Wetaraa. 

Lamook. 

Wahwilcurtan. 

Tariwoodoot. 



• MoorobooL 



* Not mentioned on tbe map. 



180 



THE ABOBIGINBS OF VICTOEIA: 



NATIVB NAMES OF PLACES IN THE TALBOT DI8TBICT. 
(CoMFiuiD BT P. C. CsBSPiovT, Esq.) 

Vame aa g\rm on Hap. XTatlTe Kama. Maanlng In EngUah. 

- Unknown. A Tolcanic mount known u 
Moont Glasgow. 

- Unknown. A rolcanic mount on the 
west side of Tollaroop Creek, eight 
miles north of Clanes. 

- Unknown. At Major BiitcheH's cross- 
ing oyer Tnllaroop Creek, nine miles 
porth of Clanes. 

- Unknown. A large swamp north of 
Clones. 

- Unknown. A lagoon near Talbot. 

- Unknown. A large creek running 
through Clunes. 

- Unknown. A creek running through 
Adelaide Lead into the 3et Bet Creek. 

- Unknown. A small creek running through 
the parishes of Amherst and Craigie. 

- Unknown. A large creek on the western 
side of the dirision. 

- Unknown. A pariah in the south-western 
part of the diTision. 

- Unknown. A parish in the western part 
of diyision. 

- Unknown. A parish in the north-western 
part of the dirision. 

meanings of the natire names in English. I 
them.— P, C. Cesspignt. 



Mount Glasgow 


- Tout Bout Nay - 


Wonge Kurrup 


- Wonge Kurrup - 


Wall Walp 


. - WaU Walp - - 


Big Swamp ^ 


- Merrin-merrin - 


Big Water-hole - 
Tullaroop - 


- Moorangapil 

- Tullaroop - 


Timor 


- Tunor 


Naragil , 


. - NaragU , - 


Bet Bet - 


- Bet Bet 


Caralulup 


- Caralulap - 


Lilicur 


- LQicur 


Bung Bong t 


- Bung Bong 



NoTB,— There are 
haye questioned some 



no means of ascertaining the 
gins, but they are ignorant of 



NATIVE NAMES OF PLACES IN THE COUNTIES OF HAMPDEN AND HEYTESBUBT. 

(CoMFiLiD BT Robert Scott, E8<).) 
KattTo Name. Meaning In Engllsb. Pariah or Ran, 



Allamiditnu - 
Allawookur - 
Allonggowyong - 
AUoom- 
Aloome 

Allumbaa - - 
Alumbah 
Aluretnitt • 
Amelkilbint - 
Anaki boornok - 
Arryaringuhar 
Arryyarrup - 
Bangal ... 



Barrandar - 
Bayrong 
Bimalloom - 
Binebaccallooke - 



Part of the bank of Lake Terang - « - 

Creek 

Marsh ---«---- 

Knoll on bank of Lake Colongulac 

Part of the bank of Lake Terang - . - 

Spring - -'- 

Spring -----.-- 

Part of the bank of Lake Terang ... 
Marsh -------. 

Spring -------- 

Creek (Blind Creek) 

Blind Creek ; runs in winter ; water brackish 
A. Anderson's homestead and name of Mount 
Emu Creek opposite Bangal. 

Creek 

Creek .-----.-.. 
Knoll on bank of Lake Colongulac 
Knoll on bank of Lake Colongulac 



Terang. 

Terang, 

Colantetrun, 

Colongulac. 

Terang. 

Terang. 

Keilambete. 

Terang. 

Purrumbete. 

Larra. 

Struan. 

Connewarren. 



Maridayallock. 
Terang. 
Colongulac. 
Colongulac. 



LAlTanAGE. 



181 



Kaiire ZTuim. Meaning In Engllsb. ParlBh or Ban. 

Birdebnsh - - - Brackish lake «,.-*. Koort-koort-nong. 

Bngadaneetch - - Spring .-~^.... Larra. 

Bolajup - - - Spring -------- Borriyalloak. 

Boigdeet .... Marsh -,.----. Larra. 

Bookaar ... Brackish lake ------ Eoort-koort-nong. 

Boonnap ... Huston's Creek ------ Onnewarren. 

Boorite yonong - - Dam -..-.-.- Corangamite. 

Booronnit - - - Marsh -.----i..- Larra. 

Borrijalloak - - F. Ormond's homestead . , r - Borriyalloak, 

Bonelwithitnick - - Spring on the bank of Lake Gnotuk - - Colongulac. 

Boniyarook - ^ - part of the bank of Lake Terang - . - Terang. 

Bonrg - - • - Moont Shadwell ------ Mortlake. 

Bnckerang . - - Rise --....-- Corangamite. 

Bniclaccalnke - - Site on which W. Adeney's homestead is bmlt Colongulac. 

Bulkilnarra - - - Salt lake -.--..- Corangamite. 

Bunbunyer - - - Spring -------- Borriyalloak. 

Bandar ... Marsh ........ Struan. 

Buranggurtwooroot - Tributary of Curdie's Creek (gum-tree, Tandarook* 

wooroot) 

Burrah - . . . Hopkins Riyer (the name of the lake it runs 

from). 

Bullenmerri - - - Brackish lake ..-..- Colongulaa 

Carawa- .r - - Creek .-.----- Terang. 

Camoorong . . - Timbered land between Lake Keilambete and Glenormiston. 

Noorat 

Carpundergil - - Marsh -?.....- Terang. 

Chocolyn - f - W. Adeney's homestead - . - - Colongulac. 

Chocolyne . - - Knoll on bank of Lake Colongulac - - Colongulac. 

Colan - - - - Marsh ---.---- Purrumbete. 

Colantet - - - W. Allen's homestead and a marsh. 

Colladal ... Spring -..--.-- Maridayallock. 

Colongulac . - - Brackish lake -..--- Colongulac. 

Colpoomboomak - - Part of Bostock's Creek .... Tandarook. 

Cooreknerite - - Part of Curdie's Creek (nerite meaning small Tandarook. 

fish or spawn) 

Coradgill ... Salt lake ....... Corangamite. 

Corambliting - - Marsh ...-.-.- PoligoUt. 

Corangamarajah - - Mack's homestead (good water). 

Corangamite - - Salt lake. 

Connewarre - t - Dam ..--.... West Cloren Hill. 

Connewarren » ? Fresh lake ........ Ellerslie. 

Corn-corn natong - t Point running into Lake Corangamite - - Corangamite. 

CoTookorookerdiee - Salt lake ..---.- Terinallum. 

Coram - - - - Marsh -- - Terang. 

Culer-culer ... Sugarloaf Hill - Jancourt. 

Culliawor . - - High bank orerlooking Lakes BuUen, Merri, Colongulac. 

and Gnotuk 

Cundure - - - Spring ---.---- Terang. 

Cunongeeyeuk - - Tear-tree springs (cunong means dung) - - North Keilambete. 

Currungurrun - - Small rise - ^ Corangamite. 

Currycong - - - Hugh Scott's homestead, Jancourt - - Jancourt. 

Curtbiel - r - Salt lake (dry in summer) - - . . Terinallum. 

Donnawalla ... Brackish lake ...--. Larra. 

Byang - - . - Brackish lake (drying up fast) - - . Bolac Plains. 

Geelengla . - - Spring ---.---. Larra. 

Geritger ... Spring and small creek .... Purrumbete. 



182 



THE ABOWGINES 0¥ VICTOEIA: 



Native XTame. Meaning in Bngliib. Fadah or Bon. 

Gheriogal ... Brackish lake ...... Termallmn. 

Giiingcall ... Spring (aignifies that wild dog was killed Colongalac. 

there) 
Gnarkeet - - - F. Begg*i homestead and chain of ponds - Gnarkeet 
Gnarkeet dnngnrk - Salt lake ....... Borrijalloak. 

Gnotnk ... Salt lake and slightlj brackish spring on the Colongulac. 

east side of lake 
Gnarpnrt ... Lake (yery bitter or salt). 
Gtoodwitch ... Salt lake ....... Corangamlte. 

Jeeler .... Marsh east side of Mount Widdem - - Borrijalloak. 

Jehura* ... Marsh Purrumbete. 

Karaiar ... Brackish lake ...... Eariah. 

Karawah ... Outlet from Pejark . , . . . Terang. 

Eart Dirk - - - N. Cole's homestead (carry water) - - Kilnoorat. 

Eeilambete - - - J. Thomson's homestead and salt lake. 

Eerbyleet ... Marsh .....-«. North Purrumbete and 

Colongulac. 

Eoort-koort-nong. 

Tandarook. 

Tandarook. 



Eirweeton 

Eohiear 

Eoleaur 



Eolora - - , 

Eong . . - . 
Eonnenonar - 
Eoopup 
Eoonanguric 
Eoort-koort mouthang 

Roort-koort-nong • 
Eoreetnong - 
Eonawallo Earra - 

Eoroot-koroot 
Eurtbaulen • 
Lakulang 
Langi WilU - 
Larra ... 
Leura ... 
Maingar 
Malleen 
MambaUj - 
Maridajallock 
Martingmirlng 
Mawwick 
Meeton ... 
Mejirinuke - . - 
Meningorott - 
Merrit . - - 



Merrlwidgill 
Mertonimburich - 
Mingham 
Moigoniutch - 
Mont-mont mithin 
Morragiljnon 
Mullah - 



Mount -I...... 

Marsh -.-.-..- 
Small hill on which Hugh Scott's homestead 

is built 

Fresh lagoon Eolora. 

West Cloren Hill (like a bandicoot) - - Eoort-koort-nong, 

Fresh lagoon Eeilambete« 

Marsh (dry) -..,--- Bangal. 

Fresh lake Tooliorook. 

Sloping bank at the south-west comer of Colongulac 

Lake Gnotuk 

J. G. Ware's homestead (land crabs) - - Eoort-koort-nong. 

Brackish lake - Eariah. 

Mrs. Robertson's homestead (the place of the Connewarren, 

old wattle-tree) 

Black swamp (fine land and water) - - Connewarren. 

Stony Bises (islands of stone) ... Stman. 

Salt lake Terinallum. 

W. Mitchell's homestead .... Skipton. 

J. L. Currie's homestead and small spring - Ettrick. 

Mount (yolcanic) ...... Colongulac 

Swamp (Port Fairy) Connewarren. 

Hill Tandarook. 

Small creek .-.-..- Connewarren. 

J. McKinnon's homestead . n - - Maridt^ysllock. 

Marsh .-.-..-- Porrumbete. 

Marsh .,--.,.. Maridayallock. 

Mount Eariah. 

Creek .., Colongulac 

P. McArthur's homestead and mount - - EUnoorat. 

Marsh ..--..-. North Purrumbete and 

Colongulac. 

Marsh ........ Corangamite. 

Gully north end of Lake Gnotuk ... Colongulac 

Marsh .*.---.. Purrumbete 

Marsh Larra. 

Part of the bank of Lake Terang ... Terang. 

Small Bald Hill Bangal. 

Spring (profuse growth of the nettle) - - Eeilambete 



tiAlTGnAGE. 



183 



Mnlleen 
Mumbythaca 
Mnrnunong - 
MyYnong 



Kaikonebnrrimoo 

Narribool 

Narrokeeing 

Koorat 

Olaogone 

Ornaweewit 

Ootate 
Palayratnoe - 

Parp - 

Fejark 

Fenoarcmg - 

Perikywam - 

Piel 

PoUgolit 

PoUong gowyong 

PooloDgoork 

Forndon 

Port buUong 

Pourpeatberry < 

Poyetete 

Puckerwiiro- 

Puckanrooro 

Pnladyabook 

Pullaar 

Pnnpnndhal 

PuDtiyerraman 

PnrdicuTong 

Pnrriimbete 

Purtmimdal 
Put-put 
8angoyie 
Tandarook « 



TaragiU 
Taxangmockar 

Tamcuboo • 



Tataitong - 

Tatutong 

Tayiangireyiik 

w 

Terang 
Terang-pom - 



Meaning In Bnglisli. Parish or Bon. 

Tea-tree spring (Dairy station) . « «. Jancourt. 

lAount ---*-*-- Conne-warren. 

Harsh (dry) ------- BangaL 

H. H. Gibson's homestead (mimong or mtir- Mortlake. 

non, a root used by the natires, like a car- 
rot, and Tery abundant here) 

Little muddy water-hole in the south-west of Colongulac. 

Greek - * Terang. 

Ewan'sHill Maridayallock. 

Mount (volcanic) .---'•- Glenormiston. 

Salt lake (high bank) - • - - - Connewarren. 
A. S. Robertson's homestead (first swallow of . Struan. 

the season) 

The Sisters (stony, and many kangaroo) - Eolora. 

Open ground betweeen Lake Keilambete and Glenormiston. 

Koorat 

Spring ------- Furrumbete. 

Marsh ..--.-. Terang. 

Marsh (dry in summer) . . - .. Terinallum. 

Spring .-.-... Furrumbete* 

Salt lake .-•.... Terinallum. 

J. Dodd's homestead. 

Marsh -..--*. Colantet. 

Small hill (pickaninny elephant). 

Mount (volcanic) ...... Furrumbete. 

Spring - Furrumbete* 

Spring (water gushing out) . - - - Keilambete. 

Tea-tree - - North Keilambete run. 

Bank at outlet from Fejark - - - - Terang. 

Bank at the north-east comer of Lake Bal- Oolongulaa 

lenmerri 

Issue of marsh to Lake Corangamite - - 0>rangamite. 

Marsh -..-.-. Tandarook. 

Salt lake ---.-.- Corangamite. 

Creek running past Mr. Robertson's * - Struan. 

Salt lake - ----- Terinallum. 

Messrs. Manifold's homestead, and fresh lake Furrumbete* 

156 feet deep 

J. Hasler's homestead Corangamite. 

Marsh ------- Furrumbete* 

Teartree spring ----- Bangal. 

Dr. Ourdie's homestead and limestone hill Tandarook. 

(derived from a vegetable root found there 

called darook) 

Spring (place where rushes grow) - • Keilambete* 

Tributary of Curdie's Creek (Utrang, the leaf Tandarook. 

of the lightwood ; muckar, a vegetable root) 

A prominent part of the eastern bank of Cur^ Tandarook. 

die's Creek (from tarin, a road ; cuboo, the 

nose) 

Spring - Larra. 

Salt lake ----«-- Corangamite. 

Stony ridge at the foot of Mount Noorat to the Glenormiston. 

east 

Fresh lake .-.-.-• Terang. 

Brackish lake .----. Corangamite. 



184 



THE ABOEIGINBS OF VICTOEIA: 



XTatlTe Kame. 

Terrara merri 
Terrinalliim - 
Terrie-terrie murrie 
Timboon ' - 
Tirangal koort-koort 
Tircarra 
Tirtoo 

Tocouredt - 

Tooliorook - 

Tooloomolong 

Toorak 

Trelwyte 

Tyrrer 

Twroghadeen 

Vita-vita 

Wanan 

Wanandor - 

Warawwill - 

Warntwintch 

Warron 

Wawallock - 

Weerang 

Weerpurich - 

WeranganuG 

Weright 

Werong 

Weriwerikoort 

Widdem 

Willackbirk - 

Wiritgill - 

WirraaD 

Wirrburo - 

Woamgooduate - 

Wookur 

Wookarmta - 

Woolonguwong - 

Woombiher - 

Wooramooil - 

Wooriobolook 

Wooriwyrite 

Woorodirb - 

Warrnporon - 

Warmonom 

Warteroe 

Tunbeet 

Tarmon 

Yelletger 

Dbamgill 

Baakaarabooitch •• 

Goloigh 

GonogoTitcb 



Meaolng In »n g"T'«r Faxlili ov Ban. 

Salt lake (dry in ■ommer) .... Terifiallnni. 
Mr. Cnmming*8 homestead and Mount Elephant 
Tributary of Curdie's Creek (means a'stony creek) Tandarook. 

Creek ....... Maiidayallock. 

Marsh Larra. 

Marsh ....... Larra. 

The Blind Creek Between Kilnoorat and 

Maridayallock. 

Marsh Maridayallock. 

Brackish lake. 

Large marsh ...... Janconrt. 

Tea-tree springs, township of Mortlake - Mortlake. 

Marsh north-east of Mount Widdem - - Borriyalloak. 

Marsh North Purrumbete and 

Colongulac 

Marsh ....... Golantet. 

Mount ....... North Elephant. 

Small rise on which A. S. Robertson's house Struan. 

is built 

Creek (young emu) ..... Struan. 

Brackish lake (lake of reeds) ... Struan. 
Spring, western boundary of parish of Ck>longulac. 
Name of Mount Emu Creek at Skipton. 

D. Craig's homestead. ..... Kilnoorat. 

Point of land in cultiyation paddock - Connewarren. 

Spring on the west side of Lake Gnotuk - Colongulac 

Brackish lake North Purrumbete. 

Marsh ....... Purrumbete. 

Marsh ....... Purrumbete. 

Tea-tree springs, brackish .... Mortlake. 

Mount (Tolcanic), (two cares) . « . Borriyalloak. 

Spring (bad water) and creek - - West Cloyen Hill. 

Mount (yolcanic) ..... Purrumbete. 

Brackish lake ....*. Koort-koort-nong. 

Marsh .--.--. Terang. 

Rises ....... Tandarook. 

Creek - - Terang. 

Part of the bush ...... Terang. 

Fresh lagoon ...... Koort-koort-nong. 

Marsh ....... Terang. 

Creek ..-.-.. Struan. 

Elephant Marsh - Tooliorook. 

G. Shaw's homestead ..... Wooriwyrite. 

Part of Bostock's Creek .... Tandarook. 

Part of the bank of Pejark .... Terang. 

Part of the bank of Pejark .... Terang. 

Spring, resembling the shoulder ... Keilambete. 

Marsh ....... Purrumbete. 

Marsh --..... Purrumbete. 

Marsh ....... Pumimbete. 



- A spring, &c (a plant) ... 

- Dam on Blind Oeek (brackish water) - 

- The Blind Creek 

- Swamp (kangaroo) .... 



. Kilnoorat — 

Mr. McArthur's 



19 

n 



i 



LANGTTAGE. 



185 



Keenitch 

Koamnu 
Meningord - 
Moomakeekur 
NareedbndgiU 
Wamarick - 
Boolitewooran 
Won - 
Booliteherioon 
BoolirtkUock 
Comite 
Kermite 
Bumtah 
Bumtah 
Giranghabiun 
Giraiighabnm 
Kirongiwiwit 
Enrtpurlien 
Eoort-koori-nong 
Medouranook 
Murton 
' Paakaar 
Poonoong - 
Taronck 
Toorak 
Teringyellum 
Woorabbeeal 
Wooriworah 
Wooriwyrite 



Meaalng In Engllah. Piurlth or Ban. 

Swamp Kilnoorat— 

Mr. McArthur'a 

Swamp, and continuation of same (kidney) - „ 

Hill (a maggot) „ 

Sheepwash (dogwood) ■-..-. ,, 

Dam near Basin Banks (a frog) . - - ,, 

Dam, home-station (waddie) ... ^ 
East Cloven Hill (two bandicoots) ... Mr. Ware's run. 

East aoven Hill „ 

Cloven Hills „ 

West aoren Hill „ 

Swamp -------- ,, 

Swamp -------- jj 

Currie's Swamp (long thatch grass) - - „ 

Large swamp at stone hut - - - . ^ 

Mr. Robertson's swamp (native root like onions) „ 

Large swamp, Mr. Currie's - - - - ,, 

(First swallow of the season) ... ,, 

Stony Rises - „ 

(Land crabs) ------ ^ 

Timboon Creek (small fish) - - - - ,, 

The Green Hill „ 

Lake -- „ 

Teartree ------- ^ 

Swamp (large reeds) - - - . . ^ 

Small swamp north of Lake Poonah (reeds) „ 

Mount Elephant ------ ^ 

Lake at limekiln (gum-tree, bual) - - „ 

Tea-tree at Sweet Creek - - - - ,, 

Honeysuckle bank near the church, Kilnoorat „ 



NatiTB Hum. 



MMnlng in English. 



Natural Names, jfc. 
Tirren - - Sun. 
Purrang nut ning- Moon. 
White churt - Stars. 
Koonk cutrine too Comet (too, to smoke). 
Taarin-taarin paa- Rainbow (j>aaroot, like 



root 




mouth). 


Myiang 


- 


- Rain. 


Wallart 


•• 


- Hail. 


Naark- 


- 


- Erost. 


Wimdook 


- 


- Wind. 


Moomdon 


- 


- Thunder. 


Yerkone 


- 


- Lightning. 


Mamong 


- 


- Sky. 


Merring 


- 


- Clouds, also earth. 


Bureet 


- 


- Water. 


Cut-cut 


- 


- Grass. 


Merri - 


m 


- Stone. 
Animals, 


Turro - 


- 


- Bunyip. 


Koora - 


- 


- Old man kangaroo. 


VOL. 


II. 





Katlvtt STamt. 

Murrin 
Narkwoor - 
Cullum 
Cum-duig - 
Parre 
Pee jack 

Werringal - 
Mooragil caboo 
Boomong - 
Wirron 
Carrooie 
Cabong 
Woomenite - 
Moorong 

Woolonguloe 

Y-eetick 

Burroot 



2a 



Meaning In English. 

Forester kangaroo. 

Forester "Joe." 

Wallaby. 

Wallaby "Joe." 

Small kangaroo, rabbit size. 

Species of kangaroo with a 

beard like a goat. 
Native bear. 

Wombat (caboo, the nose). 
Native dog. 
Kangaroo rat. 
Bandicoot. 
Tiger cat. 
Native cat. 
Native water rat (means 

black). 
Porcupine (from woolong, 

sharp). 
Flying squirrel (signifies a 

wing and long bushy tail). 
Squirrel mouse (signifies 

little). 



186 



THE ABOBIGINES OP VICTOEIA: 



Katlye Name. 

Piart mur - 
By-iete 
Pooyook 
Mullin 



Burzinmool - 

Cooro - 

Burram-biuTum 
Koomo-wooar 
Purndurgul - 
Naunch nack 
Curt perap - 
Cooie - 
Weerungooi 
Cooroy cory 
Too-too boro 
Law wook - 
Currie boodnook 
NaUitgiU - 
Braich bird - 
Coolonal 
Keangar 
Mullen-mullen 
Willan 
Niooke 
Coorookite - 
Ck>omate 
Waa - 
Coora - 
Mooan noogul 
Ck> cock 
Wirrimid - 
Toord 

CnU calling! 
Wirttooro - 



Meaning In EngUih. 

Small moose (very gmall). 
Opossum. 

King-tailed opossum. 
Bat. 

Birds, 

Emu (signifies a long leg 

and long neck). 
KatiTC companion (light 

color). 
Wild turkey (signifies big). 
Swan. 

Grey goose. 
Black goose. 
Pelican. 

Water-hen or coot. 
Dark heron. 
Mountain duck. 
Black duck. 
Wood duck. 
Teal duck. 
Platypus. 
Musk duck. 
Small gull. 
Large eaglehawk. 
Small eaglehawk. 
Black cockatoo. 
White cockatoo. 
Small white cockatoo. 
Laughing jackass. 
Crow. 
Magpie. 
Black magpie. 
Mopoke. 
Grey owl. 
Bed parrot. 
Green parrot. 
Blue mountain parrot. 



KatlTe Kame. 

Tolorim 
Waigh week 
Arrin - 

Terang pundete 
Paturaal 
Tuaroo 

Mimin-mimin 

Thereri 

Bullan 

Yoongar 

Tinden 



Corang 

Murrh 

CJartook 

Wrock 

Toorootgil - 

Torauk 

Moowny 

Woorakcoole 



Moothang - 

Wooroot 

Mirright 

Coorung 

Pullate 

Purnong 

Currang 

Wareet terra 

Narang 

Pea all 

YuU-yull - 

Taroon 

Pum-pum dum 



Meaning In Bnglfah. 

« 

- Robin redbreast. 

- Swallow. 

- QuaiL 

- Snipe. 

- Plover. 

- Small white bird se«n about 

lakes. 

- Small wren. 

- Wattle-bird. 

- Drab-colored bird. 

- Cormorant. 

- Kingfisher. 

Snakes, ffc. 

- Diamond snake. 

- Black snake. 

- Big yellow snake. 

- Iguana. 

- lizard. 

- Big lizard. 

- Small lizard. 

- Small iguana. 

Timber, 

' Lightwood. 

- Large gum. 

- Honeysuckle. 

- Stringybark. 

- Cherry-tree. 

- Tea-tree. 

- Wattle. 

- Wattle. 

- She-oak. 

- Bed-gum. 

- Tea-tree. 

- Scrub. 

- White-gum. 



NATIVE NAMES OF PLACES IN THE VICINITY OF WABRNAMBOOL. 

(FUBNISHBD BT H. B. LaNB, EsQ.) 



Name on Map. 

Allansford - 
Camperdown 
Curdie's Riyer 
Dunmore - 
Drysdale 
Belfast 
Ballangeich H. S. 

St. Helens H. S. - 
Moyne River 



Katlre Kame. 

Wurrurmuayer. 

Murrunkinarong. 

Narrarwhurrut. 

Coonogcull. 

Murhtmihrtinyah. 

Puyeepkill. 

Woomwaking (a crow's 

nest). 
Gnerrang (she-oak tree). 
Yalloak (a shallow 

swampy stream). 



Kame on Map. 

Warmambool Bay 
Warmambool 
Lake Pertobe 
Tower Hill - 
Greenhill H. a - 
Minjah H. S. 
Quamby H. S. 
Tarrone H. S. 
Yambuk 
Lake Yambuk 
Orford 



Kattre Kame. 

Cowamdichnu. 

Wheringkemltch. 

Pehrtupe keellink. 

Koroitch (a small fish). 

Gnegne (no good). 

Pechamihronk. 

Wooromuckcalin. 

Yahng (a long swamp). 

Yambuk. 

Yambuk keelink, 

Pehrrit. 



LANOTTAGB. 



187 



ITame on Map. 

Birer Shaw 
EirkstaU - 
Enmeralla Riyer - 

Branzholme 
Mount Kcdes 
CastleiiiaddieH.S. 
Ettrick H. S. 
Monnt Napier 
Mount Bonse 
Lake Condah 
Woolsthorpe 
Woodlands - 
Hawkesdale 
Eilmorey - 
Mangoon Lake - 
Hexham 
Hopkins H. S. 
Mnston Creek 
Connewarren H. S. 
Merrang 
Salt Lake - 
Hopkins Riyer - 
Connewarren 
Liberton H. S. 
Framlingham 
Biyne O'Lynn H. 

S. 
Kelson H. S. 
Grassmere H. S. - 
Monnt Oaryoc 
Fresh Lake 
Fanmnre 

Mount Shadwell - 
Mount ShadwellH. 

S. 
The Sisters H. S. 



KAtive Nsine. 

Pehrrit puhreitch, 
Woombeyer. 
Woorromkeelum (a long 

river). 
Eurtuk-kurhrtuk. 
Puint pino. 
Kill kuhrr. 
Eurtoneicth. 
Tappoke. 
Eolor. 

Condam keelink. 
Lleeroot. 
Earngkuhrtong. 
Tuhrarmukri. 
Euhmgkringkore. 
Mang-oom keeling. 
Perrellelt. 

Murri-mnkrri bukrrikill. 
Woorongkcuppim. 
Werrang. 
Wirrangelleen. 
Mullangohne keeling. 
Fukrruhng. 
Coonnewanne keeling. 
Tinnertoong. 
Teerak. 
Pillook-piUook. 

Coorong. 

Meekri. 

Wokmnumbol caark. 

Mumdereen keeling. 

Hurrimk. 

Poohrk caark. 

Tumapohk. 

Cooningdar. 



Name on Map. 

Eeilambete H. 8. 

Glenormiston H. S. 

Emu Creek - 

Eeyang H. S. 

West Cloyen Hills 

Terang 

Merri Biyer at 

Dennington 
Woodford - 
Woorwoorite H. S. 
Menincoort H. S. 
Eddington H. 8. - 
Lake Booker 
Mount Lenra 
Glenelg River 
Mount Clay - 
Whittlebury H. S. 
Darlot's Creek - 
Blackfellows' 

Creek H. S. 
Scrubby Creek - 
Spring Creek H. S. 
Spring Creek 
Eennedy's Creek - 
Union H. S. 
Portland 

Stony Rises H. S. 
Birdebush - 
Lake Colongulac - 
Lake Gnotuk 
Lake Bullen Merri 
Cobrico 
Mount Emu 
Ecklin Swamp 
Lake Elingamite - 
Childers Cove 
Port Campbell - 



Katlre Name. 

Eeilambete keeling. 

Mukrrit. 

Gnurrarpookmpookn. 

Earngeeyang. 

Warrone. 

Turrong. 

Wheringkemeitch. 

Eurtmulluk. 

Woorwoorite. 

Menincoort. 

Warranillook. 

Corangamitch keeling. 

Lee-hurah caark. 

Wurri-wurri 

Pinambul caark. 

Whurtkirmyangork. 

Eillkurk whurrionnew. 

Eahmkeenu. 

Punooppine. 
Erickkora. 
Mopohr. 
Puhrtinikook. 
Puhrtinihook. 
Pulambete. 
Poorkarr. 
Wiraan. 

Cohnggulac keeling. 
Gnutook keeling. 
Bullen Merri keeling. 
Cobrico yallock. 
Narrowhane. 
Ecklin yalloack. 
Elingamitch keeling. 
Narring gnuyun. 
Purroitchihoorrong. 



The list IS the most correct I can give. I have made enquiries from the different blacks I have 
met I have written them so as to give an idea of pronunciation. — W. Goodall. 



NATIVE NAMES OF PLACES IN THE VICINITY OF BELFAST. 



Kame on Map. 

Dunmore 
EumeraUa - 

Eorong 
Orford 
Belfast 
Allansford - 
Squattlesea - 
Hexham 
Mortlake - 



Katlva, with English meaning. 

Eoonongal (station hill). 
Y^rrongittong (water- 
hole). 
Eorong (big swamp). 
Par-ed. 
Nourmath. 

Terong (Hopkins River). 
Poo-ambete. 
Bulla-bulla (good). 
Boorook (mountain). 



Nune on Map. 

Ck>ndah 
Mount Eccles 

Camperdown 
Mount Napier 
Yambuk 
Talloak 



Katlre, with EngUih meaning. 

Carrap (lake). 
Boot-beam (mountain and 

lake). 
Lawarra. 
Tapook, 

Yambuk (water). 
Yalloak (water). 
Winnie-waw (fire). 
Monegol (little round 

swamp). 



188 



THE ABORIGINES OF YICTOBIA: 



KATIYE NAMES OF PLACES OBTAINED FROM THE ABORIGINES OF THE BIVER 

TARBA TABRA. 

Moant Rfddellt Koramderrk or Tmmim-b&^waamg, 

Badger Creek (whoee fourcee are in Konuiderrlr), Kurr^mMmg, % litde WBterooime. 

Koant JnHet, TM-aJuxhlara^hin, 

Yer-rang (erroneoiul/ named Yerimg), acmbbj. The llata of the Tain were oooe aif c red with 

fcmb. 

Keruk^eramg, wattle icmb. 

Olinda Creek, near LQydale, Onwrt-hUle-ioorrun. 

Tarra Tarra Birer, Btrr-arrung, [The word for miat U BoorrturaMg.] 

Place on which the Citj of Melbonme is bnilt, Narr-'m. 

MocT'-colrfmrk or Moor-ool-beek, on the Biyer Yam. (The earth ia baaaltic» and of a rich 
chocoUte color,) 

Kangaroo Ground, Moot'ThU (alto basaltic, bnt generally of a deeper color than the soil of 
MooT'Ool'burk.) 

[A Tolcanic hill, near Creswick, where the soil is like that found at Moar'CiMurk and the 
Kangaroo Ground, is named MoorokyU.I 

Ban^uUf a high hlU or mountain. 

NuUkundrahf rerjr stiff soil. 

Mirring^gnag-hir-nong^ the Saltwater Rirer. 



NATIVE NAMES OF PLACSES IN GIPPSLAND. 

(COMPILBD BT A. W. HOWITT, ESQ.) 
Kftin* M glrtn on Msp. KaUT« Ham«. Meuiiiig In EiwLiah and Benwrics. 

Beed bed at the end of the Mitchell Wan-gan. 

Biver (shown upon the map as a 

kind of delta) 

Eagle Point (shown on some maps) - Nur-rung - 

Baimsdale Wy-yung - 

Bairnsdale Backwater ... Cow-onng. 

Clifton Morass Nen-duck. 

Mount Taylor and Mount Lookout - BuUung-warl 



Moon. 

A kind of duck. 



Boggy Creek Ngurke-yow-wut. 

lindenow - - . - . Moor-mum* 

Sarsfleld (Nicholson) ... Turt-toong. 

Nicholson River Backwater . - Yowen-burrun. 

Mouth of the Nicholson Birer, east Ngarka-wallung - 

bank 

Deep Creek at Bruthen - - - Nyellung. 

Bruthen* Murloo. 

Kilmorie ------ Boo-yow. 

Sec. 16 Parish of Tambo - - . Bruthen.* 

Inlet from the Tambo Birer into Toole-ne-yarn - 

Kilmorie Morass 

Mossyface, Tambo Biyer - - . Marlung^un 

Bamrod Creek - - . • . Boung-warl- 



Two spears. (These are two Tery 
prominent hills orerlooking the 
low country.) 



- Back-stone (literal translation). 



- Water come in. 

- Mussel-shell. 

- Camp-spear. 



• It wiu b« Men from the aboro that tbe n«m« of Bruthen does not belong to the locality now known by It. 



LAN0UA6E. 



189 



Vaiiia M given on Map. N ative Kame. 

Dead-hone Creek) enters the Tambo Garnm-gumm-yarn - 

RiTer near Ramrod Creek, from 

the eastward, and is croised in the 

Maneroo road about ten miles from 

Bmthen 

Stonj Creek ; crocwed by the Man- Crocken 

eroo road abont twelre miles £rom 

Bmthen, and nms into Lake Tyers 

Month of the Tambo Biyer - - Gwannnng-bonm 

Swan Beach ..... Wook-gook- 

Tambo Birer near Bindi . . - Bmdi memiaL 

Tambo Biyer near Tongio - Tongio memiaL 

TongeoEast ..... Carrara wira. 

Swift's Creek ..... Bnnjuragingeemungee 

Mount Tambo ..... Tambo. 

Mount Bindi Bange .... Nonniyong. 

Tongio Gap ..... Mungobabba. 

Lake Tyers ..... Wannan-gatty - 

Swing's Marsh .... Boom-boj. 

East bank of Snowy Biyer at month Murloo. 

West side of Snowy Biyer - - Mardgee-long. 

Mount Baymond .... Dubbil. 

Cabbage-tree Creek ... Can-tchin. 

Cape Conran .... - Murrow-gimnie. 

Pearl Point Py-yoot. 

Mount Cann Berm. 

Sydenham Inlet .... Binn. 

Mount Willie (is shown upon some Nowr-nowr. 

maps at the head of Lake Tjrers, 

and just south of Maneroo road; 

a most prominent landmark) 

Bed Bluff (entrance to Gippsland Ninnie. 

Lakes) 

Grant ...... Poork-poork-gill-yam- 

Good-luck Creek .... Groggin 

Cobbannah Creek .... Boolloot 

Pretty Boy's Pinch - - - - Tulloo-bowie - 

Dayy'sNoo Dam-gwennet - 

Bulgurback Creek .... Crung-grurk 



Meaning in Engliab and Bemarka. 
Very little water. 



- Quartz. 



Pelican. 
Morepork. 



Kangaroo apple. Is sometimes pro- 
nounced Eoor-nung-gatty. 



Castlebum Creek ... 
Waterford (Mitchell crossing 

Crooked Biyer road) 
Orr's Creek .... 
Dargo station (Mackintosh) - 
Creek at Connolly's Dargo Inn 



- War-dur. 

on Dalu-nihirng 

- Dal-gowut - 

- Bouliing-deera 

- Lown gurrut 



First creek up stream west side - Martgutty - 
Quackmungee Hill - - - Kou-ark-mungee 

Quackmungee Creek ... Bannur-ghur 



Head of the water, 

- Quartz. 

- Kind of gum scrub. 

- Kind of wallaby. 

- BeU-burd. 

- This creek is shown on the maps 

between Castlebum and Cobbannah. 
The word Bulgurbcuik is corrupt, 
being part natiye and part English. 
Bulgur, mountain back — behind — 
that is, behind the mountains. 

- Tam. 

- Beeds. 

. Kangaroo. 

< Mountain ash. This tree has a rough 

bark at the butt, and a gum top ; 

grows about 4,000 feet aboye sea ; 

a white wood. 

- Wattle-tree. 

- Laughing jackass. 

- White-gum. 



190 



THE ABORIGINES OP VICTOEIA: 



Name m glmi <m Mali. 



Katlye Kune. 



Mount Birregnn 
Mount Steve - 
Mount Baldhead 
Notch HiU - 
Wannangatta Rirer 
Wentworth BlTer - 



Gner-ing - 
Eoor-nnng-gatty 
Tarl-dam - 
Der-nmg - 
Wontwnn. 
Tally-jalmy 



Wongnnganm Birer 
Crooked BiTer 



. Gwmnnam-o-rook 
- Dow-wirra 



Castle HiU Browit-dar-darnda 

Mount Kent .... - Nigga-the-rook - 
Snowy Blnif Gellnng-brook-wollang 



Mount Howitt .... Toot-buck-nnllnck 

Mount Alfred (Boggy Creek), near Nuggur-yowatie 
Baimadale 



Upper Boggy Creek 
Meiryig Creek 



Iguana Creek 



- Taloo-lumbmck - 

- Nunga-bruggu-lar 

- Callad-euru 



Meaning In English and Remaxks. 

Gang-gang cockatoo. 
Kangaroo apple. 
A little snow. 
Skin or hide. 

Shark. It is said that» a long time 
ago^ "old man blackfeUow" caught 
a little shark at the month of the 
Wentworth Rirer. 

Eaglehawk. 

Dry tree. The trees at the head on 
the Dividing Bange are all dead. 

Always snow there. 

A yellow snake. 

A sharp-pointed stone. The words 
brook and poork (see above) are 
the same; ydhmg^warly the name 
of Bottemah Island in the lakes, 
means ** spear point" 

like a rope, or ''tie him np side." 

Mountain ash. This tree has a bark 
like ironbark, and the ends of 
branches are smooth-barked ; it 
grows at a lower elevation than 
the true mountain ash. 

Tadpole. 

Wind-hole. There is said to be a rock 
through which the wind blows. 

Bed-gum. 



NoTB. — ^Boggy Oeek is shown upon the maps as Prospect Oeek. 



NATIVE NAMES OP PLACES IN THE VICINITY OF LAKE WELLINGTON, 

GIPPSLAND. 
(CoxpnjED BT THB Bby. P. A. Haobhaubb.) 

Name as glrea on Map. Hattye KaoM. Meaning in Bngliiii. 

Thomson Biver .... (}arrang-carrang- - Brackish water. 

La Trobe Biver .... Durt'yowan - - Finger. 

Aberfeldy Biver .... Nambruc - . . Plenty of black opossuma. 

McAIJster Biver .... Wimwimdook'yeerung Song of some bird. 

Avon Biver .... - Dooyeedang. 

Perry Biver ..... Goomballa ... Climbing. 

Wentworth Biver .... Daberdaliara - - Bockybank. 

Mitchell Biver - .... Wahyang ... Spoon-bUled duck. 

Nicholson Biver .... Darf yung ... Boot of water plant. 

Tambo Biver ..... Ber'rawan. 

Tarra Biver Blindifyin. 

Albert Biver Lurtl>it 

Flooding Creek .... Way-put 

Merriman's Creek .... Dur'lin. 

Cowar Creek Bandow'ara. 

Freestone Creek .... Wurrundyan'garla. 



LANaUAGB. 



191 



Name as giren on Map. Natire Name. 

Tom's Creek Warrigallac. 

Stony Creek . - - - . Darlimurla. 

Sandy Creek Warriballat 

Donnelly's (yreek .... Barliblan. 

liake Wellington .... Murla 

Iiake Victoria ..... Toonallook 

Lake King ..... Narran 

Lake Bonga ..... Wumdoang 

Lake Beeves - - . - . Walmnnyee'ra - 

Baymond Island .... Grag-in 

Snake Island Ngima. 

Crooked Rirer - - . - - Nailnng 

Jones' Bay ..... Dahduck - 

Swanreach - - - - ' - Wang- 

Seacombe or Straits .... BooUum-boollum 

Hills south of Merriman's Creek - Dambo-byo. 



Meaning In EngUah, 



- Water-holes. 

- A kind of clay fonnd in it. 

- Long narrow water. 

- Moon. 

- Salt lake. 

- Shallow lake. 

- Stony island. 

- Plenty of water-hens. 

- Tail of the lake. 

- Breadbasket. 

- Plenty of tea-trees. 



NATIVE NAMES OP PLACES IN THE VICINITY OF LAKE TTEBS, GIPPSLAND. 

(Compiled bt thb Bey. John Bulmeb.) 

Name as given on Map. Native Name. Meaning In TftngHah. 

Lake Bunga ..... Lftne Beak - - Good water. 

Lake Tyers ..... War nang gatty - - Big lake. 

Ewen's Morass - - - - Ta yong ... Morass. 

Snowy Biver .... - Karanggil- - - Fromgreat quantities of water- weed 

about. 

Cape Conran - ... - Eerlip - - - A comer. 

Broadribb ..... Wrak thun balluk - Place of g^m-trees. 

Pearl Point ..... Tarlo wyak > - A small seagull. 

Point Bicardo - - . . . Marout ganny - - A rocky point. 

Sydenham Inlet .... Bim .... Aflsh-hawk. 

Stony Creek ..... Lfine glan - - - An edible root. 

Boggy Creek .... - Narka kowera - - A flint, being got there. 

Yellow Water-holes .... Wath - - - - A shrimp. 

Buchan station .... Tirtalack - - - A frog. 

Murrandale ..... Toomk - - - A bulrush. 

Mount Dawson .... Barrat purk - - Bald head. 

Murrandale Hill .... Koorag angy - - A deep stony gully. 

Black Mountain .... Woorarra - - - A mountainous place. 

Bourke's Biver .... Inja gut barapa - - Slowing from a rock. 

The Snowy Biver is also called Doorack; but I could not get the meaning from the blacks. The 
name {K&rang gU) I have given refers to its lower part, near the sea. — John Bulmeb. 



192 



THE ABOSieiNES OF YICTOBIA: 



NATIVE NAMES OP HILLS, RIVERS, LAKES, AND OTHER 

NATURAL FEATURES IN VICTORIA. 

(FOBNISHSD BT THB SuaYBTOB-GBNBHAL OF THB COLOHT.) 
KftHMonMap. KfttlreName. Meuring In Eisg UalL 

Mount Cole - - . - Bereep-bereep - - Wild. 

Fiery Creek .... Borings yallar - - Flood, to carrj awaj treei. 

Middle Creek .... Calpan bartick - - Habitation of a bird. 

Baglan ..... Gemp-gerup - - Bougb place. 

Bbirlej ..... Wonagreck - - Sandy ground. 

Beaufort ..... Tarram-yarram. 

Trawalla Trawalla - . - Wild water. 

Mount Beckwith ... Kananook ... Behind. 

Mount Mitchell .... Omopbonork. 

Mount Bolton .... Boriga. 

Mount Misery, No. 1 • - - Langi yan - • . The resting-place of the moon ; aa 

from a farorite camping-ground of 
the natiyes the moon appeared to 
rise oyer that hili 

The Cardinal .... Langi gorockfort. 

Peak of Almond . - - . Cam-cam. 

Lady Mount .... Lefrokwaran. 

White-stone Lagoon - . . Poar .... Many waters. 

Cockpit Lagoon .... Moracana ... Wild. 

Burrumbeet .... Borombeet ... Muddy water. 

Mount Ross ... - Tam .... Wild. 

Spring Hill, No. 1 ... Woora ... Wild (by natiyes near Trawalla). 

St. Mary's Hill .... Woronganack. 

Lake Learmonth . . - . Tombin. 

Mount Blowhard - . . . Mortillo ... Wild. 

Hepburn ..... Moorokyle. 

Birch Hill Mishacola. 

Coghill's Creek .... Corotcork. 

Forest Hill ..... Light yarang. 

Spring Hill, No. 2 - - - Barangoan. 

Creswick ..... Colembene. 

HoUow.back Hill . . - . Langiguhinggoork. 

Miner's Best .... Drawall. 

Ballarat Ballaarat ... Resting place, or reclining on the 

elbow. BaUa means elbow ; vitU 
Hiatonf of Ballarat, 

Mount Pleasant .... Portilla. 

Wendouree .... - Wendouree. 

Mount Warrenheip ... Wanrenheip. 

Sebastopol - - - - . Wran-wran. 

Mount Buninyong ... Buninyong. 

Yarrowee ..... Yaramlock. 

Hardie*sHill .... Boring leawell. 

Smythesdale .... Naringook. 

Black Hill, Scftrsdale - - - Nawnight-widwid. 

Camgham ..... Kumum ... Home of the blackf ellow. 

Snake Valley, Carlisle - - Nimlock. 

Bailie's Creek .... Neporiak. 

Chepstowe .... Gening-gering. 

Mount Emu .... Tokarambeet or 

Dahcorambeet. 



LANOUAGS. 



193 



Kama on Map. 



Katlv« Vame. 



Banjamie 



- Longi-willi - 



Skipton 
Boniyallock 



Anderson's HOI 
Caramballac 
Mount Yite-Tite 
Mount Bute 
Happy Valley 
Pitfleld 



Woran. 
Borriyallock 

Widderin - 

Walargate. 

Molo-molo. 

Coromollock« 

Molong ghip. 

Mindai 



Meaning In EngUsb. 

Banjamie also a native word, the name 
of the little creek falling into Mount 
Emu Creek near the homestead of 
Langi-wilU. 

Salt water, the Emu Creek at this point 

being very brackish. 
Warm place, place of heat. 



Mount Misery, No. a 
Mount Mercer 
Rokewood 
Gnarkeet 
Wardy Talloak - 



Wadgap-i>-wangra 
Oorong-golack. 
Conoreyalk.- 
Noranket. 
Wardy Tallock - 



The native name of a large snake said 
by the natives to frequent the large 
water-hole at junction of creek 
immediately north of the township. 

This place is east of Smythesdale. 



Mount Elephant - 
Lismore 
Mount Clark 



Gerinyelam. 
Bongerfanennin. 
Larra - 



Standing water. See Hietory of BaJ" 
larat YtiUock, water; wurdi^ 
large; pirron^ small. Wurdi Tal- 
lock falls into Lake Corangamite at 
north extremity ; Pirron Talloak at 
south end. 



TerinaUwoi is the name of Mount 
Elephant or Mount Clark, as I 
have always heard from the natives. 
Larra the name of the spring at Mr. 
Currie's homestead. 



Toolirook . : . . Lear. 

Little Corangamite . . - Gnarpurt 

Fozhow - - - - . Miter. 

Cresqr ----- Bitup. 

Glenlogie ... - - Berrumgower. 

Shelford ..... Langi ligan. 

Green Hill ..... Borong woor-woor. 

Mount Hesse .... Mookatook. 

Modewarre ..... Moodewarr 

Mount Gellibrand ... Walar-walar. 

Birregurra ..... Birrigurrah. 

Kerangemoorah .... Werayan. 

Lake Colac - . . - Coram. 

lAke Corangamite ... Kronimite. 

Pnrrumbete .... Purrumbete. 

Mount Pomdon .... Bondon. 

Mount WiridgU .... Taratgill 

Motmt Myrtoon .... Metoon. 

Pirron Talloak .... Piiron Talloak - 

Corangi ..... Kutmik, 

Warrion Hills .... Coirwrook 

Elephant Bridge .... Cocom. 

■Creek at Colac .... Babenorek. 

VOL. II. 2 B 



The musk-duck. Coonewarr^ black 
swan. 



The little creek or water. 



194 



THE ABORIGINES OF VIGTOBIA: 



Kune on Map, ftc 

Mount Pollock .... 

Lake Gnarport - - 

Mount Cayem .... 

Mount Pisgah .... 

HUl south of Langi-wilU • 
Hill north of SUpton . . - 
Stockyard Hill . . . . 

Lake Goldsmith . - . . 
lillerie ...... 

Langi-kal-kal .... 

Beaufort Forest . . . . 

Amphitheatre .... 

Waterloo Swamp .... 

Bange at head of Waterloo • 
Lezton ...... 

Wimmera - . . . . 

Langi-geran ..... 

Talla-y-poora .... 
Bald HillB, near Yalla-7-poora 
Ritchie's station .... 
Small hill east of Ritchie's station 
Ormond Hill and Cave ... 

Highest range at Camgham - 
Black HiU, No. 2 - 
Bald Hill, Burrumbeet . - . 
Horseshoe Lake .... 
Junction of Bailie's and Emu Creek 
Leigh Rirer ..... 
Moorabool ..... 

Creek falling into Burrumbeet - 
Piggoreet - ... 

Lake or large swamp ... 



ITstiTe Kame. 

liioomom. 

Gnarpurt. 

Bangareet cort. 

Morambulbullet. 

Chelorip. 

Monmot 

BapaL 

YengerahwiU. 

liUer. 

Langi-kal-kal 

Eurambeen. 

Tapal. 

Tounear. 

Bork-bork. 

Mahmah. 

Culcatok. 

Lang-muchan 

Talla-y-poora. 
Coron. 
Allayuck. 
Weshort. 
Weturanbomok - 

Bora. 

Colonyokgallan - 

Gunapan. 

Gara. 

Toriwoodcot. 

Waywatcurtan. 

Moorabool - 



Drawall. 

Piggoreet 

Chakil, Toombal» Booloc 



MesnioglnBogUsb. 



- The place of cold. 



Langif the resort or resting-place; 
kal-kalf the dcada. 



Langi, as aboTCt Gheran, the black 
cockatoo. 



- Ormond's Hill, Widderin; care at the 
Hill, Weturanbomok. 

. This is west of Burrumbeet. 



The curlew, according to Gtoelong 
natiTCs. 



These are all names of particular 

swamps. It is almost impossible to 

obtain from an Aboriginal a gemerie 

name, such as for a noamp. If 

asked for name, he will giye that of 

the particular swamp referred to. 
Hut ----.- Larh. 

Water ..---. Katyil ... Parish name north of Kewell. 

Creek ..---. Pah burrh. 

Peppermint-tree .... Darrk ... Species of eucalyptus. 

Flooded gum-tree .... Moolerrh. 

Old male kangaroo ... Eooreh. 

Sand ...... Eoorac. 

Charcoal Tchirree ... Parish name north of Erersl^. 

Ground . . . ^ . Charrh or Tarrh. 

Opossum Wehla. 

Curlew Wail .... Parish name west of Kewell West 

Very good Boomdup ... Parish name west of Kewell West. 

Very good - - - - - Talgooc. 

Crestless white cockatoo - - Kuracca ... County west of Kewell West 

Cockatoo Kellalac. 

Sleeping lizard .... Wallup ... Name of country at KewelL 



LAliaUAGB. 



195 



Name on Map, &c. Katlve Name. 

Broad-leaved Mallee ... Bomng. 

Narrow-leayed Mallee, water-yield- Weah. 

ing 

Emu ...... BanimaL 

Mount Franklin .... Langi barrimal - 

Home or dweUing-place - - Langi. 

Bone Kalke. 

Stringybark Wamgar - 

Ironbark Tehrip. 

Gold Kara-kara. 

Natire oven - - . - . Eordkutchup. 

Black magpie or shrike - - Moonyegel - 

Paddy melon - - - - Kooyea or Gk>oye. 

Shell paroquet .... Tchuterr. 

Flooded red-gum .... Bealiba 

Murray BiTer .... Millie or Millewa. 

Towaninnie (station) ... Towan'nganignie 

Swan Hill (town) ... Martiragnir. 

Beedy Creek station ... Pingarumpit. 

Bael-bael station .... Bael.bael - 

Wycheprofl station ... Wyechipoorp 

Glenloth station .... Buckerabanyule - 

Long Lake - - - . . Towan. 

Lake Baker Bombendil. 

Pentland Island .... Gnetnembir 

Panamilly - ... - Fanamllly - 

Lake TyriU TyriU - 

Avoca River- .... Yangeba. 

Bichardson River - - - - Wirtilleba. 

Wimmera River .... Barbarton. 

Hindmarsh Lake .... Koor. 

Narowen ..... Narowen 

Toungera ..... Toungera - 

Tyntynder ..... Tyntynder - 

Bumbang ..... Bumbang - 

Quambatook .... Eoormbatook 

Lake Koorong .... Koorong 

Beveridge Island .... Tiper. 

End of gums below Swan Hill - Chitobiel. 

Gnnbower ..... Gunbower - 

Eureka ..... Gnoletkor - 

Swamp on Tyntynder ... Babool. 

Lake Cope-cope .... Gope-gope.* 

Murray River .... Millewa. 

Goulbum River ... - Eoriella. 

Broken River .... Marangan - 

King ...... Boumea. 

Delatlte ...... Delatite. 

Fifteen-mile > .... Tharanbegga. 

Back -...-- Bungeet 

Freshtown ..... Youanmite. 



If eanlng In English. 



- The resting-place or resort of the emu. 



Name of parish north of Moremore, 
Avoca district. 



- Name of shrike. 



- Beal^ red-gum ; 6a, flooded. 



• Head cut off. 



Gum-trees. 
Poorpy head or hUL 
Banyide, hill. 



Near Swan Hill. 
Little Murray River. 
TyrUl means sky. 



Station on Lower Murray. 
Station on Lower Murray. 
Station on Lower Murray. 
Station on Lower Murray. 
Station on Avoca. 
Station. 



Anabranch. 
Station. 



Deep pond or lagoon. 



A swamp. 



* While in the nelghboorhood recently, I met an Aboriginal natire who Iqfonned me that the oonrect name of the lake 
was Qope-gope, the moftwing of which he gave me as follows :— " Yon take one big bottle, and two, three little ones. Ton 
poor water ont of little fellows into big feUow, then big feUow same as Oope-gope, canse he takes all the water awaj from 
little fellows." I thought this a very clear explanation, as this large lake undoubtedly drains the several smaller lakes in 
the neighbourhood. — F. Fbabii. 



196 



THE AB0BIGINE8 OF VICTOEIA: 



Ktme on Map, 4k. 



KfttlTe F«m«. 



^ff^fifiUP ib EofUilu 



Wagandery Wagandery. 

Boweya Boweya - - Ck>rruptioa of Booghyards. 

Mokoan Creek .... Mokoan. 

Bnngeet Creek .... Bungeet - A swamp. 

Faithfoll's Creek .... Balmattam. 

Moonie-moonie .... Moonie-moonie - - Spur of range at McKeUar'a. 

Back Branch of Moonie. 

Glen Black swamp. 

Brankeet ..... Brankeet • . - Swamp on Borodoi 



Kame on Map, kc 



Kallre Nama. 



Mount Terrible - - Warrambat. 

Paps ..... Maindample 

(Conical hill). 

Mount Battery - - Beolite. 

Mount Barrenhit - - Barrenhit. 

Bahnattum ... Balmattum. 

Biver- .... Tonnla. 

Kangaroo ... Eeimeer. 

Emu Bigaumcha. 

Opossum .... Fipca. 

Fish . - . . - Manica. 

Native companion - - Cohuna. 

Wild turkey ... Mincha. 

Wild pigeon ... Taponga. 

Wild goose ... Macoma. 

Lagoon .... Patho. 

Fire Fitha. 

Sandhill in Echnca - - Maloga. 

Dead-house Foint, on Mur- Congabba or 

ray, near Echuca Tomgabba. 

Three - mile Forest at Momboana. 

Echuca 



NatiTa Kama. 



Name on Map, &c. 



Small circular plain at Odipi 

racecourse 
On the Murray abore Towrick. 

Echuca 
Eight -mile Forest, six Withemp. 

miles west of Echuca 
Goulburn River - 
Campaspe River 



TfcUtree - - - . 
Another name for Murray- 



Black swan 
River Murray - 
Blue paroquet - 
Name of a chief 



Koriella. 

Taiooka (generic 
name). 

Faogorang. 

Tiregola (a par- 
ticular bend in 
the river. Every 
marked feature 
in the river haa 
a distinctire 
name). 

Mia. 

Millewa. 

Yarro walla. 

BallendaUa. 

Coolymaga. 



Name on Map, 4m. 

Mount BuUer ... 
Mount Timber-top - 
Mimamiluke . . . 

Devil's River - 
Beolite .... 
Maindample ... 
Big Rushes Lagoon - 
Water-hole at Bargard 

(Dueran, P.R.) 
Yams .... 
Native bear . . • 
Native chiefs ... 
Son of Beolite . . . 



Native Name. 

Marrang. 

Warrambat. 

Mimi-mimi 

maluke. 
Callathera. 
Badlwite. 
Maindample. 
Mungo. 
Dueran. 

Murmong. 

Carboor. 

Beolite. 

Barwite. 

Delatite. 



Name on Map, ftc 



A swamp - 
Plenty water 
Place of fish 
Creek 



Name of a weed 

Nettles 

The crossing-place 

The war-camp - 



Native Name. 

Talangalook 
Talangalute 
Oeek. 

Warrambat. 

Durok. 

Camp. 

Weesk. 

Palamarra (name 
of particular 
hole or bend in 
the creek). 

MuUangear. 

Mnlak. 

NuUam. 

Mambum-bum. 



LANGUAGE. 



197 



The following names are attached to creeks and other features without 



fixing their locality : — 

Fygnrlcoo. 

Wallaroo. 

Bnruna. 

Arenutha. 

iDgamuka. 

Wadeenea. 

Beriaroo. 

Ildomka. 

Malangora. 



• Name of ptfish in Ecbtiea district. 



Ilitanka. 

niimpna. 

WarrabeaL* 

Nannella.* 

Tarragal. 

Timmeriiig.* 

Kalemura. 

BaUadero. 



Name on Map, &c 

Kangaroo roD . . . - 
Batcher's Flat nin ... 
Castle Maddie . . . . 
Dartmoor - . - . - 
Portland - - . - - 
Scott's Water-holes and Drumborg 
Oak Bank - - - - 
Crawford Rirery Hotspur 

Mount Clay - - . - - 
Mount Mistake - - . - 
Mount Vandyke - - - - 
Mount Richmond .... 
Eumeralla . . . . . 
Mount Scdes . . . . 
Mount Rouse .... 
Hicks' run, Condah ... 
Messer's run .... 
Price's Savmills .... 
Barlot Creek - . . - 
Knebsworth - . - - - 
Muntham ..... 

Sandf ord 

TumbuU's run . . . - 

Tahara 

Second River .... 

Bridgewater 

Karravong . . - - . 
Echuca . - . . - 
Murray River .... 
Campaspe . - - - . 

Grotterra 

Koyuga 

Bundarra - - - - . 
Cornelia Creek .... 
Nanneella . . . . - 
Rochester ..... 
Restdown Plain .... 
Timmering - . . - . 

Corop ----.. 



Katire Name. Meaning in Englisb. 

Tarben ... - - Plenty meat. 

Eitara ..... Rushes or flags. 

Kurt .... - High land. 

Pokar Big place. 

Lay whollot .... The place of the long grass. 

Wombiknik .... The small lake. 

Wangot .... - Concealed hill. 

Tallok ..... Deep holes. YaUotik general 

term for water. 

Benamball - - - - Big hill. 

Pyrtpartee .... The fighting-place. 

Ban-bangill .... Pretty place. 

Benwerrin .... The long MIL 

Wallonkillin - - - . Long creek. 

Poythim .... - The mount. 

Colore A weed which grows only there. 

Poud ..... Small mound. 

Popit Baldhm. 

Potpotcallick .... Thick rushes. 

Killara ..... Always there, permanent. 

Waratta Plains. 

Gallam Tree wide apart. 

Watchropat .... The place of bream. 

Waak - ... - Hummocks. 

Thar .... - The spring. 

Bottran ..... Good fish. 

Panlth Thebonik. 

Taruk . - - - . The long river. 

Echuca .... - Meeting of waters. 

Millewa Big one water. 

Yallkaw. 

Gottera - . - - . A water-hole. 

Koyuga Aplaininthemidstof aforest 

Bundarra . . . « - Head of a plain. 

Boumeea. 

Kanella. 

Wattneel. 

Piavella A large plain. 

Timmering .... Derived from Tymna, the 

kangaroo. 
Corop. 



198 



THE AB0BI6INES OF YIGTOSIA: 



Bame on lUp, Ac 



NatiT* Kame. 



Meaninclii FngtWi 



Carag-carag 

BamewaDg - 

Bmrambobi 

Cooper'aLake 

Girgaree 

Kjabram 

Mount ScoMe 

Merrigiun 

Gidgila 



- Carag-carag. 
• Bumewang. 

- Burramboot 

- Pawbeenbolock 

- Gigana. 

- Kjabiam. 

- Porpanda • 

- Itferrigum • 

- Galgila . 

- Wyuna 



Wjima 

8t Germain - . - . - Yandarra. 
Kotupna ..... Kotapna 



Ardpatrick - 
Gonlbnm Birer - 



Mooroopna - 
Shepparton - 
Parish of Ballark 



Camboona. 

Gojla, by Qoalbam tribe ; Gnn- 

gnpnaa, by Marraj tribe. 
Mooroopna . . . . 
Kann J goopna. 
Ballark 



Lal-lal 

Mount Wallace 
Station Peak 



- Lal-lal 

. Menngom. 

- Tonang - 



Tarra Tarra 
Blackwood - 
Ingliston station - 



A decoy for dacks 

A little bird with long tail - 

The moon ..... Naa'run. 

The mange in dogs ... Toon'doon. 

Apple-tree - - - . - Bin'nnc ■ 



Mymiong- . . - - 
Three hills (Nimbnk, Darriwell, 

Gorong) 
Duduck. 
Deegd'gon. 



AhigfahilL 
A shallow lake. 



A large sandhill. 
A small plain. 
A large plain. 
Clear water. 

A kind of grass used by the 
natires to make nets. 

These names refer to partica- 

lar points on the rirer. 
Deep water. 

Told by natiyes that BaUark 

meant all about streama. 
Dashing of waters. 

Large hill ; ereiy peak had a 
name; one is called Villa 
Manata; this is the name 
recorded by HotcU and 
Hume when in this locality 
in 1825. 

Ever running. 

Blackwood. 

Darriwelif the bustard. 



Bed gum-tree 
Lightwood - 
Box-tree 

Wattle or mimosa 
Good grass - 



Becamermeta 
Gnamingbinnet 
Wy-jrung 
Erookayan - 
Gooroom 
Gow - 



Nro. 

Towan. 

Dagon. 

Mort. 

Toombon 



Becamermeta • 
Gnamingbinnet 
Wy-yimg - 
Krookayan 
Gooroom - 
Gow 



Name giren to parish near 
Aberfeldy. 



Doodwuk Doodwuk 



Wonnenerbree ... - Wonnenerbree 

Geremoot Geremoot 

Cowagil Cowagil - 



Name giren to village at the 

Springs, Edwards' Beef, D. 

158«. 
Tea-tree. 

Ant-hill. 

Spoon-bill duck. 

Beard. 

Name of a hunting-ground. 

A bird that calls out this note 

at night. 
A round lump of earth in 

swamps. 
Kangaroo-rat. 
Name of a point on lakes. 
A reed. 



LAirOUAGE. 



199 



Name on Uap, fre. 

Norkin wallinga 

Ddbit 

Dead iguana 

Clumps of wattle - . 

Name - . . . 

Name of salt-water creek 



Katlre ITame. 

Nurkin wallinga 

Delbit 

Dirdi-de-bodulook. 

Doom morl. 

Bolodhun. 

Grang. 

Anakie Youang 



Wurdi Tonang 



Meaning In BngUsIu 

Bocks or large stones. 
Tree with a cleft. 



Twin hills ; they are, howeyer, 

Irish twins, the nnmber 

being three. 
Station Peak, the big hiU ; 

Wurdi YaOoak, the big 

river. 



EngUah. 

Bnlmsh - . - 
Blindness - - - 
A small bird 
Pelican ... 
Blackwood or lightwood 
Sore lips ... 
Name ... 
Little plain 
Black gin ... 
Sore eyes ... 
Sponge ... 
Name ... 
Beard ... 



Black and white geese 
The ear . - - 
Grass herbs 
Gum-tree - . - 
Oak-tree, Swamp-oak 
Glenelg Riyer - 
Woman - - - 
Boad or path 
Name of (late) chief 
Stone tomahawk 
Waddy 

Spring of water 
Bank, ridge, hillock - 
Soft, boggy 
Boast, to cook - 
Two - - - . 
Ponr - - - - 



^weet honey 
Natiye cat * 
Victoria Bange - 
Hoyston township 

HaQ - 



Katire. 

Dolodrook. 

Baragwonduc. 

Nang'gnannet. 

Guanembnm. 

Toolayowan. 

Lancart. 

Coongerdick. 

Berper gnlty. 

Wermberooket. 

Naaragin. 

Ballegon. 

Dooyaman. 

Annya (name 
giy^ to parish 
west of Mya- 
mya). 

Ar-ya-wan. 

Brimboal. 

Booite. 

Beeal. 

Bmk-bmk. 

Baaker. 

Byambynee. 

Baaring. 

Brambnrra. 

Byadnck. 

Brepa. 

Brim-brim. 

Bunn. 

BaccL 

Bowan. 

Boolite. 

Boolite pu boo- 
lite. 

Beeor. 

Beerik. 

Boreong. 

Bapora (old cross- 
ing-place). 

Braite. 



Engliah. 

Name of swamp, Monnt Tal- 
bot station 

Bed-ochre paint . - - 

Grey hair, old - 

Ployer - - - - 

Eangaroo-rat ... 

Heath .... 

Scrub .... 

Junction of Salt Creek and 
Glenelg 

Meeting of hunt and Par- 
liament 

Smoke «... 

Water .... 

HiU 

Mountains- . . . 

Natiye name for Mount 
Arapiles 

Kangaroo . - - . 

Bmu . - - - - 

Natiye turkey (bustard) - 



Native water-hen (bald coot) 
Adult .... 
To drink . - - - 
Bones .... 
Mouth .... 
Light - . . - 
Snake - . - 

One 

Three .... 

Sand 

Anger . - . - 
The nose . . - - 
Lake Wallace - - - 
Native companion 
One tree - - - - 
Swan . . - . 
Paddy melon - . . 



KatiTt. 

Bow. 

Belar. 

Bulart. 

Brit-brit. 

By juke. 

Babrook. 

Babrooten. 

Burumbuart. 

Byerr. 

Booring. 
Caitian. 
Caroopook. 
Carong carack. 
Cowan or Cowah. 

Corra. 

Cowen. 

Cobe vidion (Dar- 

riwill, Geelong 

natives). 
Crew. 

Curran geerip. 
Coopan. 
CaUcoop. 
Corre. 
Calite. 
Carran mell. 
Caite. 

Caite pa boolite. 
Cooack. 
Coolanchurrep. 
Caa. 

Connadoyen. 
Coite urn. 
Caeep. 
Coonawarr. 
Coryea. 



200 



THE ABORIGINES OF VICTOEIA: 



EngUih. 

Head of Tea-tree Creek 

(LoDglands) 
Forehead .... 
Tea-tree - . . . 
Name of large salt lake 
Name of a lagoon, Pine 

Hills 
The magpie ... 
Part of Salt Creek, near 

Harrow 
Name of lagoon, Mnllagh 

station 
Name of lagoon, Mnllagh 

station 
Name of lagoon, Pine Hills 
Good water - - - 
Reeds, bulrashes, flags 
Fight a battle . - - 
The arm - . - - 
Bark of trees ... 
Tokill - . . - 
High, lofty . - - 
Limestones, lime 
Earth, soil . . . - 
Forest, plenty, many . 

Red 

Blood . . - - 
A chief or king ... 
The present chief of his 

tribe 
Boomerang ... 
Mosqnito .... 
Maryvale old home-ttation 

kke 
Native hut, Mia-mia - 
Fear, frightened 
The White Lake of Major 

Mitchell 
Name of a lagoon, Pine 

Hills 
Swamp near the Mallee 

scrub 
Flat ; name of S. G. Henty's 

station near Harrow 
Lying down, rest 
Summer heat ... 

Salt 

A natiye weapon 

Name of a lagoon, Pine 

Hills 
A stone, rock ... 
Teeth .... 
To cry, weep ... 
A kind of tea-tree - 
Clouds .... 
The skin - . . . 



KattT«. 

Conneewirreca 

Connee. 
Wirrecow. 
Caper kelly. 
Coleepoo. 

Carrak. 
Corrondeeble. 

Culla-cuUa. 

Colingeelup. 

Connepra. 

Delk. 

Drajurk. 

Dank teeranite. 

Dy jark. 

Docker. 

Dakingle. 

Dewrang. 

Drik-drik. 

Dyea. 

Geayoul. 

Gurra. 

Gurracoop. 

Gorra. 

Gorran Doranan. 

Gatum-gatum. 

Gritjurk. 

Gatall. 

lU-i-ra. 

Ing^turrapamba. 
Jerry wanook. 

JeU-jell. 

Jerrigwarra. 

Eadnook. 

Eombaiy. 

Kiata. 

Eeepa. 

Leanguel. 

Lalanguite. 

Lak. 

Leea. 

Loomalangan. 

Maen. 

Moorang. 

Mutak. 



EnglUh. 

The hands ... 

The eye ... 

To hear 

Thinder (name of one of 
(he Army tages' stations, 
South Adelaide road) 

Thicket ... 

Winter, cold in the ab- 
stract 

To feel cold - 



The root of a tree - 

Name of a ten-tree lake 
(MuUagh) 

Another lake (Pine Hills) 

A reedy swamp (Pine 
HUls) 

Pleasant Banks (Affleck's 
station) 

Swamp on Lake Wallace 
station 

A dry lake on Mnllagh 
station 

Old sheepwash on Salt 
Creek, seyen miles firom 
Harrow 

The face or countenance 

The forehead . - - 

A house 

Pine-tree - . - 

St. Mary's Lake, Mount 
Arapiles 

Townsend*B old station, 
Teartree Creek (Long- 
lands) 

An egg - 

Hair . . - - 

To see, look . - - 

A lake on Mullah station, 
twelre miles from Har- 
row 

A lake on Pine Hills 

The head . . . 

Cherry-tree - . . 

Afly - 

A child, infant 

Salt or brackish water - 

Run, flight - . . 

Eaglehawk ... 

Lake .... 

Lakes .... 

Stars .... 

Hawk .... 

Foot, foot-mark 

To eat - 



Manya. 
Merr. 
Maarmun. 
Mnrrandaaa. 



Mallee. 
Mood. 

Monmott (name of 
bare hill west of 
Skipton). 

Moray. 

Mallee parbooL 

Mallanganee. 
MallanbooL 

Mortart 

Manytmda. 

Moonjam. 

Merrymeric 



Morrpaga. 

Murroon. 

Moonya. 

Marroo. 

MoodyiL 

Munda. 



Merrick. 
Na a pmp. 
Na yan can. 
Palpara. 



Pobrick. 

Prop. 

Pallite. 

P»-pidjeck. 

Popope. 

Pnnandeegin. 

Pirrepango. 

RapeL 

Tchakel. 

Tchakel-tchakel. 

Tort. 

Tord wirrup. 

Tchina. 

Ticoyan. 





LANGTJAGR 


201 


English. 


KaUre. 


Engllflh. 


TSfuUre. 


Stringybark forest 


Toolang. 


Come, come here - 


Wateegat. 


Spear - - - - 


Tare. 


Bandicoot ... 


Wydimg. 


Wattle-tree g^nm - 


Tooloy. 


The blackwood-tree 


Weetya. 


White color - 


Tar ar nite. 


The curlew (little bus- 


Wail. 


The Cape Barren geese - 


Toolka. 


tard) 




Swamp at C. Officer's 


Toolondo. 


Lore, pretty, lor ely, beau- 


Wombelano. 


home-station 




tiful 




The tongue - . - 


Tchila. 


The old Grange home- 


Yulecart. 


Strong or strong man - 


Tit-tit. 


station in 1840 




The sun . . . 


Urangara. 


The site of Hamilton 


MuUeraterong. 


Snow - - - - 


Urancooya. 


township 




Fire - - - . 


Wee. 


Wannon at junction of 


Ulebowening. 


Rain - - - - 


WalUe. 


Grange Bum 




A plain lerel country - 


Woorak or Woor aek. 


Mount Napier 


Tapook. 


Honeysnckle-tree - 


Warock. 


Grange Bum - . . 


Bucaan (running 


Katiye dog ... 


Willkin. 




stream). 


Hurricane, high wind - 


Wayang. 


Plains .... 


Woorack. 


A box-tree ten years old 


Win-win-tie. 


Honeysuckle plains 


Warackoorack. 


Lightning ... 


Willlntick. 


The she-oak tree - 


Bruk-brok. 


Burnt black log - - 


Walling. 


Stringybark ... 


Toolang. 


Dead tree ... 


Wallpar. 


Pine-trees ... 


Marroo. 


Green color, growing tree 


Warwanbool. 


Sandy plains ... 


Cooakwoorack. 


Dead body . . - 


Weekeer. 


Glenlsla swamp, near 


Woohlpooa. 


The crow - - - 


Waa. 


Carter's home-station 




Magpie . - - - 


Parwan or Barwon. 


Solitary hill, about four 


Bepcha. 


A hollow tree 


Winani 


miles north-west of 




Black color . -' . 


Warrock. 


Carter's station 




Opossum ... 


Willa. 


Swamp east of Glenisla 


Lootchook. 


Black water-holeSy twelye 


Wanwin. 


home -station 




miles from Harrow^ 




liizards, common kind - 


Dopeworra. 


Adelaide road 




Large tree - . . 


Cniyin chooyoo. 



Names of some swamps within three miles of Clear Z^ake : — 

BnglUh Kame. NatiTO Name. Meaning in EngUah. 

Jalur ..... Jallar. 

By - pronoimced "Bow.'* 

Lurmut ..... Lurmut. 

Carghap ..... Carchap. 

Wewlea ..... Weolea. 

Tirpigoproc- .... Poorpigoproc. 



Black-fish ..... Weerap. 

Fall on creek at Bosebrook - Eonong 

A water-hole at Boeebrook hom&- Bnjam-btljam. 

station 

A kangaroo camp ... Burrai gurray. 

A landing place .... Eram bruk. 

A water-hole in the Glenelg, at the JarapoohL 

crossing of the Horsham road 

by CaTendish 

Ganangenyawie .... Ja-nang-en yawi-wee 

A creek from the mountains east of Konangedura. 
Glenisla 
Swamp east of Lambruck - - Cartuccle. 

VOL. n. 2 



. A hill or impediment of any kmd. 



The entrance north end of 
Victoria Raoge 



202 



THE AB0BI0INE8 07 YIGTOSIA: 



S^AUbV) 



MaOnm 



Swamp in Woohlpooer 
ChackilcaUipori • 

WonwoikUh witclioqp 

TamgaUam 

Micatcatchiii 



- Hiog-miDg. 

- Chvck-il-calle pnrt - 

- Wonwon-dah witchoop 

- Tarrngalliim - 

- Mi(-cat-cftt-chin 



A Bwamp ai Biin Qpcinia 

homeatead. 
Another awamp ad joimog the 

laat 
AawanqpatBoaebrook abeep- 



A apring at the baae of the 
Black Bange, eaat aide. 



Water 

Balo 

A little rain (a ahower) 

An opoMnm 

The musk duck - 

A she-oak tree 

A kangaroo 

The black duck - 

Onm 

An emu • 

Bock wallaby 

Honeyrackle-tree 

A natire cat 

Eaglehawk 

Scrub 

A natire companion 

Magpie 

Tonng wattle-tree 

A wild turkey 

Kangaroo-rat 

Wattle gum 

A large crane 

A bandicoot 

Clear Lake 

Mount Napier 

Victoria Bange • 

St. Mary's Lake, Mount Arapilea- 

Mount Sturgeon - 

Mount Talbot 

Black Bange 

Grange Creek 

Hamilton township 

Mount Bouse 

Junction of Wannon and Grange 

Creek 
Schofleld's Creek - . . . 
Harrow township . . . 
Black swamp .... 
Balmoral township ... 
Murray BiTer . . . . 

TongiJa 

Moira 

Echuca 

Campaspe 

Wyuna 



Catchin. 

WalUh. 

Wurtspock waUah. 

Wallay. 

ChokuiL 

Golurt. 

Koray. 

Mooree. 

Peeall. 

Johir. 

Billewirrup. 

Woorak. 

Beerak. 

Bappell. 

Buor. 

Norknok. 

Goroke. 

Boboh. 

Kolabatyin (JDarriwU by Geeloog 

natires). 
TaUakin. 
Don gan gee. 
Dakakamundah. 
Bo or Bohe, 
Wurcekgera. 
Tapook. 

Boreany or Bullawin. 
Moodya. 
Murranaswn. 
Tolando. 
Burrong. 
Buccan. 
Mutleraterang. 
Kalor. 
Ulebowening. 

Gorea. 
Karook. 
Wamlook. 
Daarangurt. 

Tangula Some particular point of 

Tamumra. 

Moira Beedy swamp. 

Echuca ..... Jmiction of riyera, 

Yelka. 

Wyuna Qear water. 



LANGUAGE. 



203 



EogUiliNuBe. 

Koyuga 

Gottrea 

Kotnpna . . . . . 
B. Yineyaid - - - - 

Taripta 

Embra 

SandhiU ...... 

Mount Scobie . . . . 

Cooper'fLake . . . . 

Gilgila 

Kiabram . - . . . 
Lock Garry . . . . 

St Gennaini . . . . 
Nine-mile - . . . 

Merrignm . . . . 

Talljgaroopna . . . . 
Goulbnrn Hirer - . - . 
Ardpatrick .... 

Mooroopna _ - . . . 
Shepparton . . . . 

Toolamba . . . . 

Meran . . . . . 

Meering . . . . . 
Pyramid Creek . . . . 
Mnrray Birer . - - - 
Dry Lake • . - - - 
SandhiU Lake - . . . 
Nine-mile Creek .... 
Gmniawarren Sandhills 
Tragowel Swamp . . . 
FiTe-mile Creek ... 

Two-mile Creek ... 

Beedy Creek . - . . 
BeedyLake . . . . 

ManingLake . . . . 
Lake Leaghur . - . . 
Mnrdering Lake - - - . 
Kangaroo Lake - . - - 
BogaLake • . - . - 
The North Terrick hill, which la 

the largest of the two 
South Terrick ... 



Nstlve Kame. 



M fs nlpg In BogUih. 



Koyuga. 

Gottrea Water-hole. 

Kotupna A grass used for nets. 

Chambema .... a creek. 

Taripta Small box-trees. 

Embra. 

Mologa Large sandhill. 

Porpanda .... High mountains. 

Tangalum. 

Gilgila. 

Kiambram .... Thick forest. 

Bimberta .... Lots of fish. 

Undera. 

Tatchera Large plain. 

Merrigum .... Little plain. 
*Tallygaroopna - ... Large tree. 
Gila. 

Coomboona. 

Mooroopna .... Deep hole. 
Kongoopna. 

Patura .... Small lagoons. 

Windella - . - - - No water. 

Windella. 
Ysramie. 
MUlewa. 
Barrto. 
Luchur Lake. 

Yarramie .... Little creek. 

Moieuyurrt. 
Pouey-pouey. 
Tintimbarren. 
Tiengule. 
Boondre. 
Bingarumbirrt. 
Marung. 
Leaghurr. 
Lcharin. 
Kurmburr. 
Coorm. 
Bullyang or Bulliyang - - A cherry-tree. 



- Wangat 



Diamond Hill, a part of Terrick Gydwill or X>igwill (doubtftil 

Bange two miles north of Main which). 

Terrick 

Mount Pyramid ... Byrmbowil. 

Paddy's Clump, a small dump on Myrtgun ... 

Pyramid Plain, an old out-station 

Cooper's old home-station, near Djulun .... 

Paddy's Clump. 

Bullock Creek,lower course station BuUop Byoway 

Bullock Creek, at old Sheepwash Goom Goorudwon-yeran - 

The Pickaninny Creek, about three Narronynaraaby 
miles north of boundary 



A kind of wooden spade for 
digging up grubs. 



- A shigle egg of any kind. 

- Salt-bush. 

- No meaning except for the 
locality. 

- Means water escaping under 
ground. 

- Plant with edible root. 



204 



THE ABOEIGINES OF VICTOEIA: 



Kame on Map. 



Native Name. 



The swamp commonly called Eow Ghow. 
Pickaninny Creek, at a dam three Yayat 

miles north of house 
A swamp two miles S.S.E. of creek, Waagworll. 

through which a branch of the 

Pickaninny coming out on Kelly's 

ran joins again at Pickaninny 

Creek 



Meaning in EnglUh. 

A small frog which cUmlM 
trees. 



The following is a list of the names of places and words obtained by Philip 
Chauncy, J.P., District Surveyor, during the years 1862 and 1866, from 
Aborigines belonging to the tribes inhabiting the districts watered by the 
Rivers Loddon, Avoca, Richardson, Wimmera, and the Upper Hopkins; to 
which is added the Swan River (Western Australia) word when there is an 
analogy in the sound. The list, as regards the names of creeks, rivers, and 
mountains within the DunoUy survey district, is respectfully submitted to the 
Honorable the Minister of Lands and Agriculture, in compliance with his 
request. The names of many places in the north-western part of the colony 
are added. The corresponding Swan River words are noted for the purpose of 
suggesting the common origin of the languages. The sound of the letters 
accords with that recommended by the Royal Greographical Society; thus t^ is to 
be pronounced like oo. A supplementary list is attached, which should be used 
in connection with the first list. In the first column the letter S. denotes that 
the word was obtained from natives at Swanwater near St. Amaud, D. from 
natives at DunoUy, L. at the Lower Loddon, A. at Ararat, W. at the Wimmera, 
C. at Camperdown, and S.R. at Swan River. 

The words marked thus (*) were not obtained directly by me, but by Mr. Spieseke and two or 
three other reliable persons. — ^P. Chauitct. 

NaUreWord. Colonial N^eorDi»criptlon of Signlflctlon. 

Berring-a (D.) - - . ^ . The rainbow-bird or bee-eater, 

Berrin-berrin (S.R.) - \ ^^*«e «>^tl^ *«>m Smythes- \ Meraps, with two long feathers extend- 

) ^^^' { ing from the tail. 

Bukrabanynl (S.) - - A certain hill, also a squatting Bukra, the middle, and banyul or jnm- 

station, near East Charlton ial^ a hiU — t.e., the middle of three, 
station as viewed from Swanwater. 

Barrumbnchee (S.)- -- - - - - - The white crane. 

Boorpuk A little hill or rising ground. 

Boytch or Bo-ytch (S.) Qraas. 

BOlap (S.) A "native oren," an ash mound, camp- 
ing-place. 

Bo-nn (S.) Ashes. 

Bomgurt (S.) - - ... . - . . Bom^ a tuberous edible root, probably 

a kind of orchis. 

Berrimal (D.) - . - A parish in the DunoUy dis- \ 

trict. I The emiL 

Parimal(C.) ) 

Boorp or Purp (S. & A.) The head, 

Bulee many a (A.) -------- Fingers to count with. 



LANGUAGE. 



205 



KaUre Wort. ^^*»1 ^^'S^^T^^^^ ^ Mgnincation. 

Bnla(S.B.} Many fingers, t.e., more than three, many. 

Bnlytch (A.) - Four or more fingers, many. 

Bulytchee (Adelaide) ....... Four or more fingers, many. 

Bullarookf ... A township and forest north- 
east from Ballarat. 

Bomenya (A)- - -- - - - - - The thimib. 

Bnrt (L.) - - - - A station on the west side of Smoke. 

the Lower Loddon 

Btlln-blUn - - - A county of Victoria - - The lyre-bird. 

Brapbrim ... Mount Jeffcott. 

BolacorBoloke:^ C^'^^O A lake. 

Banyenong § ( W.) - - A parish at Lake Boloke - Banyey a burning, but only applicable 

to roots and stumps; nong denotes 
the past. 
*Banyobudnut (W.) - - The Mission Station on the Sanyo, the back. 

Lower Wimmera 
*Bellenbirra or Bellellen A parish .... A certain kind of smooth grass. 

(W.) 
*Boneekauwer (W.) - - Bonneeyawer,apartof Edols' The dust raised by a running emo. 
• run on the Lower Wim- 

mera. 
Burrumbeet - - - A lake, 12 miles from Balla- Burrum, muddy, dirty ; || beet is a word 

rat for water. 

*Burrum-burrum (W.) . - A parish .... Very muddy. ]| 
*Brim (W.) - - - A station on the Yarambiak A spring or well with water. 

Creek. 

*Baek (S.) ---- Muddy water-holes. 

*Billian(S.) The bull-frog. 

Bick(S.) Pipeclay. 

Kow (in the north-west of 
Victoria). 

"^Boor-boor-up ---A spring, or where water may be found 

by digging. 
*Bolang-um (S.) - - A parish and station - - Two cousins. 

*Btlrdi-dtlrt (S.) Seeing a dog jump up and bite a falling 

star. 
*Balpa or Bilpa (S.) - - Banyena station, Shanna- A natives* old camp. 

ban's station 

- Great Western township. 

- Mount Drummond. 

- Mount William - 
- ' - The Black Range. 

- Allanvale station. 

- Town site of Ararat. 

- Deep Lead, Pleasant Creek. 



^Bindowrim 
•Butchiik - 
*Bomjinna 
♦Bum 
♦Bumaere - 
♦Butingitch 
*Bvarree - 
*Dang-dang 



- Jenna, a foot. 



Bad shells used for marking an opos- 
sum rug, and which spoil it. 



t BoUarok, at Swan River, la tbe name of one of the four great diTialons or families of tbe Aborigines of tliat part of 
Aastralla, They majr not intermarry, but most seek a partner from some other division. 

X Lake Bolac is sitnated 60 miles W.S.W. flrom Ballarat, and reeelves the waters of Fiery Creek. *' Lake Boloke " is 
the name given on the maps to the basin which receives the waters of the Blchardson Siver. The natives' name of this 
basin Is "Banyenong.** 

i When fall, this lake covers an area of 96 sqoare miles, all of which is grown over with reeds and bnlmdies. In very 
dry seasons the water disappears, and then the natives used to set fire to the reeds and bolrushes, the stamps of which, 
after tbe burning, presented an extraordinary appearanoe^hence Che name. 

D These meanings are doubtful. A Camperdown native told me that burrum means ** roand" or " roandabout," which 
is the more probable signification. 



206 THE AB0EIGINB8 OB VICTOEIA: 

w.M«. w««i Colonial Name or DMcrtption of BlgnifleaUon. 

HatlTO Word. Locality. 

^Dauhinger Berakap Two wttiTCS who fought in the moon 

and broke it. 

•Derril(S.) The boundary or limit of a natiTe's 

territory. 
Darrkbonee (S.) - - A pariah near St Amaud • Dorr* ia the peppermint gum-tree. 
*Dmng-drung or Jung-jung A pariah and lake; a pariah - Spoiling, making a meaa of it. 

(8) 
♦Dooen (S.) - - - A pariah . - - - The limita of a circular piece of coun- 
try. 

Bnta(8). No. 

Gr6gr€ (S.) - - - A pariah north-weat of St The lagoon called Swanwater. 

Amaud 

Gowar(8.) - - - A hill on Yowan Spring ata- A high hill. 

tion 

Genna (we Jenna) The foot. 

•Gerrigurup A atony place. 

*Gorambeep bflrak - - Mount Ararat. 
*Gurkederk(It - - - Opossum Gully, Ararat. 

Jenna(A.) The foot. 

Jenna(S.R.) The foot 

Jinna (Queensland) The foot 

JeenoDg (Condamme Birer) The foot 

Jenang (Goulbum Rirer) The foot 

Jeenong t (Darling Hirer) The foot 

•Jak-wurro-wil Reeda in a creek, 

•Jurn-gher-toul A large bat like a man (a fabuloua 

creature), 

•jaiiika - - - - A pariah ... - The yalley between the Grampiana, 

Serra, and Victorian Bangea. 

* Jaraughi-jakil • - The townahip of Moyston. 

*Jakyl .... Lake Lonsdale. 
*Jantlkln - - - - Glenorchy. 
*Kobram .... Stawell town site. 
*Eonkongella . - . Goncongella station. 
Eoorac (D.) - - - A parish on Avoca Biyer - Sand. 
Kooreh (S. & D.) - - A pariah in the Dunolly dia- A large male kangaroo. 

trict 

Koolee (S.) An Aboriginal man. 

Karrap(D.) ... AparishbetweenLextonand Quartz. 

Amphitheatre 

Karr(A.) The nose. 

*Kuyura .... A parish and hill near Kin- The mountain of light 

gower 
Kinyapanial (L.) - - A parish, a station, and a Kinya, the head ; banyul^ of the hilL 

creek 

KatyU(S.) Water. 

Kal-kal (plural) (W.) . A pariah and station - - Large edible grub in decayed wattle- 
trees ; the larvsB of a apedee of ce- 
rambyz. 

*Karangajarak The valley near Ararat called Cathcart 

*Eru.kruk (Geelong) The bull-frog. 

Lang-l kal-kal (A.) The locality in which the edible larras of 

a large Idnd of cerambyz are found. 

t The lamo at Fitzroj Downs, DarUng Downs, and Wide Bay ; Dimnwg at Maoqoarie Blver ; at Omeo It la Jmwngmm ; 
at King Oeorge'i Sound, Jtena, &c., fcc 



LANGUAGE. 



207 



NirtlvBWrt. colonial Niimj^De-crtptlcm OgnlilcatioB. 

Lftllg-i gherin (A.) - - The mountain on the Great Langi, the home ; gherin, the jrellow* 

DMding Range called tailed black cockatoo (caJE^torAynciw}; 

Monnt Mistake by Mr. t.e., the home or habitat of the black 

La Trobe, situated 7 miles cockatoo, also its nest, 
east bj south ftom Ararat. 
It is incorrectly spelled 
Lamegerin on the new 

map of Victoria 
LA&g-i Logan (A.) .-•-..-. The home or nm of Mr. Logan. 

LMr or Lea (D.) The teeth. 

Larr(8.) Ahnt. 

Ltiighar (L.) - - - A station on the Lower Lod- Lea, the teeth; gorh, the blossom of the 

don box-tree, which is sucked by the 

natiTes for its honey. 

LaAl bit (S.) - - - Lalbert on the maps is the Zaal, the parasite which grows on the 

basin which receiyes one Mallee, bit is the knot at the end 

branch of the Aroca Birer of it. 

Lal'4al, al§o Lal-lat (A.) - Two parishes ... Xa/ is supposed to signify a crack or 

crevice. 

^Ledcourt (W.) - - - A parish, also station - - Led means sharp. 

Longirrinong (W.) - - Longerinong is a station on A creek branching oif the Wimmera, 

the Wimmera bifurcates at this place or splits, 
Long-emong-narri (W.) - - - -.- . -A she-oak split by lightning. 

Lang-i-dom ... JXwtor's Creek ... The nest of the beU*bird, 
TAgallik .... Barton's station near Moys- 

ton. 

Moliagnik (D.) - . Moliagul, a town and parish A wooded hiU. 

nine miles north- north- 

west from Dunolly 

Morak (D.) The cheek. 

Mouytye (D.) - - - - The moustache. 

Munya(D.) The hand. 

Marrong (A.) ---..--.. The middle finger. 

Maara(S. B.) The hand. 

Maarh (King George's The hand. 

Sound) 

Moolerr (S.) • - .A parish near St. Amaud - The flooded or red gum. 

Mehrin (L.) ... Spelt Meiin, also Meerin, on The lake, an outlet of the Loddon Riyer. 

the maps; a station on 

Lower Loddon 

Maroog (L.) ... Town and parish ten miles The Murray Biver pine (callitrii). 

west from Sandhurst 

Murdook (L.) ---.--... Small. 

Morre-morre (S.) - - A parish north from Mala- Little hills. 

koff, county of Eararkara 

*Mullak or Mullah - - A place west from the White A kind of shrub growing on Mount Tal- 

Lake, and north from the bot, in the Glenelg district, the roots 

Glenelg Birer of which are edible. 

*Metii^enye A Mallee rise near Mount William. 

*Martang .... The Black Swamp. 

^Mitye - - - - Barton Morass or Nekeeya 

Swamp. 
*Mulpal .... Lexington station. 
♦Mcrpntyal ... Iran's Creek, 

Ngarree(S.)(MeLong-^ni A 8he*oak tree. 

ong-nairi) 



208 



THE ABOEIGINES OF VICTOEIA: 



KttlTe Wort. ^*»^> ^^sSST**'^ "^ Slgnlflcrtlon. 

NganyeCD.) The beard. 

NgaDya(S. R.) The beard. 

Ngarra(D.) The hair. 

Narrepnrt (S.) - - - A lake near Merin, on the 

Lower LoddoQ; also a 

station in the north-east 

of the connty of Borang. 

Na-laan - - - - A ' parish ; Nallan Nollan, A spring in the Mallee. 

another parish in the 
county of Boning. 

*NalUjap I find a water-hole. 

*Nimmel-mer - - - A water-hole near Bolangum A natire with bad eyes (md) washed 

them and died here. 
*Naram-naram ... The Grampian Range. 

PanTul or Banole (D.) A hilL 

Pitye(S.) A fly. 

Tchallee The tongne. 

To-roee or To-roi (D.) .-.--.-A woman. 

Tu rang irriple (D.) ....... Certain she-oak water-holes. 

Tyo worrk (D.) - . Old Donolly station - - Manna on a gum-tree. 

Tartyak (A.) The arm. 

Toombal(L.} A lake. 

Tardt(8.) Crab-holes. 

Tittibong (S.) ... Station on Lower Avoca - Tittit, hard ; hard ground. 

Towaninnie (S.) - - A certain little creek on the A blow on the back of the neck, where 

Lower AToca ; also a the soul or spirit is. 
station 

Tyin-wull (W.) - - Kewell, a station and parish The seed or fruit of the mesembryan- 

north of the Wimmera themum. 

Woorak (D.) --.-.....A species of Banksia tree common near 

Dunolly. 

Woore(D.) The Ups. 

Whroo (Lower Goulburn) A town and parish - - The lips. 

Witchi poorp (D.) - - A station on the Lower Witehif rushes, and poorp, the head or 

ATOca (incorrectly spelled top of the hill— t.e., the plant called 

Witcheproof and Witche- witche grows on the top of this hill. 

praaf, and Witchipool) ; 

also the name of the hill 

fifteen miles north-north- 
west from East Charlton • 

Weinbool(D.) The ear. 

Woongarap(A) The forefinger. 

Wirting(A.) The collar-bone. 

Warrin(A.) The back. 

Wehla (S.) . - .A parish between Dunolly The common grey opossum. 

and St. Arnaud, the town 

called Jericho 

Wail (S.), Wailo (S. R ) The bird called a curlew by the colonists. 

Wabbee(L.) The small fresh-water lobster. 

Wabbee(S.R.) A kind of small fresh-water fish. 

Wanwanda(W.) - - A place near Horsham - Akindofshrab. 

Wurranjibeel (W.) - . Warraknabeal station, on Wurra, lip ; n^ its ; beal, fiooded gum- 

the Tarrambeak Creek tree— t.e., lip of a flooded gum-tree. 

Wurra nyuk (W.) . . Warranook parish . - TFicrra, lip j nyuk, its-i.e., its Hp. 

Wurra.wurra(W.) - . Warra-warra parish - - Lips. 



LANGXJAOB. 



209 



KattTe Word. 



Colonial Name or Deaerlptlon of 
LocaUty. 



Blgniflcatlon. 



Werrikghor (W.) - - Werrigar, a Tillage near Werrik, cleaning; ghpTf the bloBsom 

Warraknabeal of the box-tree— i.e., cleaning the 

ground from the fallen blossomi 
before encamping. 
Witchelliba (W.) - - A parish .... WitcheUi, a dry stick ; bah, a creek. 

The Avoca River. 
Wyn-wyn (W.) - • A place north from Mount A little stick or thin switch used for 

Arapiles feeling for an opossum in a hollow 

gum-tree. 

Wammera Probably a New South Wales word for 

the throwing-board. 
*Warrogarbin ... Hear Bolang-um - - - A place where a natire came with lips 

so swollen that he could not drink. 
♦Warrowitur ---------A camping-ground. 

*Webi-wein-gurk Wild, wild wind. TFetn signifies fire in 

the Western district of Victoria. 

Yoomdup(SO The wrist. 

Touanduc (8.) - - - A granite rise near West A basin in a rock. 

Charlton 
Yuemgrun (S.) • - A run near East Charlton - Omn or gum is a certain kind of low 

bush. 
Yarram-yuk (W.) - - Yarrambeack Creek, an eflln- Farram, a dry hole or blind creek ; yvA, 

ent from the Wimmera their, pronoun third person plural. 
Kiver 
Yallary-poora - • . Ware's station on Fiery A pollard-tree or a gum-tree which has 

Creek been cut and has sprouted. 

Yawong(W.) - - - Springs on the east of the 

AvocaBiTer between Wed- 
derbum and St. Amaud. 
*Warwino ... Pleasant Creek. 
*Wurro-garra ... Glenwillan station. 
♦Wurro-nook - - - A place in Irrewarra parish. 
*Wurra-wiIl - - - Schoular's water-hole. 
•WiUiwit .... Newington station. 
*Wal-wal .... Little Winmiera Biyer - Beeds, full of reeds. 



Additional names and words of the natives of the Lower Loddon^ Avoca^ 
and Richardson Rivers, and Pine Plains. 

Nom. — ^In this second list some words occurring in the first have been repeated, having been 
obtained from independent and different sources. — ^Philip Chauhot. 



Katlro Word. 



Colonial Kame or Deaerlptlon of 
Locality. 



Banule or Panyal 

Barp 

Bayup 

Beal-ba (or pah) 



Boloke - 
Bulert - 

VOL. II. 



A parish near Dunolly 
The Tillage at Barrie*s Beef, 

near Blackwood 
Bealiba is the name of a town 

and parish 



- Lake Bahyenong 



2 D 



Slgntflcatlon. 

A white man. 

A hill. 

The white or hill gum-tree. 

A kind of gum-tree. 

Bealf the red or flooded gum-tree, 
ba, a creek; i.e., the red £nun-tree 
creek. 

A lake, i.e., any lake of this kind. 

Grey beard. 



210 



THE ABOEIGINBS OF VICTOEIA: 



KtlreWord. Colonial K.jM«rDe«rlptton of Slgnillction. 

Bnnyeelgal ... Seven-mile hut on Antwerp 

station. 

Boomdeep .-- Very good- 

Bolertch - - - - A pariah on the west side of The box-tree (eacalyptus). 

Ayoca RiTer 
Birr-imal - - - A parish - - - - An emu. 

Chulwil ...------- Axnnskdnck. 

Coolee .....-----A native man. 

Darrk ....«.---- The peppermint gwn-tree. 

Djarree - - . - Plains of Thalia station. 

Dyarr (Bndjar at Swan The ground. 

River) 
Eng-eng maljan or Enta ------- No. 

(Yuorta on the Lower 

Goolbom ; Ynarda at 

Swan River) 
Jenna (Jenna at Swan ...... The foot. 

River, Jennang at the 

Goulbnm River, &c.) 

Gillay w Jilleh Perhaps. 

Gnarree The black dnck, alao the she-oak tree. 

Gnerre .... Mount Egbert Range, near 

Wedderbum. 
Gooro w Ghur - - Lake Hindmarsh. 
Ghynup .......... The Urge yellow-crested whitecockatoa 

Eara-kara ... A county .... Gold. 

Earrap .... A parish between Lezton and 

Amphitheatre. 
Ealkebanya ... Lake Tyrrell ... Foliated hydrous sulphate of lime, 

which is abimdant in Lake lynelL 
Kallallac .-..-....- MitcheH's cockatoo. 

Eatcheen garragalk - - Antwerp station, near Lake Water and wood. 

Hindmarsh 
Eoodebeal ... Bealiba station - - - Underneath a red gum-tree. 
Eoolee ..........A native man. 

Eoonawarrh ......... The black swan. 

Eooreh (Eoroit) - -A parish - - - - A male kangaroo. 

Eooyea •-.-.-•..-A kind of small kangaroo. 

Eow .......... Pipeclay found on some plains 35 miles 

west-north-west from Pine Plains. 

Eumma ----A wallaby (at Lake Tyrrell). 

Eurraca .......... Small white cockatoo, without crest, 

commonly called a corrella. 

Mai No. 

Marong .... A parish .... The Murray River pine-tree (callitris). 

Marmangorak .......-- God (at Lake Tyrrell). It is doubtful 

whether any Australian Aboriginehaa 
any idea of a Supreme Being. 
Marrambook -------.- A wife. 

Matynleework ... Bealiba diggings. 

♦Meyrr heu Wind. 

Murdook .--.-.--.. Small. 

Moolerr .... A parish - - - - A kind of gum-tree. 

Ngannibeen-yam Myself. 

Nannee-chuk A husband. 

Ngatyar .--.-...-- The chief evil spirit. 



LANGUA6R 211 

KitiTeWord. Colonial K«^»eacriptton of Slgnlflcatlon. 

Ngaanga The soul. iVj^an^a, at Swan Biver, signi- 
fies the sun, also a man's beard, also 
the roots of trees and plants. Nganga 
batta, sunbeams. 

Ngarranan, at Bichardson - Do you understand ? 

Rlrer ; or Nullaan yeer- 
na, or Eannnng enna, or 
Ngin jarriga, at Boort 
station 
Ngarropon ... The lake at the back of Mil- 
ler's Inn, at Cope-cope. 

Ngarre The black duck; also she-oak. 

Nganjak (Ngannup at- - - -^- - To sit down. 
Swan Biyer) 

Ngyne - To see. 

*Ngadg (Kgadgo at Swan ...... Me (personal pronoun). 

BiTer) 
^Nyarritch ... Eddington township. 
Ngarrewarrawil . - Burnt Creek. 
Ngan-wee (Nganga at Swan -..--. The beard. 

Biver) 
♦Finmi .......... An evil spirit in the ground causing a 

whirlwind or swirl of wind. 
Pittlgul --.....-.. The quandong fruit at Lake TyrrelL 

Leakuribur ... DunoUy. 

Tallja .... A water-hole north-north-east 

from Pine Plains. 
Tchuterr - - - - A parish .... The small shell paroquet. 

Toombal --.-.----- A lake. 

•Toor hiorToroee- - - - - - - -A woman. 

Tummg irripil - - She-oak water-holes. 

Tyowork .... Dunollj pre-emptire section Manna which occurs on some kinds of 

eucalypti. 
Wallup .......... The sleeping lizard. 

Warrk You. 

Wattee or Warre wee ....... Come here, or come along. Watio, at 

Swan Birer, means ''go," or ''walk 
away.'* 
Wanyebra ... Ten-mile hut on Antwerp 

station. 
Wamgarr ......... Stringybark-tree. 

Warranyukbeal • - - Warranackbeal, Scott's sta- Large flooded gum-tree. 

tion on the Yarrambeac 
Creek 
Warre jo- ......--- Faraway. 

Weerbak, or Toolgook, or Jn three languages - - Very good. 

*Boomdup 
Wehla .... A parish (Jericho) near Kin- The large grey opossum. 

gower 
Winjallok ... Name given to parish north Where is it ? 

of Nayarre 

Woorrek (Oorar at Swan Far away, yery far. 

Biver) 
Wonga .... A small lake below Alba- 

cutya, at Bremer's station, 
on the outlet. 



212 



THE ABOEIGINBS OF VICTOEIA: 



Wookftk ----- GiTe it to me. 

Wooack .----.-..- The common Banksis tree. 

Wooro - - - - Whrooifl thenameof atown The lips. There is surface water only 

near Rush worth at Whroo, hence it is called "the dry 

diggings." The lips are put to the 
ground to drink. 

Tannak • Go away. 

Tea-a or Yea-yea -------- Yes, 

Yellanjip - . - The salt lakes ahout 50 or 60 

miles north-west from Pine 

Plains station. 

Yehrip - - - - A parish on the west of the The ironhark tree. 

Aroca Biver 



Sapplementary list of words obtained from Aborigines by P. Channcy, at 
(C.) Camperdown, (A.) Ararat, (D.) Daylesford, (H.R) Hopkins River. 

KattreWord. Colonial KMMwDawlptloii of * sigiiUlcatton. 

Bamg(HJl.) - - - The Hopkins Rirer - - No. 
Barwong (H.B.} - - The Barwon Birer. 

Boreitch(C.) - Water (?). Probably the same as 

PareUchf salt water. 
Berrimbool (H.B.) - - A lake on the east of the 

Hopkins, six miles below 

Chatsworth. 
Bomong (H.B.) - - The tea-tree swamp at Mort- 

lake. 

Boonjarnp (D.) To bite, to slay. 

Boongarup (D.) --------To throw spears. 

Buckup (D.) -..-.-.--A species of grass-tree. 

Barrk(D.) Tracks or to track. 

Bnmipa(D.) --------- To run away. 

Barkna (D.) ---------To dig, scrape, bury. 

Berrh (D.) ---.-----A river or creek. 

Berrp (D) --------- Daylight, the day. 

Berpabnp (D.) --------- To-morrow. 

Bowitch (D.) --------- Grass, regetation. 

Boorgangoo (D.) .-------To blow with the mouth. 

Barjangal (D.) ---------A pelican. 

Boort (D.) - - - A lagoon, &c.,on the west of \ 

the Loddon Birer vSmoke. 

Booya (at Swan Biyer) -------J 

Bayt(D.) Quartz. 

Bambuyal (D.) - -\ 

Boyle aiwf Boyl-ya (West- >- - - - - -A sorcerer, a power of witchcraft. 

em Australia) ) 

Boyne(D.) - - ... - . . - Fat, handsome, grease. 

Bopup (D.) ---A baby boy. 

Bibago(D.) A woman. 

Burrupa (D.) - - - ) -d . ^ 

^ J. ^ V--.--- Bunmng water. 

Eatyeen - - - -) ® 

Berripa(D.) To run. 



LANGUAGE. 



213 



KattTeWord. Colontal Najwor D^wrtptton of SlgnificaUon. 

Challeepepin (A.) - - The hill with the steep escarp- 
ment on the south side of 

Mount Lang-i-gherin. 

Chalee(D) The tongue. 

T-Characar (D.) To stand. 

Dtarkjarrup (D .)-------- Fighting, contest 

Dtarka(D.) To beat, to strike, to kill. 

Danbil (D.) ---------A big doud. 

Ell/er (H.) - - - A small mount or rise near 

Austin's station on the 

Salt Creek between Lake 

Bolac and the Hopkins 

Biyer. 
GherXnjemftraja (H.) - Synott's Creek at Beriybank. 
Goonang-« (D.) ........ Joking, jesting, telling untruths. 

Garakeen (D) -....-...A species of paroquet. 

Gonowarah (D.) --.-..-.A black swan. 

Ghera(D.) A gum leaf. 

Jenang (C.) - - -- - -- - - The foot. 

Jillup-jillup (D.) ........To pinch, to squeeze. 

Jenee(D.) The forehead. 

Jarrh(D.) . . -) The ground. 

Budjar (at Swan Biver) - J 

Earkart(D.) A friend. 

Karkoi (C.) ..-.-....A pretty kind of bandicoot. 

Eanarpanook (H.) ...-...-To cough, a cough. 

Earamook (C.) .--...-.. The common opossum. 

Eallem (C) ..-..-... The brush kangaroo. 

Earik (C.) ... The site of Oamperdown. 

EOlong-Ulak (C.) - - Lake Colongulac - - -To cooee or calL 

Kooloor(H.) ... Mount Bouse.' 

Kowang (C.) -...-.---A natire cat. 

Eielambeet, aUo Fare- Lake Eielambete - - - A brackish lake. 

itch (H.) 
Korite (C.) The parish of Eoroit - - The large male kangaroo. 

Kerurot(H.) ... The Leura Swamp near Cam- 

perdown. 
Kooree (C.) ...----.- The large magpie, break-o'-day bird, 

gynmorhina tibicen, 

Eoroon (C.) .-. The " natiye companion," large crane. 

KooneewUrong (H.) - - Connewarren Lagoon in the 

county of Hampdeh. 

Kokeher (H.) An orphan. 

Kooneet (H.) ... Austin's station on the Salt 

Creek. 

Katyeen(D.) Water. 

Eayanook(D.) He himself. 

Kar(D.) A leg. 

Koork(D.) Blood. 

Koolabeetyin (D.) ---A natiye turkey or bustard. 

Kalkburghera (D.) The bush, the wooded parts of the 

country. 

Kart-tchi (D.) The summer season. 

Kart-kart (D.) Seyeral, plenty, more than two. 

Ealk (D.) --..--...A tree, wood. 
Eahl(D.) A male dog. 



214 



THE AB0EIGINB8 OP VIOTOEIA: 



Native Wort. ^^""^ Ni^ew Description of SJgnifloatten. 

Kalpooma (D.) To cut 

Koong-a (D.) " " ' ) 

£ooDg-a or TooDg-ee (at > - To give. 

Swan Rirer) ) 

Kiup(D.) - - .) Qjjg 

Kyn (Swan Riyer) - - ) 

Eone}a(D.) Waterlew, dry. 

Laang (C.) ......... A species of gnm-tree. 

Lehnra (C.) ... Mount Leura - - • Lava (of which the hill is composed). 
Lajeranyen (H.) - - A spring S.W. from Waranet 

(which see ti|/ra) near Lake 

Colongnlac. 

Lah (D.) A stone. 

Lah-wowerring (D.) Rocky, covered with stones. 

Larh (D.) ..-...-.-A hut or house. 
Moorup (D.) ...-..--.A spirit. It is difficult to understand 

their conception of a spirit or the 
soul of the departed. 

Mellon (D.) -- -- Hungry, empty. 

Marit (G.) ........>A female kangaroo. 

Milpa-milpa boomum (H.) ...... A round swamp. 

Marh (H.) ...--.. .-A man. (Mark is a hand at King 

George's Sound.) 
Moolung-er (H.) ........A woman or wife. 

Merreen mia (D.) -- The south. 

Melya (D.) - - - - To be angry. 

Marmee(D.) The sky. 

Kgoora(C.) . - - Mount Noorat ... The name of an ancient <' King" of the 

country. 
Ngyuk (C.) - - - - - -.- - -A species of white cockatoo. 

Narrin (C.) - - The large brown quail. 

Ngarkamp (D.) He, she, or it. 

Ngarliyuboor (D.) -..---.. Near, not far. 
Natowalong (D.) ..---... Deceit. 

Ngowee (D.) .'..- The sun. 

Ngatta(D.) To think, to beUere. 

Ngarree-cheeritch (D.) .......A wattle-tree. 

Ngooning (D.) ---.-...- Crooked. 
Porr-huc or Poork (H.) - Mount Shadwell - - - A cold in the head. 

Pumung(C.) ..-- Anatiyedog. 

Pyeet (C.) -..--..-- The large opossum. 
Pooyooh (C.) ----.---- Bing-tailed opossuuL 

Pnrrim-purrim (C.) --- Native turkey or bustard. 

Parook(C.) --..-.--- Kangaroo rat. 
Pareitch (H.) -.------- Brackish water. 

Purrumbeet (C.) - - Lake Purrumbete • -A round lake. 

Peepee(H.) A father. 

Tirrenchillum or Tarrin- Mount Elephant - - - A hill of fire. 

allum (C.) 
Timboon (C.) - - - A spring and little creek on 

S.W. of Lake Bullen-meri, 

and not the place so called 

north of Camperdown. 
Terang (C.) .. . ., The township of Terang - A bough of a tree. 

Talang(C.) A strip of dry bark for lighting a pipe. 

Tomg(C.) Smoke. 



LANGUAGE. 



215 



Katlye Word. ^^^^ ^"SSsSS!'^''**^'* ^' SlgnMcation. 

Tulip or Toolip (C.) The little magpie or magpie lark. 

Tipperippet (C.) -. The snipe. 

Warraat or Waranat (G.) The little creek north of 

Camperdown, improperly 

named Timboon on the 

map. 
Worm (C.) ---------A hut or camp ing-place on a ''native 

oven." 

Wein(C.) Fire. 

Warrou (C.) - - - The yolcanic hill near Mr. The common bandicoot. 

Nicholas Cole's station 

north from Camperdown. 

It is in shape like an 

animal coiled up asleep 

Waang (C.) -A crow. 

Wirringhil (C.) The native bear. 

Wolnngoon (H.B.} • - The salt lagoon near Con* 

newarren Lagoon, a few 

miles north from Hexham. 
Weneen(H.B.) - - The family name of the 

Hopkins tribe. 

Wendee(H.B.) A brother. 

War-war (D.) To climb. 

Wewar(D.) To lift up. 

Wurr-ip(D.) Sore. 

Watching (D.) The knee. 

Whroo or Wurroo (D.) - A township in the county of The lips, the mouth. 

Bodney. "The dry dig- 
gings," no water but on 

the surface after rain. The 

natives had to put their 

lips to the ground to suck 

up the water. 

Warhee(D.) The sea. 

Wayet or Wayt (D.) The season of April and May. 

Walla-walla (D.) - - A parish so called - • Much rain, a great flood. 

Tatching (D.) ---- Bad, foolish, childish, weak. 

Taranmillalwit (D.) - -A species of bat. 

YeebkOOng-a (D.) - Lost. 

Tangung-o (D.) To go, to move off. 

Yeemoonee (D.) ----- - - « By-and-by, presently. 

Yu-ngoonee or £u-ngunee - Just now. 

I must here remark that the natives from whom I obtained the above words were all intelligent 
men, but it was not always easy to make them understand precisely what I wanted to know, as 
whether a word was a verb or a noun ; e.^., — Is Kanarpanook to cough or a cough? or is it used in 
either sen^ ? Several natives told me that Kielambeet and Pareitch both signify brackish water, but 
I could get no explanation of the distinction, if any $ though of course it would easily be obtained 
by any one who understood their dialect or was long with them.— P. C 



216 THE ABOBIGINES OF VICTOSIA: 



NATIVE NAMES OF SEVERAL HILLS, RIVERS, ETC. 

(DnUTXD FROM THB InVOSXATIOIT OF THB NaTIYB BlAGIU "ToMMT'* AND ^BuXT.'O* 

Station Peak ......... YoulUigh or VJllaTnanatft. 

Mount Gkllibrand Looliimmg-oo-lah. 

Mount Elephant or Clarke ...... TirriniUom. 

Mount S.E. of Carangamite La BUm. 

Mount Sbadwell - I>ooroobdo6ra1mL 

Mount Abrupt -- Wiiribcot. 

Mount William - - - Td-ol. 

Mount Cole -- Conong-ah-jeering. 

Range east of Mount Cole - B^rbarbiiiey. 

Eastern Bange of Pyrenees - Bemgower. 

Pyrenees ---- Peerick. 

Hill S.B. of Pyrenees - Corr6onyang. 

Mount Obseryation ........ TuckerimbicL 

Volcanic Hill, seyen miles S.W. of Obseryation - - Nanim^. 

Hill flye miles S.S.E. of Nanim6 WidderiuL 

Wooded hill three miles E.N.E. of Nanim^ ... Moonmot. 

Hill seyen miles S.S.E. of Obseryation .... Mn&nibadar. 

High Bange whence the Lea takes its rise- ... Boninyon. 

Hill six miles north by east of Boninyon .... Wltfran^ep. 

Hill seyen miles east of Warranlep .... Eirrit-barr^t. 

BiyerLea Nurriwilliin. 

Riyer N.B. of Car&ngamite Wa-dy-ftllac. 

Biyer S.W. of Carlmgamite Pirranyillac. 

Biyer Taylor P6oringh-y-jalla. 

Eastern branch of Biyer Taylor Caranballu^ 

Large Salt Lake Car'angamite. 

Large Fresh Lake C61ac. 

Another Eresh Lake - Bol6ke. 

Small Salt Lake ........ Wirring-wlnlng-duc 

Fresh-water Lake N.E. of Obseryation .... B4rrambeet. 

Plain between Station Peak and Wa^dy-allac ... W&rrac-b(irran-ah. 

Plain between Wsrdy-allac and Poorring-7-jalla - - Polloc. 

• Eztnet from » Beport of aa Expedition to Mcertaln tbe position of the Ultt dogne of Mit longHade, beii« th« 
boundazy Una between New Sontb Wales and Boath ▲ostrmUA, by order of His Excellenpy Sir Oeozge Qlppi, Knight, fte, 
ftc, by a J. lyers, Snrreyor, 1840. 



LANGUAGE. 217 



NATIVE NAMES OF PLACES IN VICTORIA. 

(Bt Gibbon S. Lang, Esq.)* 

Mr. Lang says : — ^The following names were obtained by Mr. John Carrie, 
from a very intelligent black at Queenscliff, a few years ago, and are very 
expressive : — Balluraty Balladurky Ballarine (corrupted Bellarine), were 
favorite and extensive camping places ; Balla^ signifying elbow, or the attitude 
of reclining on the elbow.f 

Boonor-tall-ungj Point Nepean, signifies " kangaroo hide," descriptive of the 
angular shape of the point, like a stretched hide.f 

Woorang-a'look, Swan Island, describes the rushing sounds of the surf 
through the narrow opening between the island and mainland. 

Euro-Yorokej St. Kilda, the name is given from the sandstone found there, 
which they used to fashion and sharpen their stone tomahawks. 

Koort-boork-boorky Williamstown, signifies " clumps of she-oak," the country 
being formerly dotted with them.§ 

Yonxtng, Station Peak, signifies "big hill." — {See page 199.) 

Bunning-ycmang^ corrupted Buninyong, " big hill, like a knee ;" bunning 
signifying "knee." The hill, seen from certain directions, resembles a man 
lying on his back with his knee drawn up.|| 

Warrenyeep, corrupted Warrenheip, "emu feathers," from the peculiar 
appearance given to the hill by the ferns and foliage upon it.ir 

Burrumbeet (Lake), " muddy water."** 

* The Aborigines of Australia^ by Gideon S. Lang, Esq., 1865. 

f ''Elbow/' in the Melbourne dialect, is Ko-rum; in that of the Coast tribe, Thirrong'aihai and 
in that of the Upper Loddon, Bcl-hitcK 

X Tallang is the word for *^ tongue." The tongue of land terminating at Point Nepean is fitly 

described by the word. '< Hide" or << skin," amongst the Coast blacks, is Tatbee, 

§ The word for "she-oak," as giyen by Thomas, is Tur-run; amongst the Upper Loddon people 
it is Koo4oitch; and in the Western district, Bruk-bruk. The name quoted by Mr. Lang is therefore 
probably formed from the latter. 

g The word for '*knee," amongst the Yarra blacks, is Barreng; amongst the Western Port 
people it is Barding or Burdin; and in the Western district it is Pairing, Bun-nin-hun-nin is the 
word for ''back" in the dialect of the Melbourne tribe. 

^ Wir-ren is the word for ** feathers," in the dialect of the Upper Loddon tribe. 

** Booreen-beek is "dark soU;" and lakes are sometimes named by the natires from the 
character of the soil or clay that is found in or near the lake. The country is Tolcanic, and the 
color of the soil is a dark-chocolate. Purrumbete, another lake in the Western district, is also 
within the yolcanic area. Svranbeet is the name of a shrub, Platyhbium obtusangulum (H.).— <5ee 
also page 205.) 



VOL. n. 2 B 



218 



THE ABORIGINES OF VIOTOBIA: 



NATIVE WORDS AND NAMES. 

(Obtahtbd bt Nathaniel Muitbo, Esq., troii Hehbt Tatbbnbb, Esq., or Kbrako, 

LOWBB LODDON.) 



EngUth. 



Katlre. 



Woman 


- La-arook. 


Gire 


- Naponda. 


Girl 


- Curigul. , 


Wliere - 


- Winjalook. 


Boy 


- Coolgoork. 


Who or which 


- Winyatook. 


Duck - 


- Gnurre. 


By-and-by 


. Keelamin. 


Turkey - 


- Gnurro. 


The Murray Hirer - 


- Milloo. 


Emu 


- Cowry. 


Pyramid Creek 


- Yaran. 


Countiy - 


- Tanuck. 


Nine-mile Creek - 


- Pickaninnie yaran. 


Swamp - 


- Poey-poey. 


Two-mile Creek 


- Tyengnle. 


Lightning 


- Toolibuc. 


Fiye-mile Creek - 


- Tintmbarrin. 


Fire 


- Wamp. 


Sandhills 


. Moingurt. 


Lend 


- Nuella. 


Tragowel Swamp - 


- Tragowel poey- 


Bleep - 


. Coombin. 




poey. 


You 


- Gulin. 


Kerang Swamp 


- Kerangup. 


Me 


- Ic-ic. 


Beedy Creek - 


- Booraire. 


Him 


- Kenya. 


Kangaroo Lake 


- Kurmbur. 


Quick . 


- Burra warrein. 


Lake Boga 


- Crorm. 


Yea 


- Gno. 


Dry Lake 


- Burto. 


No 


- Wamba. 


Sandhill Lake 


. Lucher. 


Good - 


- Talcook. 







Engllth. 



V«tlT«. 



LIST OF NATIVE WORDS AND NAMES- 

(COMPILBD BT HbKBT J. WiTHBBS, ESQ., OT BbBBBMBBBL, ITBAB WaGOA WaOOA, IH NbW 

South Walbs.) 



English. 



Kfttire. 



Enflisb. 



KatlTe. 



A tribe • 


- 


- 


- 


Eunonyhareenyah. 


Nose 


- 


- 


- 


Momda. 


Man 


- 


- 


• 


Gooen. 


Mouth - 


- 


- 


- 


Nunth. 


Boy 


- 


- 


- 


Buri 


Teeth - 


- 


- 


- 


Erong. 


Woman - 


- 


- 


. 


Mookeen. 


Hair 


- 


- 


- 


Ourang. 


Girl 


- 


• 


. 


Miki. 


Beard - 


- 


- 


- 


Yarreen or Yarrun 


Head - 


- 


- 


- 


Bultong. 


Skin 


- 


- 


- 


Eulung. 


Hand - 


- 


- 


- 


Murra. 


Blood - 


- 


- 


- 


Goohun. 


Foot 


- 


- 


- 


Geenong. 


Bone 


- 


- 


- 


Thubbul. 


Back - 


. 


- 


- 


BirrL 


Dead man 


- 


- 


<» 


BuUoa 


Breast - 


- 


- 


- 


Noonong. 


Blind - 


- 


m 


- 


Mookeen. 


Neck - 


- 


- 


- 


Wooroa 


Dead 


- 


• 


- 


Yalgoon. 


Leg or thigh 


- 


- 


- 


Thurong. 


Day 


- 


- 


- 


YearL 


Knee 


- 


- 


- 


Nulgung. 


Night - 


- 


- 


- 


Booroonthnn. 


Side 


- 


- 


. 


Thulbnrr. 


Sun 


- 


- 


«» 


Eri. 


Shoulder 


- 


. 


- 


Gunnar. 


Moon 


- 


- 


- 


Keerong. 


Arm 


- 


- 


- 


Bulgal. 


Stars 


- 


M 


- 


Gerrilong. 


Elbow . 


- 


- 


- 


Noouongan. 


Light - 


- 


- 


m 


MuUun. 


Eye 


- 


- 


- 


Mill. 


Moonlight 


- 


- 


- 


Nulgerong. 


Ear 


- 


. 


- 


Woother. 


Thunder 


- 


- 


. 


MooroobrL 











LANGUAGE. 








219 


Englkl 


I. 






NatlTt. 


EiifUfh. 






Ksttve. 


Lightning 


- 


- 


- 


Marroo. 


Scrub - 


. 


» 


^ 


Burgoa 


Rainbow 


- 


- 


- 


Euloo burgeon. 


A reedy place 


. 


. 


Jerilderie. 


Clouds - 


- 


m 


- 


Eurong. 


Bark (of a 


tree) 


m 


. 


Thurong. 


Bain - 


- 


- 


- 


Eurong. 


Tree 


- 


- 


- 


EeeguL 


Snow 


- 


- 


- 


Coonamah. 


River 


- 


. 


. 


Murrumbidjah. 


HaU - 


- 


- 


- 


Thunthulla. 


Lake - 


,. 


. 


. 


Gurwell. 


Wind - 


- 


- 


«■ 


Thouwarra. 


Brook or creek 


. 


. 


ThuroDg. 


Water • 


- 


- 


- 


Oulleen. 


Wet 


. 


. 


. 


Geether. 


Ice, froit 


- 


- 


- 


Juggur. 


Dry 


. 


- 


- 


Boorong. 


Flood - 


- 


- 


- 


Gk)onhaim. 


Bird 


- 


- 


«K 


Jibbeen. 


Fire 


- 


- 


- 


Wing. 


Wood-duck 


. 


> 


. 


Goonaroo. 


Hot 


- 


- 


- 


Hoogil. 


Parrot - 


. 


. 


. 


Jibbeen. 


Cold 


- 


- 


- 


Bulloothi. 


Cockatoo 


. 


. 


. 


Moori. 


Smoke - 


- 


- 


- 


Cudthul. 


Eagle - 


. 


. 


. 


Mullen. 


Sweet - 


- 


- 


- 


Gilkurrijong. 


Crow 


. 


• 


. 


Waggra. 


Very pleasant, agreeable, 


Murrumbung. 


Ejmgaroo 


- 


. 


- 


Woombeen. 


very good 










Wallaby 


- 


- 


• 


Murrowong. 


Bad 


- 


- 


- 


Mini. 


Water-rat 


- 


m 


•» 


Biggoon. 


Dislike - 


- 


- 


- 


Widi murrumbung. 


Opossum 


- 


- 


- 


WilUe. 


Large - 


- 


- 


- 


Moonoon. 


Native cat 


. 


. 


. 


Marbee. 


Small - 


- 


- 


- 


Boolee. 


Native dog 


. 


- 


- 


Guegee. 


One 


- 


- 


- 


Noonbee. 


Horse - 


. 


- 


- 


Yarraman. 


Two 


- 


- 


- 


Bulla. 


Snake - 


. 


. 


. 


Cuddee. 


Three - 


- 


- 


- 


Bulla noonbee. 


Fur 


_ 


. 


. 


Eeejung. 


Four 


- 


- 


- 


BuUa-buIla. 


Feathers 


. 


. 


• 


Boobil. 


Five 


- 


- 


- 


Bulla-bulla noon- 


Bee 


. 


. 


. 


Gubbee. 










bee. 


Fish 


- 


- 


- 


Cooyah. 


Six 


- 


- 


- 


Boolonbee-boolon- 


Flowers - 


- 


- 


- 


Bautherong. 










bee. 


Drink - 


- 


- 


- 


WeejeUy. 


Seren* - 


- 


- 


- 


Bulla-bulla -bulla- 


Charcoal 


- 


- 


- 


Gooreen. 










courabah. 


Road, a track 


- 


- 


Murroo. 


Yes 


- 


- 


- 


Nah. 


A row - 


- 


- 


- 


Berrembed. 


No 


- 


- 


- 


Wirri. 


Run 


- 


m 


- 


Moonbutha. 


Bed 


- 


- 


M 


Eeerie-keerie. 


Walk - 


. 


- 


- 


Yannah. 


Bkek - 


- 


- 


•« 


Boothong. 


Stand up 


- 


- 


- 


Warother. 


White - 


- 


- 


m 


Burra-burra. 


Lie down 


- 


- 


- 


Weerejah. 


Yellow - 


- 


- 


- 


Goonong -goonong. 


After the crows 


- 


- 


Wagga-wagga. 


Blue 


- 


- 


- 


Burringun. 


Give 


- 


- 


- 


Noongah. 


Oround - 


- 


- 


- 


Thug-oon. 


Give it here 


- 


- 


- 


Noongah thine. 


Dust 


- 


- 


- 


Boonpon. 


Give me a boomerang 


- 


Nooogah bulgong. 


Mud 


- 


« 


- 


Moorong. 


Come here, 


man 


«■ 


- 


Mang thanyahuah. 


Sand - 


- 


- 


- 


Gurri. 


I want to speak to you 


- 


Yalleelee. 


Plains - 


- 


- 


- 


Gooneg^I. 


To throw a 


boomerang 


- 


Berrembah bul- 


Hills - 


- 


- 


- 


Jerrimah. 










gong. 


Swamp - 


- 


- 


- 


BulgarL 


To throw a 


spear 


m 


- 


Juri Jurelow. 


Grass - 


- 


- 


- 


Boogoon or Bulgoon. 


To throw a 


barbed spear 


Thoorah thooloo- 


Wood - 


- 


- 


- 


Geegul. 










goo. 


A shrub (name 


Of) 


- 


Euri. 


To throw a 


bone 


- 


•• 


Doobuloo berroo- 


Leares - 


- 


• 


- 


CurreeL 










mall. 


Bed-gum 


- 


- 


- 


Yarra. 


WiU you ? 


. 


- 


- 


Yanima? 


Seed (barley grass) 


- 


Gooloo. 


I have got 


nothing for 


Mungee minyam- , 


Seeds - 


- 


- 


- 


Woouyoul. 


you 








bul yinno. 


Dogwood 


- 


- 


- 


Honey-jerry. 


Did you dream ? 


- 


- 


Yahmondoo yah- 


Biyer-oak 


- 


• 


- 


Billaway. 










darmee ? 



* Any niiinber beyond MTen to, the bUok« saj, Uke the leaves— not to be connted. 



220 



THE ABOEIGINES OF VICTOELL 



Englldi. 



NatiTe. 



English. 



Vfttire. 



You and I will 


Nulleebil. 


Iwill - 


- 


- 


- 


Narthoo. 


When shall I see 70a 


Thanguar millee 


You will 


- 


- 


- 


Mudoobel. 


again? 


nangallah yala- 


I am going 


to leave 


you 


Neenyah thoowyah 




gerry ? 


now 








oneah bunyah. 


Have you had anything 


Yalwondoo thay ? 


Swim - 


- 


- 


- 


Barbidgee. 


to eat? 




Dive 


- 


- 


- 


Woobunyah. 


No - - - . 


Wirri. 


Sleep - 


- 


- 


* 


EurL 


Sit down - - - 


Weejah. 


Canoe - 


- 


- 


- 


Murring. 


Have you slept well ? - 


Tahwondoo mony- 


Paddle - 


- 


- 


- 


Banderhaii« 




room euri werr- 


Honey - 


m 


- 


- 


Naroo. 




ing? 


Wild - 


m 


- 


- 


GelgeL 


To throw a nulla-nulla - 


Berrembah boon- 


Tame - 


- 


- 


- 


Mooroogbeeong. 




deegue. 


Heavy - 


- 


- 


• 


Butheni 


Will you? - 


Tammah? 













APFEN DICES. 



APPENDIX A. 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES OF THE ABORIGINES OF 

AUSTRALIA. 

(Bt Philip Chaxtkct, J.P., Dibtrict Survbtob at Ballaasat.) 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

As the reader will naturally desire to know what my claims are as an authority 
on the subject of the Aboriginal inhabitants of Australia, I may say that I 
arrired at Adelaide from England in 1839, and have resided in the Colonies 
of South Australia, New South Wales, Western Australia, and Victoria ever 
since. I held the appointment under the Imperial Government of Assistant 
Surveyor in Western Australia for about twelve years — from 1841 to 1853. 

My observations of the Aborigines were made chiefly in that colony, where 
they were, duriug the period mentioned, very numerous. In 1841 they numbered 
about three thousand in the located portions of the territory, according to the 
statistical returns, whereas the white population was much smaller, and, as a 
consequence, we had to learn to speak to the natives to a great extent in their 
own language, and thus had frequent opportunities for observing their social 
position and habits. 

The following statements are written down partly from memory and partly 
from a miscellaneous collection of notes which I have from time to time made. 
I have also occasionally availed myself of such authorities as I have at hand, 
for the purpose of elucidating facts with which I was previously acquainted. 
These are principally the valuable little publications of the late Mr. G. F. 
Moore, Advocate-General of the Colony of Western Australia, and of the late 
Mr. E. S. Parker, formerly Assistant Protector of Aborigines in Victoria, with 
both of whom I was personally acquainted. 

As will be seen, I do not even touch on many subjects connected with this 
singular race of mankind. My observations are intended rather as a record of 
such incidents as I happen to remember, apd of such facts as I have thought 
noteworthy, with the view of assisting in the compilation of a general history, 
than to aflFord complete information on any point. 



222 APPENDIX : 

Paintbd Caves. 

It has been stated by Professor Huxley that the natives of Southern and 
Western Australia are probably as pure and homogeneous as any raoe of savages 
in existence. And yet there are some slight indications of another and possibly 
a more ancient people having at one time dwelt in Australia. These consist 
of certain red marks on the walls and roofs of caves, chiefly the imprints of 
human hands, as though a hand had been immersed in some red dye and 
then pressed against the side of the cave. These ^^signs-manual" are generally 
accompanied by some other marks or drawings. 

They have been noticed in Eastern, Western, and Northern Australia ; on 
indurated sandstone in a cliff on Dunmore's station, near the Goulburn River, 
in New South Wales, where they consist of hand-prints and drawings of 
animals; in a granite cave, about ten miles south firom York, in Western 
Australia ; and in other places. 

I visited this cave in 1849, and saw the marks on the roof; they are quite 
indelible, and begin low down, near where the roof and floor meet. At first there 
is the imprint of the full-spread hand and fore-arm, in such a position that the 
person making it must have been squeezed as far as possible into the wedge- 
shaped space ; then there is the mark of the hand with the fingers spread, 
mark after mark, and finally of the fingers only, where the roof arches up 
almost out of reach; but higher and just over the mouth of the cave is a 
circular figure, drawn with the same red substance, about fifteen inches in 
diameter, and filled up with lines and cross-bars. It must have been made by 
a person who was raised from the floor of the cave. This cavern is not easy of 
access, being in the face of a granite cliff overhanging the valley of the Avon 
River. 

On my questioning the natives about these marks, they could give no 
rational account of them. They have very little curiosity about the cave, and 
pay no respect whatever to it; it does not seem to concern them or to belong to 
their people. On enquiring what they thought of the marks, one of them 
amused me with the following absurd story. He stated that his people believed 
that the Moon once dwelt in that cave, but becoming tired of the confinement, 
he* ran up the roof of the cave, leaving his imprint at the top as he jumped up 
into the sky, where he has been wandering about ever since. Nor were they 
acquainted with the substance used to stain the rock, — ^it might be cinnabar 
but that none is known to exist in that part of the country. 

Mr. Robert D. Hardey, when making an excursion some years ago into the 
sandy desert which extends east from York, found the prints of five or six hands 
in caves nearly seventy miles east from the valley of the Avon River, but he 
could not ascertain what they were made with. 

Capt. Flinders found paintings in caves in Chusan Island, in the Gulf of 
Carpentaria, made with charcoal and a sort of red paint. There were porpoises, 
kangaroos, turtles, and a human hand; also a kangaroo with thirty-two persons 
following it. 

* The moon is mascnline, the sun feminine. 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES. 223 

Mr. Cnnningham, in King's Voyages^ saw paintings in Clack's Island, off 
the north-east coast. 

Messrs. Grey and Lnshington, in 1838, fonnd caves with well-executed 
fignres done in different colors, on the north-west coast ; but Capt. (now Sir 
George) Grey thought they had no connection with the red hands in the cavern 
near York. 

It is stated by a recent writer in the Colonies* that ancient carvings exist 
in considerable numbers upon the flat rocks and headlands surrounding the 
harbour of Port Jackson, and at other places along the coast, primitive enough 
in design, yet highly interesting to the archaBologist and ethnologist. At the 
North Head the carvings exist in great numbers, as well as impressions of 
human hands on the sides of perpendicular rocks ; the whole of the subjects 
represent indigenous objects — kangaroos, opossums, sharks, shields, boomer- 
angs, and human figures in the attitudes of the corobboree dance, f 

How far these relics, or any of them, found in different and remote parts of 
Australia, may lead to the inference of a race having existed in the country 
prior to the advent of the people whom we now call Aborigines, is, I think, a 
question worthy of consideration. 

Stephens, in his work on Central America, refers to vermilion impressions 
of human hands on the old Toltic buildings of Yucatan. 

The stamp of the hand on a document is the sign-manual in Borneo of a 
native prince.J The red color is esteemed sacred, in many instances, by the 
inhabitants of a great portion of Asia. 



Babbarous Condition of the Natives. 

Some of the earliest discoverers of Australia saw natives of the present race 
when they landed. These barbarians were in a state of mere savage nature, 
never having heard of any other people than their own, nor having the least 
idea that other tribes existed beyond a very limited range of country around 
their own hunting-grounds. They knew nothing whatever of the conventional 
forms of gesture and expression which are generally understood and received 
as indications of amity among strange races. Whenever, therefore, they could 
be brought to parley, the situation was both critical and embarrassing. 

The Australian Aborigines in their wild state are not only suspicious of 
treachery in their neighbours, but often have a superstitious terror of distant 
tribes, with whose existence they are only acquainted by report. It was not, 
therefore, suprising that they viewed with alarm the arrival of persons differing 
in color and appearance from any they had before seen or heard of, and of whose 
nature, power, and intentions they were wholly ignorant. 

* The Bignature is G. F. A.-— probably George Fife Angus ; date 2l8t April 1877. 

t Some of the figures of sharks and other fishes measure twenty-five feet in length, while those 
of men in dancing attitudes are life size. The natives say that the tribes did not reside in the places 
where the earrings occur, as they are sacred to the koradjee or sorcerers or priests. 

t See Rajah Brook's work. 



224 APPENDIX : 

Some tribes had a vagae idea of the white men being Bpirits or re^appear- 
ances of dead persons, and were restrained by awe alone from attacking them. 
This dread of strangers seems to be the natural result of ignorance, and reminds 
us of the restrictive policy, until lately, of the Japanese, and of the religious 
prejudices of the Hindoos and strict Mahonmiedans. 

In the south-eastern portion of Australia, the old men used to say that the 
forms or spirits of the dead went to the westward, towards the setting sun; and 
the natives of Western Australia had the same belief. When, therefore, they 
saw white men coming over the sea from that quarter, they at once took them 
to be their deceased relatives re-incarnated, and called them Djenga^ or ghosts, 
as distinguished from Yung-ar^ or persons. 

In almost all cases where there has been an opportunity of coming to an 
understanding, and a desire on the part of the Europeans to conciliate the 
Aborigines, they have evinced a friendly disposition. It has, however, often 
happened that the earliest interviews left anything but favorable impressions 
on their minds. 

In the year 1699, William Dampier, an Englishman, landed on the north- 
west coast, and soon fell in with some natives, who ran away from him and his 
men. Soon after, nine of them were seen approaching with angry gestnres 
and making a great noise, but taking a sudden panic, they fled away as fast 
as they could. Dampier then formed an ambuscade, and tried to seize some of 
them ; but failing, one of his men was wounded by a spear ; he then fired on 
the blacks with ball, and one, at least, of them fell, and was carried off by his 
comrades. 

This occurrence may be taken as a fair example of the misunderstandings 
and collisions which from time to time have disgraced the history of Australia. 

The dominant and arrogant race, despising the ignorant barbarian, has paid 
but little respect either to his rights or person, and has too oft^en treated him 
as though he were a wild beast ; while the savage, in accordance with the 
instincts of his nature, has resented the aggression ; and thus some fearfiil out- 
rages have occasionally, even to the present time, been perpetrated by both 
parties ; — the white man, with his boasted civilization, being the more account- 
able of the two. 

The landing of Capt. Cook at Botany Bay was disputed by the natives, 
but he found those at Moreton Bay better disposed. 

The murder by the blacks of Mr. Kennedy, the explorer, with whom I 
was personally acquainted, near Cape York, in 1848, was in all probability 
committed for the purpose of retaliating aggressive action on the part of a 
ship's crew. 

Capt. Pasco, B.N., formerly of H.M.S. Beagle j when she was engaged 
in the survey of Torres Straits, has informed me that, on the 24th June 1841, 
they called in at what was termed '' the post office" on the uninhabited " Booby 
Island," and examined a book which was kept there in order that masters of 
ships might record any circumstance of interest during the run through Torres 
Straits, and found an entry by one Greyburney master of TAe Brothers, in 
which he recorded the fa^ct that ^^ he had killed onl}f one native." It is there- 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES. 225 

fore not improbable that the master of The Brothers is indirectly accountable 
for the death of Mr. Kennedy. 

This view is supported by Mr. Macgillivray, the Naturalist on board H.M.S. 
Rattlesnake^ who states* that the Yagulles are the tribe who were concerned 
in the murder of the unfortunate Kennedy. The circumstances were related by 
an old woman named Baki^ at Cape York, who, when questioned, corroborated 
the statement of that noble native lad Jacky, Mr. Kennedy's attendant after 
he had left all his other men, and in whose arms he died. She further stated 
that some years before — that is about the time that Greyburne landed from The 
Brothers — ^a Yagulle woman and child had been shot by some white men who 
landed from a small vessel near Albany Island, and that the tribe had been 
anxious to revenge their death, until they had the opportunity of doing so 
by killing Mr. Kennedy. 

The more recent murder of Mr. Wills in Queensland was probably owing to 
the conduct of some white men who had shortly before captured and forcibly 
carried off to Sydney two lads belonging to the tribe which subsequently per- 
petrated the deed. Such examples, taken very much at random, are illustrative 
of the mutual misunderstandings and occasional harsh treatment of the 
natives, followed sometimes by savage murders perhaps of innocent persons, 
which again were succeeded by prompt and equally indiscriminate punishment 
of « the blacks." 

In the early days of the Swan River settlement a wholesale massacre of some 
assembled tribes was ostentatiously designated the battle of Pinjarrah. 

The Government having been informed that several tribes were to meet at a 
place called Pinjarrah, about forty miles south from Perth, proceeded against 
them with a detachment of troops led by Capt. Ellis, and headed by the 
Governor in person accompanied by a number of civilians. 

As the natives are in the habit of occasionally meeting for the adjustment 
of differences among themselves, for arranging hunting expeditions, and for 
other purposes of a like kind, I know of no reason for supposing that on this 
occasion they intended to organize any force for attacking the settlers. Indeed 
I believe the natives would never think of assembling in large numbers with 
any such object in view. 

The soldiers shot down a great number of them, and then dragged their 
bodies into heaps and covered them with sand. These mounds are, I believe, 
visible at the present time. In this unequal," if not treacherous affair, only one 
white man was killed, and this was Capt. Ellis, who fell by the spear of a 
native. 

The published accounts of such occurrences are often partial and unfair. 
The natives have no newspapers and few advocates, and are therefore placed in 
a worse position than a criminal at the bar of English justice. 

About the yeat 1835, some tribes had arranged to meet on the south side of 
the Swan Eiver opposite Perth, and while two of them were proceeding thither, 
and walking along a path leading to the hut of an Indian fisherman near the 

* Stt foot-note on first page of yoI. ii. Voyagt of the Rattlesnake, 
VOL. II. 2f 



226 



APPENDIX : 



mouth of the Canning River, one of them was canght by the heel in a dog-trap 
which had been set in the narrow path by the fisherman. The native and his 
companion were, of course, much terrified, but succeeded in reaching the place 
of rendezvous, a distance of five or six miles, with the iron trap firmly grasping 
his heel. Here they found their assembled countrymen in a state of great 
excitement at intelligence which had reached them firom the opposite direction 
that a Swan River native had been killed at Guildford by a white man. The 
result was that a party went the next morning to the Indiaman's hut — killed 
him, and so mangled the body that it could scarcely be recognized. They also 
threw a spear at an English gentleman who happened to be there, and who just 
escaped being killed by swimiming the Canning River ; he received a barbed 
spear in the back of the arm, and ran with it up to Capt. Hester's, where it 
was taken out. 

At about the same place, though two or three years earlier, a powerful leader 
and two of his companions were ensnared by stratagem and made prisoners. 
They had been inveigled into a boat which for this purpose had put oflF from 
Perth, the embryo capital, to the opposite side of the water, where a number of 
natives were fishing. So soon as the men in the boat got their victims into 
their power, they seized, bound, and carried them off, in view of their tribe, 
who stood amazed and mad with indignation at the perfidy thus practised on 
them. 

The names of these men were YagaUj Daumera, and Nyinyinnee. Yugan 
was a chief of the Upper Swan tribe ; he was tall, athletic, and muscular, with 
a strong dash of the savage in his countenance. When animated in conversa- 
tion, or even a little excited, scarcely a peer of the realm could excel him in 
dignity of demeanour or urbanity of manners. The passions of the savage, 
however, occasionally fiitting across his brow, kept confidence in check ; and yet, 
when conciliating, he exhibited a disposition so candid, cordial, and generous 
that the most timid would feel at ease in his presence. His was a fine character, 
but withal he had been the terror of the infant colony. 

Doumera was a well-disposed, mild-looking youth, and a great &vorite 
with many of the colonists. 

Nyinyinnee^ on the other hand, was dark, reserved, and cunning — "a thorough 
savage," as an old settler remarked. 

These prisoners were conveyed to Perth and banished to a barren rock called 
Kamac Island. A Mr. Milne voluntarily took charge of them, accompanied by 
a soldier, with a view to their civilization ; but after a short period they effected 
their escape in a boat, and landed at Woodman's Point, whence they made their 
way across the bush to the Swan ; but in crossing the Canning road they 
unfortunately fell in with two young men, John and Thomas Velvich, both of 
whom they killed. I shall have to recur to Yagariy and will now only add that 
the Government offered thirty pounds for his head, for the purpose of obtaining 
which a boy named Richard Keats treacherously killed him. 

This boy with his brother John were tending Capt. Bull's sheep at the 
Upper Swan, YagarCa country, and were well acquainted with him and all his 
tribe, numbering some seventy or eighty, when one day he asked Yagan to look 



NOTES AKD AJraCDOTBS. 227 

for wild-ducks in the river for him to shoot. Yagan was in the act of stepping 
softly and looking over the bank down into the river, when Richard Keats 
deliberately shot him in the back of the neck, killing him on the spot, in view 
of the tribe, who were encamped not a quarter of a mile off. Keats then threw 
down his gun and ran for his life down the side of the river, but the natives 
soon gained upon him, and when he jumped in to swim across, they riddled his 
body with spears. These lads had been in the habit of daily frequenting the 
natives' camps for years ; their treachery was therefore the greater. Capt. 
Bull, I believe, sent YagarCs head to the Directors of the British Museum after 
it had been smoke-dried. 

The following anecdote will fiirther illustrate the general character and 
disposition of the Australian natives when they first saw the white men come 
among them : — 

Towards the end of 1848, Capt. Fitzgerald, the Governor of Western 
Australia, visited the newly-discovered country to the northward near Champion 
Bay. 

While returning from the Bowes River to that Bay, accompanied by Mr. 
Rivett H. Bland, his Private Secretary (now of Clunes), Mr. Augustus Gregory, 
three soldiers and a servant lad, they saw several natives following them, who 
increased in number as they got into the thickets at the foot of King's table- 
land, and came closer to the party every step they advanced. Notwithstanding 
an order to keep off, one laid hold of Mr. Bland by the arm, with the. intention 
of striking him on the head with his dowak ; but on a soldier running towards 
him, he let go. 

Mr. Bland had a pistol in his hand, but, with praiseworthy forbearance, was 
reluctant to commence the affray by using it. Shortly afterwards the natives, 
armed with spears, kUeys,* and dowaks,t having closed upon the party, a spear 
was thrown at Mr. Gregory, but without effect, and the Governor, having dis* 
mounted, shot the man nearest to him, who appeared to have some influence in 
directing the movements of the others. He was a splendid fellow, more than 
six feet high. He suddenly sprang in among the party, his eyes flashing and 
his spear quivering in the miro^X ready to throw, when he received a ball through 
the heart, for he fell forward on the knees with his head to the ground, and did 
not even roll over or stir again. 

The soldiers then fired, and the natives threw a shower of spears, kileys, 
and stones. The party had now nearly cleared the thickets, and were between 
two small rocky hills, from the summits of which and from the thickets behind 
the natives were throwing their" spears, when one struck His Excellency the 
Governor just above the knee, passing through the thigh and protruding about 
a foot. Fortunately, he was warned the spear was coming, and made a sudden 
step forward, or it would have struck him in the back. 

During the remainder of the journey, for twelve or fourteen miles, to the beach, 
the savages used every effort to cut them off. After a fatiguing walk of ten 

* Boomerangs. f Small clubs. % Throwing-board. 



228 APPENDIX: 

hours, the party reached Champion Bay, and got away in the boats, firom which 
they saw the beach lined with natives. 

The attacking party numbered about fifty or sixty. They were described as 
being a much finer race of men than those in the located districts, and fought 
with great determination and bravery. 

The number of Aborigines killed and wounded could not be ascertained, but 
the former were believed to be three. On the part of the expedition, the Gover- 
nor was the only one wounded. I do not know whether this attack, which was 
quite unprovoked at the time, was made from motives of revenge for some old 
injury, or from fear and a desire to prevent the intruders from taking possession 
of their country. 

It has been remarked that children have a keen sense of justice, and so have 
the natives, if Yagan may be taken as an exponent of their sentiments. 

Mr. G. F. Moore, when Advocate-Greneral of the colony, had won the 
confidence of the natives by uniform kindness. He endeavoured to ingratiate 
himself with them for the purpose of learning their language and customs. 

One day, in June 1843, as I was sitting with Mr. Moore at his station at 
the Upper Swan, he gave me the following account of a wild native's idea of 
justice. The incident had occurred at the door of the room in which we were 
sitting. It was thus : — ^A number of armed native men had surrounded the 
house, when Mr Moore went to the door to speak to them, having his fire-^arms 
close at hand. He soon recognised YagaUy but the natives near the door 
denied that he was present. However, when the outlaw perceived that he was 
known, he stepped boldly and confidently up, and resting his arm on Mr. Moore's 
shoulder, looked him earnestly in the face, and addressed him, as the first Law 
Officer of the Crown, to the following effect — "Why do you white people* come 
in ships to our country and shoot down poor blackfellowsf who do not under- 
stand you? You listen to me I The wild blackfellows do not understand your 
laws ; every living animal that roams the country and every edible root that 
grows in the ground are common property ! A black man claims nothing as 
his own but his cloak, his weapons, and his name! Children are under no 
restraint from infancy upwards ; a little baby boy, as soon as he is old enough, 
beats his mother, and she always lets him I When he can carry a spear, he 
throws it at any living thing that crosses his path, and when he becomes a 
man, his chief employment is hunting. He does not understand that animals 
or plants can belong to one person more than another. Sometimes a party of 
natives come down from the hills, tired and hungry, and fall in with strange 
animals you call sheep ; of course, away flies the spear, and presently they have 
a feast I Then you white men come and shoot the poor blackfellows ! " Then, 
with his eagle eye flashing, and holding up one of his fingers before Mr. Moore's 
face, he shouted out — " For every black man you white fellows shoot, I will kill 
a white man I" And so with "the poor hungry women ; they have always been 
accustomed to dig up every edible root, and when they come across a potato 



* Djenga^ or ghosts. f Yung-ar, or people. 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES. 229 

garden^ of course, down goes the wanna (yam-stick), and np comes the potato, 
which is at once put into the bag. Then you white men shoot at poor black- 
fellows. I will take life for life I " * 



Retribution. 

A law prevails, among some tribes at least, which renders it compulsory on 
the nearest male relative to take the life of some one of the tribe to which the 
slayer belongs. And even if a man dies a natural death, they believe he has 
been killed by some unseen hand, in which case they resort to divination, to 
ascertain the tribe from which the slayer came. The avenger is generally not 
actuated so much by personal ill-feeling as by the desire to perform a supposed 
duty, and thereby maintain his good name among his own people. He therefore 
sometimes kills the first of the tribe he meets, without for a moment considering 
whether or not his victim was even an accessory. Justice is then supposed to 
be vindicated. Blood for blood is their universal law; revenge becomes a 
sacred duty; and if a man withhold his hand from taking a life as a satisfaction 
for his brother's, he is ever after looked upon as a coward. 

As the wUd blacks supposed that all white men knew and approved of each 
other's deeds, they held it a sacred duty for the avenger to slay the first white 
person in his power, of whatever age or sex, as a satisfaction for his murdered 
relative. 

In some of the Australian settlements the colonists for the most part evinced 
a very friendly feeling towards the sable occupants of the country. This was 
especially the case at Swan Biver after the first few years of the settlement, 
and in South Australia from its commencement. The natives on their part 
reciprocated the expression of good-will, and became most useftd and faithftil 
assistants to the colonists. 

Instances are not wanting of kindness by wild Aborigines to white men 
when in their power. The surveying operations of the Beagle during the years 
1837 to 1843 were confined chiefly to those parts of the northern coast which 
had not been visited by other navigators. At one time, when some of the crew 
lived ashore, one of the men always exhibited a great antipathy to the natives ; 
but getting lost in the bush for three days, he lay down, as he supposed, to die. 
His great dread was that he should be found by the natives. To his horror, 
on awaking from a slumber, he saw a number of them armed and standing 
around him. They, however, led him to their camp, fed him and kept him 
until the following morning, when they took him in safety to his companions,! 
thus exhibiting a kindly disposition in one of those tribes which are deemed 
the most fierce of the Australians, when not actuated to deeds of violence by 
motives of fear or revenge. 

* I published this anecdote some years ago in the Okurch News, signing myself " An Old Aas* 
tralian/'— P. C. 

t I am indebted to Capt. Pasco for this anecdote. 



230 APPENDIX : 



L088 of the Austrian Bark " Stefano^'* north of Shark^s Bay^ on the NorthrWest 

Coasty in October 1875. 

The following particulars were furnished to the Fremantle Herald hj 
Mr. John Vincent, who acted as interpreter to the survivors : — " The StefanOj 
1,300 tons, of Fiume in Austria, with a crew of seventeen persons, was wrecked 
on the coast, and only ten of the men got ashore. They lived on raw shell-fish 
and such provisions as were washed on the beach. They had little hope of 
ever being rescued, and were in great dread of the natives, whom they believed 
to be cannibals. As everything had been lost, they had no means of ascer- 
taining on what part of the coast they were, or in which direction lay the 
nearest settlement. After several days of great suffering, the natives came 
down to the beach, and, much to the surprise of the castaway sailors, made 
overtures of friendliness, which, after some hesitation on the part of the ship- 
wrecked seamen, were accepted. The natives showed them where water could be 
obtained, caught fish and cooked them for them, and completely relieved the 
party of all fear on their account. Among the debris of the Yn*eck washed 
ashore the natives picked up a chart of the West Coast of Australia, by which 
the party were enabled to make out pretty well where they were ; and, after 
consultation, it was determined to make an attempt to get to Shark's Bay. The 
party started southwards, and after six days' travelling reached Cape Cuvier. 
Finding no water, and being afraid to proceed, they returned to the scene of 
the wreck, which they reached in safety. For some six weeks after their return 
the party lived on rock oysters, and suffered intensely from want and exposure. 
On Christmas Day two of the men died; and a few days afl^r six more, including 
the first-mate, succimibed to their sufferings. The two remaining survivors, 
Baccich and Jurich, who now despaired of ever being rescued, determined to 
join the natives, and travelled inland for this purpose. They joined the tribe 
with which they were already acquainted, and found them extremely hospitable 
whUe they remained with them. They had long despaired of ever being rescued 
from their pitiable condition, when relief came in a most unexpected manner. 
Capt. C. Tuckey, of the cutter Jessie^ engaged in the pearl-fishing, on his 
voyage from Roeboume to Fremantle, put in near the north-west coast to 
land some native divers belonging to that locality, who had been engaged in 
the pearling. After landing them, the Jessie proceeded on her voyage ; but the 
weather getting rough, the captain thought it as well to run in towards the 
land and anchor in smooth water till the weather abated. Having anchored in 
a protected spot, Tuckey determined to send some flour and sugar ashore to 
the natives, with a view to establishing friendly relations with the tribes there- 
about, in the event of his wanting to engage them, at any friture time, for the 
pearling. While pulling on shore in the ship's boat, one of the hands remarked 
that there were two Malays on the beach with the natives. On landing, they 
proved to be the two survivors of the crew of the Stefano, and from them 
Capt. Tuckey learnt tJie sad tale of the loss of the ship and the sufferings of 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES. 231 

the crew. He brought them to Fremantle, and informed the proper authorities 
of what had occurred. The natives made no reference to their having had 
any previous acquaintance with white men during the time these young men 
remained with them." 

The Herald of the 27th May 1876 adds—" The hospitality of the natives 
at the north-west towards the crew of the Stefano has been recognised by the 
Government, and is to be rewarded. The Rosette^ Capt. Vincent, takes two 
bags of flour, one bag of sugar, twelve lookingrglasses, one dozen sheath 
knives, and ten pounds of tobacco, for distribution among the natives at Point 
Cloates." 

Many of the early settlers of Western Australia were much attached to the 
natives who had so often helped them in their greatest need, with a patience of 
fatigue, and with intelligence superior to that of the white men, especially in 
times of flood, when, but for them, many of them would have been ruined. 
Some of the settlers on the Canning River and in the York district were, at 
times, almost dependent on the natives for food, and this during a course of 
years. They would bring them in game, tend their little flocks, help to clear 
and cultivate the land, and be their messengers and letter-carriers with a 
cheerfiil unselfishness and fidelity which were quite exemplary. It was only 
necessary to understand them and treat them judiciously to make them very 
valuable allies and helps. 

K Messrs. Burke and Wills, on their return to Cooper*s Creek, after their 
daring dash across the continent, had understood the natives whom they found 
there, and exhibited a friendly bearing towards them, they would, in all proba- 
bility, have learned from them that the pariy who had been left in charge of 
the dep6t camp was only a day's journey ahead. A communication would have 
been opened up, and in the meantime the natives would have sustained them 
with fish ; instead of which, these brave men were driven by hunger to eat some 
fish-bones which had been left by the blacks, and finally perished from 
starvation. 

Aversion to strangers appears to be the natural result of ignorance. Until 
recently, when the diffusion of knowledge has become more general, we find 
that absurdly disparaging notions regarding their neighbours prevailed even 
among the most civilized nations — as, for instance, it used to be believed, within 
the last half-century, in England, that one Englishman could beat three 
Frenchmen. The savage, who has no knowledge of any people beyond a very 
limited area around his own territory, naturally views strangers with alarm and 
dislike. 

When, therefore, we find that weary travellers, such as Burke, Wills, and 
King, were unmolested by a large and comparatively powerftil tribe, it does not 
seem too much to assume that these people are not always so treacherous and 
bloodthirsty as some writers would have us believe. Indeed, as soon as Burke 
and WiUs died, King fraternized with them, and was supported by them 
until succour arrived. 



232 APPBNDDC : 



Information BEOABDma thb Aborigines and their Relics. 

It is very desirable that authentic information should be obtained before 
it is too late from persons who have long resided among the Aborigines and 
have become conversant with their languages and peculiarities. These 
Europeans, as well as the natives themselves, are fast passing away, and unless 
the information be soon recorded, it will be lost for ever. 

To the student of languages the native dialects are n^ost valuable, and, if 
now preserved, might hereafter fill the most critical gaps in the history of 
mankind. 

Some gentlemen now reside in Western Australia who have been more than 
forty years among the natives, and have made them their especial study. They 
could, doubtless, supply most valuable intelligence not otherwise obtainable. 

The time is near at hand when not only the race itself will hdve disappeared, 
but no record will remain of many of their peculiarities, of the traditions of the 
tribes, of their characters and characteristics, and of the acts of those individuals 
whose biographies would be useful and interesting as being tjrpical of this 
family of mankind. 

Even now, as we travel through the country, we find but few indications of 
a previous race having occupied it. Two of these are, the marks cut on trees, 
which will soon disappear ; and the " native ovens," or mirnyongs. 

1. The marks on the trees are merely where pieces of bark have been cut 
out for va;*ious purposes, or where notches have been made to assist in 
climbing; of course, these will soon be obliterated, but, fortunately, the other 
monuments of a more durable description will remain. 

2. These are the mirnyongs, called by the colonists "native ovens." They 
occur, so far as I am aware, only in the eastern and south-eastern portions of 
Australia, where the soil is less absorbent and the climate wetter, and in some 
parts colder, than the sandy territory of Western Australia. 

They are what Sir Charles Lyell terms " kitchen refuse heaps," when writing 
of similar mounds under the peat mosses of Denmark, and are composed of 
ashes, fine charcoal, fragments of bones, and other remains after cooking and 
eating. 

They are found in the valleys of rivers and creeks, on the margins of lakes 
and lagoons, just inside the " points of timber " or portions of forest which 
project into the plains, on rising grounds in the plains, near the sea-shore, and 
in every locality where fish, game, or food of any description is to be found. 

The positions of the mirnyongs have been carefully selected, so that, as fe^T 
as possible, the occupants may obtain an extensive view of the surrounding 
country, while they themselves are screened from any passer by. 

When a company of natives returns after a day's hunting and foraging, the 
women take a fresh supply of firewood and stones. These last are sometimes 
found on the "ovens" in localities remote from where any stones are known to 
exist. Thus, in the course of centuries, they become large mounds, affording 
comfortable camping-places as compared with the often wet and scrubby ground 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES. 233 

tironnA There they bake their opossame, kangaroos, lizards, fish, frogs, roots, 
and whatever else Uiey may have taken daring the day. 

These ash-heaps vary in size from ten to one hnndred feet in diameter, and 
from a few inches to eight or ten feet in height, depending on their age, the 
frequency of their use, and the nomber of persons resorting to them. They 
doubtless conceal many lost stone hatchets and other implements and ornaments. 

I sabjoin a sketch (Fig. 247) of some large mimyon^s which occur at the 
outlet of Lake Oonnewarren, about five miles south-west from Mortlake, in the 
County of Hampden, Victoria. 



"Native ovens" are called by the natives of the Werribee, Goomtuf;* of 
Fiery Creek, Tallum ; of the Lower Avoca, Bolap ; of Mount Emu, Moormtng ; 
and by others Mirnyong; in which they bake eels, roote, Ac 

No. 1 is 102 by 90 feet in diameter, 310 feet in circumference, S feet high 
from the east side, and 6 feet from the west side. 

No. 2 is 104 by 99 feet in diameter, 318 feet in circumference, and 6 feet high. 

No, 3 is 96 by 84 feet in diameter, and 3 feet high. 

No. 4 ia 87 by 75 feet in diameter, 3^ feet high on east, and 2 feet high on 
the west side. 

There are no trees within about 200 yards. 

They must be of great antiquity, for there is but little firewood in the 
vicinity, and only small fires would suffice to cook the eels taken from the 
adjacent lagoon. It abounds with large eels, and a few years ago, when the 
flood-waters overflowed, the eels escaped from their overcrowded breeding basin 

* A parlih near Bkllan ia uaiaed Oonmg, 
VOL. n. 2 Q 



234 APPENDIX: 

in scores of tons. It was on that occasion that a few natives, the remnant of 
their tribe, stood beside the outlet bewailing the sad fact that there were no 
more blackfellows to eat the eels. 

There are also some large shell-monnds on the coast, especially near Cape 
Otway, where the largest is about three hundred feet long, forty or fifty feet 
wide, and sixteen feet high. It must have taken ages for the fish-eating natives 
of the coast to build up such heaps. 

In many parts of the country the mimyongs have been destroyed by the 
agricultural settlers, who use them for manure. In future years the ethnologist 
will doubtless search many of them for relics of a lost race whose condition and 
habits they will indicate. 

As they are the oldest, so they will be the most durable records of perhaps 
the most primitive people on the face of the earth. They resemble, as I have 
said, the Kjbkenmoddings^ or kitchen refuse heaps, of Denmark, in which pieces 
of stone have been found, and fragments of the bones of animals on which the 
savages of that country and remote period fed. From the texture of the bones, 
Professor Owen has been able to determine the kinds of animals to which they 
belonged. 

I would suggest that some of the largest of these mounds be scientifically 
examined, with a view of ascertaining whether they contain any relics or imple- 
ments differing from those in use at the present time. 

At a meeting of the Ethnological Society in London, in 1864, Sir Charles 
Nicholson alluded to the discovery of great numbers of flint implements by Mr. 
Gregory, in immense tumuli near the sea, during his explorations in Australia. 

Major Mitchell mentions circular mounds with trenches round them, being 
the tombs of a tribe on the Darling Downs. I am not, however, aware of any 
tumuli in Western, Southern, or South-Eastem Australia, although the natives 
have sometimes buried their dead in the mimyongs which I have just described. 
I have taken out portions of the skeleton of an Aboriginal man from one of these 
mounds near Lake Purrumbete, not far from Camperdown ; and as many as five 
or six skeletons have been found in one mound. But I think they have only 
latterly been used as places of interment, when the natives had so diminished in 
numbers as no longer to require them for camping purposes. It is very likely, 
too, that they were induced to use the forsaken mounds as burial-places by the 
consideration that the deceased would like to repose in so comfortable a place, 
which he had so often tenanted during life, and also because of the greater 
facility with which they could burrow the grave in the ash-mound than in the 
hard ground. 

There are, however, still other memorials of the late numerous but now 
almost extinct inhabitants of the extensive basaltic plains of the Western district 
of Victoria. Some stone mia-mySy or shelters, may still occasionally be found ; 
there are a few on the western margin of the Stony lUses, south of Lake 
Purrumbete. 

In one of Chambers's Tracts on The Monuments of Unrecorded Ages it is 
stated that " stone-circles " are numerous in Victoria — ^that they are from ten 
to one hundred feet in diameter, and that sometimes there is an inner circle ; 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES. 235 

'ialso, that the Aborigines have no traditions regarding them ; that when asked 
about them they invariably deny knowledge of their origin. • 

I can safely affirm that these statements are quite incorrect — ^there are no 
such circles, and never were, I am convinced that no structures of a monu- 
mental character were ever erected by any of the Aborigines of Australia. Nor 
can the megalithic circles alluded to be referred to any natural appearance in 
any of the more recent overflows of basalt. 

The authority for the statement regarding the stone-circles in Victoria is a 
paper by the late Sir Jas. Y. Simpson, in the Proceedings of the Society of 
Antiquaries (Scotland), quoted in Sir J. Lubbock's Pre-Historic Times. Mr. 
Ormond, in a letter to Sir. J. Y. Simpson (page 122), says that he has seen 
many, especially near the Mount Elephant Plains in Victoria, and he then gives 
the above description of them. 

Mr. Ormond may possibly have alluded to the mior-mys or camping-places 
which have been found in open and exposed places, where the natives formed 
rude stone-circles merely for the purpose of shelter from the keen winds which 
sometimes sweep over the plains. Flat stones of basalt often occur only a few 
inches thick, and having two or three square feet of surface ; these have been 
collected by the natives and set on edge, but have generally been removed by 
the settlers for the purpose of building the stone walls with which the country 
is now intersected in every direction. 

Mr. Peter Manifold, who has resided on his estate in the district in question 
for more than thirty years, has kindly given me the following valuable informa- 
tion on the subject ; — 

" The stone-circles are made by the natives, and are always found in exposed 
situations where timber is difficult to obtain. The natives there formed these 
break-winds of stones, placed on edge in a circular form, some of them very 
perfect, leaving the opening generally towards the east, the prevailing 
winds coming from the north-west and south-west. These circles are common 
on the plains or eastern part of this property, where branches of trees could 
not be procured for giving shelter. When we first occupied this country, 
it was quite common for the natives to use these circles as camping-places, 
always having the fires in the centre. The fires were very small, as they had 
frequently to carry the wood long distances. The circles are generally formed 
of large stones set on their edges, and bedded in the ground close together, 
without any other stones on the top, thus forming good protection from the 
wind as they lay around the fire. The stones are of the common basalt, there 
being no other in the district. The situation selected was generally where 
water was convenient, or in some favorable place for game. The circles were 
about the size of the ordinary mia-mysj that is from ten to twenty feet in 
diameter." 

I may add that the European shepherds have been in the habit of con- 
structing rubble-walls in circles for the same purpose of protection from the 
winds. 

On a little basalt islet in Lake Wongan, about seven miles north-east from 
Streatham, I observed an ancient Aboriginal work consisting of extensive 



20O APPENDIX: 

rows of large stones, forming passages ap and doim, like a maze, at the foot of 
a little hiU. A semicircolar walk, ten feet wide, has been made hy clearing 
and Bmoothing the roogh rocky sorface np the hiU and down again leading 
into the maze. This work was possibly execated for the purpose of carrying on 
some mystic rites, or probably only for the amnsement of nmning between the 
rows of stones and np the hill and down again. 

Also, Mr. A. C. Allan, Inspector-GIeneral of SnrreyB, has informed me that 
during a recent joomey in the Tattiara country, near the South Australian 



border, he noticed a number of stone walls, two or three feet high, which had 
been constmcted by the natives, radiating from a little cave in the gromid, and 
forming irregnlar passages. 

I can only conjectnre that these and other similar works have been nsed by 
the Aborigines, in times past, for purposes of incantation. 

Illdbtbatioits of Physical Chabactbristicb. 
The men are rather active and sinewy than strong and muscular. They are 
well-formed and broad in the chest, though generally rather slender in the 



NOTES AND AKBCDOTES. 237 

Mr. Knight, of Weatem Australia, in hia little book on that colony, says — 
" The limbs of a well-formed Australian man exhibit a nice symmetry and a 
fine muscular developmeut. His agility and flexibility of body when running 
or otherwise actively engaged are advautageonsly displayed ; hia posture when 
throwing a spear is extremely graceful; and hie gait and bearing when walking 
are even dignified." 

The annexed engravings (Figs. 248 and 249) of a King Qeoi^'s Sound 
native, with bis old wife and child, are from drawings by the late Deputy 
Assistant CommisBary-General Neill. 



They are very characteristic and trne to the life. 

The natives appear to have just risen from the camp-fire, being equipped 
for a day's foraging excursion within their own territory, for the man haa 
but one spear. They wear the usual cloak {boko) made with three or four 
skins of the female kangaroo, the furry aide being next to the body, while 
the outside of the boka, as well as the faces and bodies of the wearers, are 
anointed with wilghee. The man is ornamented with a bunch of emu feathers 
on each arm, and feathers of the black cockatoo on his head, which is bound 
round with string {nulban) made of opossum {koomal) fur. The barbed spear 
{kidgi) is fixed in the throwing-board {miro) ready for use. 



238 APPENDIX: 

The woman (j/agd) is evidently the old wife or fag, the relict of some 
deceased relative. The yonnger wife is probably more lazy, and will follow 
by-and-bye. 

This old woman carries the indispensable wannay or yam-stick, the pointed 
end being ronnded on one side and flat on the other, and charred to make 
it hard. With this she hopes to supply the {koto) bag at her back with the 
roots of orchids and other tubers. She will also put into it frogs {gyy^j 
opossums {gu7n4il)j killed by her husband, and anything else she may desire 
to carry. Her frightfully attenuated limbs remind one of the hardships she 
has endured,' but it is not to be supposed that they illustrate the limbs of the 
women generally, some of whom have very good arms and legs. The little 
boy will of course make his mother carry him all day. 

Stature is doubtless much influenced by local circumstances. The average 
height in Western Australia is, I think, equal to, but in Victoria rather below 
the European standard. In the former colony, some tall men and women used 
to be seen about Fremantle, the Murray estuary, and King George's Sound. 
Indeed the tribes frequenting those places included some very fine specimens of 
the human figure; a sculptor might select some of either sex as models of 
human beauty. I remember when on an expedition, in 1851, to the north-east 
of the Toolbrunup (or Stirling) Range, my party was one day joined by a huge 
native and his little wife. This brawny savage man was about six feet two or 
three inches in height, and broad in proportion, with enormous limbs, and was 
covered all over with hair. His wife, who was carrying a child at her back, did 
not appear to be more than thirteen or fourteen years old. Then, among the 
tall women, the old residents of Fremantle will remember one remarkably tall 
fine old woman, who used occasionally to visit the town from Pinjarra. The 
limbs of some of these women were as well developed as in the European type, 
the calves of the legs being as large. This is not, however, generally the case 
in most parts of Australia. The lower extremities are often very attenuated in 
those tribes where food is scarce and not easily obtained ; yet, with this apparent 
defect, there is much greater pliability of muscle than in other races. 

Dwarfs or cripples are never seen among the natives. 

The skin is as soft as the finest velvet. This is probably caused to some 
extent by the use of mlghee — an unguent composed of red-ochre and grease-— 
with which they anoint themselves. A supply of wilghee is generally carried 
by the women in their bags for the use of the party when they encamp in the 
evening. They then rub it over their faces and often over the whole body as 
they sit round their fires. Once, when travelling with a native guide, he saw 
that I was much inconvenienced by the great heat and the clouds of mosquitoa 
and files, and said — " What for white fellow all same fool ? use um soap too 
much, instead of wilghee^ 

In the warmer parts of Asia travellers carry oil with them, not only for food, 
but also to anoint their limbs in the evening, which have been scorched during 
the day by the sun and blistered by the winds. The ancient Hebrews sometimes 
anointed the whole body, though generally only the head and feet ; and Niebuhr 
states that in Yemen the anointing of the body is believed to strengthen and 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES. 239 

protect it from the heat of the sun, by which the inhabitants of that province 
Bre so liable to suffer. 

The skull of a native is thick and strong ; the frontal process consists of 
compact bone of great thickness overhanging and protecting the eyes. The 
cranium often exhibits deficiencies in those organs which are regarded as indi- 
cative of the moral qualities. 

My friend the late Dr. Henry Landor, in one of a series of letters to the 
Perth Inquirer J dated June J 842, writes as follows : — 

" Whilst describing the form of the Australian skull, I shall point out the 
difference between it and those of some other races without giving a description 
of skulls in general, which would unnecessarily lengthen my letter. 

" Of all the peculiarities in the form of the bony fabric, those of the skull 
are the most striking and distinguishing. It is in the head that we find the 
varieties most strongly characteristic of the different races. The characters of 
the countenance, and the shape of the features, depend chiefly on the conformar 
tion of the bones of the head. The Australian skull belongs to that variety 
called the prognathous, or narrow, elongated variety; yet it is not so striking 
an example of this variety as the negro skull. If the skull be held in the hand 
so that the observer looks upon the vertex, the first point he remarks is the 
extreme narrowness of the frontal bone, and a slight bulging where the parietal 
and occipital bones imite. He also sees distinctly through the zygomatic arches 
on both sides, which in the European skull is impossible, as the lateral portions 
of the frontal bone are more developed. The summit of the head rises in a 
longitudinal ridge in the direction of the sagittal suture, so that from the 
sagittal suture to that portion of the cranium where the diameter is greatest 
the head slopes like the roof of a house. The forehead is generally flat ; the 
upper jaw rather prominent ; the frontal sinuses large ; the occipital bone is 
flat, and there is a remarkable receding of the bone from the posterior insertion 
of the occipito-frontalis muscle to the foramen-magnum. 

" It is a peculiar character of the Australian skull to have a very singular 
depression at the junction of the nasal bones with the nasal processes of the 
frontal bone. This may be seen in an engraving in Dr. Pritchard's work. I 
have before described the teeth. I also mentioned in my last letter the remark- 
able junction of the temporal and parietal bones at the coronal suture, and 
consequently the complete separation of the sphenoid from the parietal, which 
in European skulls meet for the space of nearly half an inch. Professor Owen 
has observed this conformation in six out of seven skulls of young chimpanzees, 
and Professor Mayo tias also noticed it in the skulls he has examined. But 
although this is a peculiarity found in this race alone, it is not constant. I 
have a skull in which the sphenoid touches the parietal on one side, whilst on 
the other they are separated a sixth of an inch ; and in the engraving before 
referred to the two bones are slightly separated, but by no means to the extent 
that they are in European skulls. The supra and infra orbital foramina are 
very large, and the orbits are broad, with the orbital ridge sharp and prominent. 
All the foramina for the transmission of the sensiferous nerves are large — ^the 
auditory particularly so ; while the foramen, through which the carotid artery 



240 APPENDIX: 

enters the Bkoll, is small. The mastoid processes are large^ which might be 
expected, as their hearing is acute. The styloid process is small ; in monkeys 
it is wanting. The position of the foramen-magnum, as in all savage tribes, is 
more behind the middle transverse diameter than in Europeans, but this arises 
in a great measure, though not entirely, from the prominence of the alveolar 
processes of the upper-jaw. Owing to constant exposure to all seasons, the 
skulls of savages are of greater density and weigh heavier than those of 
Europeans : — 

AToirdnpois. 
lbs. oz. 

Skull of a Greek 1 Hi 

„ Negro 2 

„ Mulatto 2 10 

„ Chinese ------17^ 

Gipsy 2 

„ Australian - - - - -11 2^ 

" Upon an examination of the foregoing points of diversity, it is unquestion- 
able that the Australian skull is inferior in development to the European, and 
the capacity of the cranium much less.'' 

The doctor proceeds to say : — " Their morality cannot be at a lower ebb 
than it is at present. The females are, many, if not most of them, prostitutes 
from childhood, and the men not only connive at, but openly offer their wives 
for the worst of purposes. It is lamentable that the iniquitous example set 
to the Aboriginal inhabitants has, in all countries occupied by the English, 
been attended with the like evil results — ^the retardation of Christianity, and 
the introduction of European vices and fatal diseases (some of the latter have 
not yet arrived in this colony, but they assuredly will come whenever immigra- 
tion is extensive). It needs only to refer to our own experience, and to the 
Beport of the Select Committee on Aborigines published in 1837, to prove all 
this. There, three able Missionaries are asked, ^Is it your opinion that 
Europeans coming into contact with native inhabitants of our settlements 
tends to deteriorate the morals of the natives, to introduce European vices, 
to spread amongst them new and dangerous diseases, to the seduction of native 
females, to prevent the spread of Christianity, and that the effect of European 
intercourse has been. upon the whole a calamity on the heathen nations?' 
Mr. Ellis, Mr. Beacham, Mr. Coates: *Yes, yes, yes.' ^ As far as you 
know, in instances of contention between Europeans and natives, has it 
generally been found that Europeans were in fault?' Mr. Coates, Mr. 
Beacham : ^ Yes, yes.' Mr. Ellis : ^I have not met with an instance in which, 
when investigated, it has not been found that th^ aggression was on the part 
of Europeans.' " 

I have now before me the skulls of five Australian Aborigines, one New 
Zealander, an Englishman, a Chinaman, a Negro, and a North American 
Indian. They are all frilly-developed specimens. No. 1, from South Australia, 
is a very large and heavy skull, of the lowest Australian type of any that I 
ever examined. It nearly accords with Dr. Lander's description. No. 2 is in 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES. 241 

every respect a better head. Nos. 3 and 4 were taken out of a mirnyong near 
Fiery Creek in Victoria ; they are very like each other in all the parts referred 
to by Dr. Landor, but are not long or narrow, nor is there the bulging where 
the parietal and occipital bones meet, as there is in the American skull. If 
held in the manner described, the observer cannot see through the zygomatic 
arches, although he can plainly do so in No. 1. The smnmit of the head does 
not rise as stated; the forehead and occipital bone are not flat. The supra 
and infra orbital and the auditory foramina are very large in both specimens. 
The point of the mastoid process from the edge of the auditory foramen is 
under half an inch in these skulls, while in No. 1 and the Negro skull it 
exceeds an inch. The styloid processes are well developed. I submit, there- 
fore, that Dr. Lander's conclusion that the Australian skull is unquestionably 
inferior in development to the European has been arrived at on insufficient 
data. His residence in Western Australia was brief. Bad heads in the 
European iype are not uncommon, but cannot be accepted as fair examples 
of the race. 

*^ The present state of degradation and immoraliiy of the natives is beyond 
a question ; that it is also owing in a great measure to evil example is not to 
be denied. It is also undeniable that no effort of Government could have 
prevented this result. More has undoubtedly been done, and is doing, in this 
colony than in any other, to improve and protect them, but there is also much 
remaining to be done. Strenuous are the efforts now making to teach them 
the blessings of the Gospel; and it would be well to provide them with the 
means of honestly maintaining themselves by teaching them some handicraft, 
or by planting the castor-oil tree, which will flourish in any situation ; they 
might pick the seeds preparatory to pressing, and the oil might eventually 
become an article of export to any extent. Silk might also find them 
employment. 

^^ Although their conformation precludes them from arriving at great attain- 
ments, individuals are to be met with possessing well-made heads, and perhaps 
with talents superior to many white men — and cultivation will undoubtedly in 
a few generations effectually improve them. Experience and research have 
shown that inferior mental powers accompany inferior development, and that 
gradual cultivation of the mind improves the development. In the examination 
of the skulls found in the barrows and burial-places of the Ancient British there 
is a striking departure from the Grecian model ; the amplitude of the anterior 
parts of the cranium is very much less, giving a comparatively small space for 
the anterior lobes of the brain. In this particular the ancient inhabitants of 
Britain appear to have differed very considerably from the present. The latter, 
either as the result of many ages of greater intellectual cultivation, or from 
some other cause, have much more capacious brain-cases than their forefathers. 

^' It may be urged that I have drawn conclusions from too few facts, and too 
limited observation. I admit that the observations are more limited than I 
could have wished ; but if facts as well authenticated be opposed to these, 
and observations more extensive be made, I shall not hesitate to alter my 
opinions." 

VOL. n. 2 H 



242 APPENDED: 

Mr. Buckle, in his History of Civilization (London, 1867), says : — " It 
may be that, owing to some physical causes still unknown, the average 
capacity of the brain is, if we compare long periods of time, becoming 
gradually greater ; and that therefore the mind, which acts through the brain, 
is, even independently of education, increasing in aptitude and in the general 
competence of its views. Such, however, is still our ignorance of physical 
laws, and so completely are we in the dark as to the circumstances which 
regulate the hereditary transmission of character, temperament, and other 
personal peculiarities, that we must consider this alleged progress as a very 
doubtful point; and in the present state of our knowledge we cannot safely 
assume that there has been any permanent improvement in the moral or 
intellectual faculties of man; nor have we any decisive ground for saying 
that these faculties are likely to be greater in an infant bom in the most 
civilized part of Europe than in one born in the wildest region of a barbarous 
country. Whatever, therefore, the moral and intellectual progress of men 
may be, it resolves itself, not into a progress of natural capacity, but into 
a progress of opportunity ; that is, an improvement in the circumstances under 
which that capacity, after birth, comes into play. The progress is one not 
of internal power, but of external advantage. The child bom in a civilized 
land is not likely, as such, to be superior to one born among barbarians." 

The facial angle approaches closely to the Caucasian type, and is some- 
times identical with it. The phreno-metrical angle in skull No. 1 measures 40 
degrees from a horizontal line, taking the opening of the ear as the centre. 
In No. 3 it is 29 degrees ; in No. 4, 30 degrees ; in my own head it is 25 
degrees. It may, however, be remarked that the physical endowments of a 
tribe cannot be fairly estimated by these angles, which do not measure the 
quantity of the brain. 

I have examined many skulls of the Aborigines, and have observed much 
diversity of shape. A few years ago I excavated portions of a number 
of skulls of a tribe from the cliflf overhanging the sea on the east of the 
Gellibrand River in Victoria. I have also seen sections of skulls sawn 
asunder, and my humble opinion is that a correct idea cannot be formed 
by the inspection of only a few skulls, such, for instance, as were examined 
by Mr. H. Landor, or probably were seen by Sir Charles Lyell in the Hunterian 
Museum.* 

The hair is usually black and straight, wavy or curly ; but, as in the case 
of Wengaly a native boy whom I educated, it is sometimes brown. It is thick 
and rather coarse, and being matted together with wilgheej serves the purpose 
of an artificial covering. 

At Swan River, and on the east of the Darling Range, the men let their 
hair grow long, while the women cut theirs. A woman lays her head on the 
lap of another, who saws the hair off with small splinters of quartz. The 
practice of wearing the hair long is not peculiar to these men. The men of 
the better sort of people among the Chinese let theirs grow long, and it seems 



* See the profiles opposite page 248, 



NOTES Am) ANECDOTES. 24a 

to grow much longer than that of the Australian Aboriginal men, who some^ 
times tie their hair into a tuft on the top of the head, instead of letting 
it hang down in a long queue, for which indeed I have never seen it long 
enough. The Hebrews in the time of David considered it a glory to have 
their hair long and abundant, though in later times it was ^^a shame" for men 
to wear it long. 

The usual color of the skin is a chocolate-brown. Wengfaly who lived with 
me for six and a half years, was of this color ; his skin was beautifully soft, 
and so transparent that a blush could be plainly seen on his face. 

I measured an active fellow named Kibra, for the purpose of comparing 
the length of his leg from the sole of his foot to the top of his knee-cap with 
my own. My proportions are a fair average for an Englishman. I found my 
total height to be sixty-seven and a half inches, and to the top of the knee-cap 
twenty and a quarter inches, and that of Kibra sixty-nine and a half inches 
and twenfcy-four and a half inches, showing a greater length of the tibia in 
proportion to his height, as compared with my own, of about four inches. 

The flexibility and strength of the toes of a native are remarkable. He can 
seize anything with his toes almost as well as with his fingers. When he 
ascends a tree, it is his great toe placed in the notch he has cut that supports 
his weight. I have often been amused at seeing native lads riding wild young 
horses with only the great toe in the stirrup. 

They have an active grasping power in the feet and toes, which gives them 
80 firm a tread, or so determined a stand, that they seem to lay hold of or 
grasp the ground in a manner inconceivable to those the power of whose feet 
is cramped by the habitual use of shoes or sandals. 

As an instance of the wonderful adaptation of the natives to their mode 
of life, I may mention that during parturition the women stand against a tree 
or stump, while another woman assists in the delivery. When this takes 
place during a journey, the mother travels on as soon as the event is over, 
having first rubbed the infant over with sand. 

The children are not generally weaned until they are three or four years old, 
but the girls always sooner than the boys — just as in Persia and other Asiatic 
countries, where the male children are often kept to the breast till three years 
old, but the girls not so long. The children are not carried in the arms, but 
when very young in a bag at the back, and afterwards sitting astride on the 

mother's shoulder. 

> 

Although no children are now bom to the few poor wretches who remain to 
wander about the goldfields of Victoria, yet they are on the increase at some of 
the Aboriginal stations. Several pure Aborigines have recently been born at the 
Moravian Station near Lake Hindmarsh. 

The natives may be said to be hardy in some respects, but delicate in others ; 
as, for instance, the irregularity and uncertainty of their diet would be fatal to 
a white man. They often remain at their huts in a listless state for days and 
nights together, when suddenly some of them will undertake a long and fatiguing 
journey, travelling night and day, or other violent exercise, as the corobboree. 



244 APPENDEL: 

hunting, &c. Again, after enduring the scorching heat of the sun during the 
day, they will often lie on wet ground, exposed to the bitter cold of the night, 
quite uncovered. They will also recover from injuries, such as spear wounds 
through the body, which would certainly be fatal to any person who had been 
in the habit of living in a house. Yet, with all this apparent hardiness, we see 
them fSstde away before the white man ; change their mode of life, put them to 
live in houses, and they inevitably perish. 



Agility and Skill. 

Some of the men are great runners. The apparent ease with which they get 
over the ground is astonishing. At one time, when I was encamped in the 
Darling Bange, a man used to run five miles to a station and the same distance 
back every morning before breakfast for a bottle of milk, and was well satisfied 
with a pannikin of flour and a cup of tea by way of payment. So great is the 
tendency to resist aggression, that the skin of the soles of the feet of these men 
becomes a quarter of an inch thick. ' 

The muscles of the body and limbs follow the eye with a wonderftd rapidity, 
and the men wiU execute any attempted feat with ahnost unerring precision. 

I may refer to the eleven Victorian Aboriginal cricketers, who, a few years 
ago, with great credit, met not only some of the best colonial clubs, but when 
in England proved that some of them, at least, were almost unrivalled in some 
pai;ts of the game. Mulhigk^ if I remember rightly, was acknowledged to be 
one of the best of batsmen. 

When we consider from what a very small number of men these indigenous 
sons of the soil were chosen, what little and desultory practice they had, and 
what a favorable opinion they evoked both here and in England, I think some 
of the prejudice which so generally prevails against the Australian Aborigines 
will in some measure be removed ; and I may here remark that this prejudice is 
seldom if ever found to exist among those old colonists who had the opportunity 
of observing the natives when the white people first came to their countiy. 

Wherever whaling stations have been established, the natives have proved 
themselves to be very valuable assistants. They make the best of "look-out" 
men. I have known a native sit day after day on a promontory in the keen 
wind or burning sun looking out to sea for a whale. They enter heartily into 
the sport, and make excellent "pull-away hands" in the whale-boats. 

I knew at least one boat at King George's Sound in which the headsman 
and all the crew were Aborigines. In this dangerous employment they evinced 
great enthusiasm and considerable physical power and endurance. Of course 
their energies were stimulated by the prospect of the feast they would have if 
successful ; but it must be confessed that the manner in which they gorged 
themselves when a whale was captured was very disgusting. 

I have sometimes been astonished at the strength of the women in carrying 
burdens and lifting weights. I remember on one of my excursions we stopped 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES. 245 

to encamp late one evening at a place where firewood was scarce. Two of the 
soldiers of my party, who went in search of some, came to a large log, which 
I saw them try to lift— one at each end — bnt, considering it too heavy, they 
left it to go fhrther. Shortly afterwards, a party of natives coming np, the 
soldiers sent some of them for wood, and I saw a woman go and take np the 
same log and carry it on her shoulders to our camp. 

When travelling, the women often carry all the possessions of the tribe, 
sometimes including the spare weapons of the men, together with those children 
who are too yonng or too lazy to walk. 

I have seen, on the Melbourne Cricket Ground, a native stand for probably 
half an hour dodging cricket-balls, which were thrown at him with great force 
by skilled bowlers, from a distance of only about ten or fifteen yards. Had 
some of the balls struck him in certain parts of the body, they might have 
killed him. Yet he depended, with the utmost self-possession, on the quickness 
of his eye and his agility, aided only by a narrow wooden shield. 

We have seen the daring and clever acrobats in Chiarini's circus turn 
summersaults over seven or eight horses ; but, a few years ago, I saw a New 
South Wales Aborigine spring from a low board, heels-over-head, over eleven 
horses, and it was stated that he sometimes jumped in a similar manner over 
fourteen. I saw the same man leap from the ground, and in going over he 
dipped his head, unaided by his hands, into a hat placed in an inverted position 
on the top of the head of another man sitting upright on horseback — both man 
and horse being of the average size. The native landed on the other side of the 
horse with the hat fairly on his head. The prodigious height of the leap, and 
the precision with which it was taken so as to enable him to dip his head into 
the hat, exceeded any feat of the kind I have ever beheld.* 

All the men in Western Australia appear to be, in their wild state, good 
climbers. They climb the tallest and largest trees, even when straight, by 
cutting small notches, in which they insert the great toe, helping themselves up 
by leaning with the hand on the pointed handle of the hammer or kaclfOy which 
they strike into the soft bark like a spike. 

Sir George Grey notices the skill displayed by the Aborigines in well- 
sinking in Western Australia. Mr. Eyre also met with similar constructions 
in his journey, in 1841, from Port Lincoln to King George's Sound. He says — 
^^ These singular wells, although sunk through loose sand to a depth of fourteen 
or fifteen feet, were only about two feet in diameter at the bore, quite circular, 
carried straight down, and the work beautifully executed." 

Similar wells may be seen in the sandy desert in the north-western portion 
of Victoria and in South Australia. I have also seen both men and women 
sinking in loose sandy soil for an edible root called warran, one of the dioscoreee, 

* Some yean ago, on the Upper Murray, on a public holiday, when the popolation was 
assembled to witness the athletic games, a number of white men were engaged throwing a cricket- 
ball for a prize ; the greatest distance that any one of them could delirer it was ninety-siz yards ; 
when a little native man standing by was called upon to compete— to the astonishment of all, he 
threw the baU one himdred and nineteen yards. 



246 APPENDIX: 

which geoerallj grows ahoot the thictneBB of a maa'a thnmb, and to tlie depth 
of four to six or eight feet. It has a delicate sweetish flaTonr when roasted in 
hot ashes, something like that of a chestmit, and is much songht after. It is 
dangeroos to travel on horseback throagh the country where it grows, on 
account of the frequency and depth of the holes, which are not more than ahont 
eighteen or twenty inches in diameter. I have sometimes been made aware of 
their proximity by seeing small qnantities of sand jumping up before me, and, 
on going to see the cause, have suddenly come on a small hole among the scrub, 
80 small that I could scarcely believe a human being conld be at the bottom of 
it in a stooping position, with the knees on each side of the head. In this 
position the native dexterously throws the sand by a sudden jerk of the hand 



ExxtiMiMoo (King John). 



backwards, under the arm and up behind the shoulder. The only bald natives 
. I ever saw are the warran diggers, who are said to wear the hair off the head 
by preasiug it so frequently against the sides of these holes. 

Besides sinking wells, they have other means of obtaining water in the 
deserts, where none is to be found on the surface of the ground. In the 
Mallee scrubs they find water in the roota of the narrow-leafed Mallee, 
but only in some of the larger trees, and it requires an expert to know 
which trees contain it They trace a root that runs near the surface of 
the ground as &r as possible, and then tear it up and let the water 
trickle out of it. I have never seen this species of eucalyptus in Western 
Australia; but there they obtain water — sometimes as much as a gallon at 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES. 247 

a time — from fiaanres in the wood of the paper-bark tree, a large species 
of Melaleuca; they make a hole throngh the thick bark, aod the irater 
gashes oat ; they then plug the bole np, and find a ireBh snpply next time 
they pass that Tray. 

The powers and endarance as divers and swimmers of those Aborigines who 
inhabit the borders of rivers and the sea-coast are worthy of note. I have 
timed a maa diving in the Goulbora Biver, and fonad he cotild remain ander 
water &om one minnte fifty seconds to two minutes; bnt some of them could 
probably continne longer than this. The greater number of vesBels engaged in 
pearl-fishing off the coast of Western Australia prefer employing the natives as 
divers to undertaking a voyage for Malays. 



MOOATA (EIhk John's wife). 



I bare often been suxprised at the flexibility of the muscles even of the old 
people, ^ey are in the habit of sitting round their fires with their feet and 
legs doubled under them for honrs together, in a manner that wonld be most 
painfhl to a Eoropean, even if he could do it at all. They sometimes sit on 
their feet. 

Annexed are a few profiles of some King George's Soond Aborigines, which 
I took in 1846. Tbey are good likenesses. No. 7 is Wylie, the lad who so 
faithfully accompanied Mr. Eyre in his perilous journey round the coast, in 
1841, from Fort Lincoln to King George's Sound, and to whom Mr. £yre 
afterwards sent, from England, as an acknowledgment of his fidelity and 
serrices, a handsome double-barrelled gun, No. 8 ia his wif^ whose hair 



248 APPENDIX: 

stood erect from her forehead. No. 1 was nearly six feet high. His nose did 
not project beyond the upper lip. The poor fellow soon after died in a con- 
sumption. Nos. 2 to 6| 9 and 10, were prisoners who were sent to Perth to be 
tried for speariag cattle and sheep and stealing rice and sngar. 



Activity, iKOSKaiTT, Psrseysrance, Customs, Weapons, etc. 

When we consider that indolence is the.natnral consequence of the condition 
of these people, we shall not be surprised at finding them listless and unwilling 
to perform any act which inyolves the least more exertion than is necessary 
for their immediate purpose. Thus, a native never thinks of stooping to pick 
up anything from the ground when he can with less trouble raise it to his hand 
with his toes. But when roused to exertion by the chase, the corobboree, or 
war, he is not like the same being, but displays great activity, considerable 
powers of endurance, and much skill in effecting his purpose. 

His patience and skill in emu stalking,* in spearing ducks, kangaroos, 
and native turkeys are sometimes quite extraordinary. As he walks through 
the bush, his step is light, elastic, and noiseless ; every track on the earth 
catches his keen eye ; a leaf or fragment of a stick turned, or a blade of grass 
recently bent by the tread of one of the lower animals, instantly arrests his 
attention ; in fact, nothing escapes his quick and powerfid sight on the ground, 
in the trees, or in the distance, which may supply him with a meal or warn him 
of danger. If a decayed grass-tree be near his path (and Western Australia 
abounds with them), he knocks it down with his foot and to pieces with his 
kcul/Oj and is sure to find a supply of the larvao of a species of cerambyx 
called bardi. It has a delicate aromatic fiavour, and affords him a delicious 
treat. They are about an inch long, and sometimes fifty or a hundred are found 
boring their way through one grass-tree. 

A little examination of the trunk of a tree which may be nearly covered 
with the scratches of opossmns ascending and descending is sufficient to inform 
him whether one went up the night before without coming down again or not 
If it is up the tree, he ascends, and seldom fails in obtaining it, even though 
he may have to cut off a limb a foot thick with no better instrument than his 
stone hammer. 

They have a variety of methods of catching fish. At King George's Sound 
I have seen them take a quantity of whiting in the following manner : — ^Two 
or three women watch the shoal from the beach, keeping opposite to it, while 
twenty or thirty men and women take boughs and form a semicircle out in 
the shallow bay as far as they can go without swimming, and then, closing 
gradually in, they hedge the fish up in a small space close to the shore, whUe 
a few others go in and throw them out with their hands. By this primitive 
method, skilftdly executed, I have seen a large quantity of fish caught. At 
Swan Biver, I have watched them drive a shoal of large schnappers into water 

* See lig. 253, from a natiTe drawing. 



Natitu of Kino OEonot's Soumd. 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES. 249 

too shallow for them to swim in^ and spear and catch a great nnmber of fish 
weighing from ten to fifteen pounds each. 

On the Murray River they use boats made of a single sheet of bark, and 
on the north-west coast of Western Australia they make rough log canoes for 
fishing. In South Australia I have seen them take out to sea a beautifully- 
made net, five or six feet wide and fifty or sixty feet long, weighted at one edge 
so that, while treading the water and holding it out at full length, parallel with 
the shore, it is in a vertical position six feet deep. Others — ^men and women — 
would then swim out for a quarter of a mile or more, and, closing in, drive 
the fish against the net and then spear them. 

The Murray Eiver natives use spears for fishing made of the reed which 
grows in vast beds from Swan Hill downwards for thirty miles, and also at 
Lake Moira above the confluence of the Goulburn Biver. These spears are 
pointed with bones of the emu, or such substitute as they may be able to 
procure. They also use heavy jagged spears made of miall or other very hard 
wood for fishing. 

Much ingenuity is displayed in the manufacture of nets by the Coast tribes 
and the natives of the Murray River, from string which, where bulrushes 
grow, is made from the fibrous roqt of that plant, called on the Murray 
Balyan. They peel off the outer rind of the root, and lay it for a short 
time in the ashes ; they then twist and loosen the fibre, and by chewing obtain 
a quantity of gluten, somewhat resembling wheaten flour, which affords a 
ready and wholesome food at all timed to the tribes which inhabit the vast 
morasses iq which the reeds and bulrushes abound. They chew the root 
until nothing is left but a small ball of fibre, which somewhat resembles 
hemp. These balls are then drawn out, and rubbed with the palm of the 
hand on the bare thigh of the operator, while a small wooden spindle twirled 
with the fingers of the other hand twists and receives the string. Among 
the few specimens of art manufactured by these primitive people none are 
more like our own than the nets of South Australia and Victoria. 

Fishing with nets seems to have been a very ancient practice in different 
nations. Suetonius states that Nero was accustomed to fish with a net of 
gold and purple. Plutarch mentions corks and leaden weights as an addition 
which nets had received. Homer supposes that nets were not used by the 
ancient Egyptians. The Egyptians did, however, use weirs and toils in their 
fisheries. The use of fish-spears appears very clearly in the paintings of 
ancient Egypt. 

The modes of preparing skins, and the manufacture of cloaks, bags, mats, 
and the various weapons and implements of the Australian natives, have been 
80 often described that I need say but little more about them, my observations 
being merely of a desultory and fragmentary character. 

Tbe kadjo or stone hammer of Western Australia differs from any other on 
this continent. That of Victoria consists of one stone rubbed to an edge at one 
end, and resembles those of North Australia, as described by Sir Charles Lyell,* 

* Antiquity of Man, p. 113. 
VOL. n. 2 I 



250 APPENDIX: 

while the kadjo is formed of two chipped stones stuck on the end of a stick 
of the common wattle-tree about twelve inches long and three-quarters of an 
inch thick. The stones are chipped, the one to an edge for cutting, the other 
is left blunt for hammering. They are firagments of whinstone, which occurs in 
veins running north-east and south-west through the granite of the Darling 
Range, and are stitck on each side of the stick with the resinous gum of 
the tough-topped grass-tree, or xanthorrhcea. The strength of this gum is 
extraordinary, for I have seen a native use his kadjo to cut large limbs 
off gum-tree& without at all loosening the stones. 

Flints and other hard stones formed the tools and cutting instruments of 
almost all nations before the art of working iron was discovered. They are 
still in use among savages, and are found buried in various parts of Europe 
and Asia, showing the universality of their use where the people were ignorant 
of the use of metals. 

The Western Australians use small splinters of quartz for making the 
long deep cuts which may be seen on almost every native — ^both men and 
women — ^across the breast and arms.* With a similar fragment stuck to the 
end of a stick they dress and cut their kangaroo skins in preparing them for 
use as cloaks. They also stick thin splinters of quartz, broken with their 
teeth, in a row like teeth to the side of a short stick, to serve as a saw. 

The natives use the stem of the grass-tree to produce fire by friction. This 
is done by rapidly twirling between the hands one piece of the stick in a little 
hole bitten out of another piece placed on the ground, and retained in its 
position by the feet, the operation being assisted by a little dry grass or the 
dry fuzzy material of the withered seed-head of the grass-tree laid in the hole, 
and which soon smokes and ignites. In cold weather, native men and women 
may be seen carryingf pieces of lighted Banksia bark, which burns like touch- 
wood, under their cloaks, and with which, and a few withered leaves and dry 
sticks, a fire may soon be kindled. 

It is a remarkable ethnological fact that a people should be foxmd now 
to exist who have no means of heating water or of cooking liquid food, or 
without any culinary utensil or device of any sort ; yet such was the condition 
of the Aborigines of Western Australia when w;e came among them. Their 
only mode of cooking was to put their food into the hot ashes, sometimes 
wrapping small fish and frogs in paper-tree bark. In some other parts of 
Australia they plaster large birds, such as the black swan, with a thick 
coating of mud, and then, having made a suitable hollow in the middle of 
the ashes of a large fire, they place the mud pie into it, and cover it well 
over with hot embers and ashes, keeping up a good fire until the bird is 
cooked ; when they take it out, the feathers come away with the hard crust, 
leaving it clean and juicy. This practice does not very much differ from that 
of the Arabs and some other Asiatic people, who not unfrequently at their 
entertainments serve up a lamb or kid that has been baked whole in a hole 

* See Exodus ir., 25. 

f Abraham carried fire when he was going to offer np Isaac. 



NOTES ANP ANECDOTBa 251 

in the ground^ which^ after being heated and having received the carcass, is 
covered over with stones. 

The natives use several kinds of spears for diflferent purposes. In Western 
Australia the men never moved about without their spears, which consisted, 
when fully equipped, of eight, of which five were barbed and three serrated near 
the point with splinters of quartz stuck on with grass-tree gum. They do not 
throw with precision more than twenty or thirty yards ; but when not flurried, 
their aim is very accurate, and the spears are delivered with surprising rapidity. 

Spears are among the most ancient and universal of offensive weapons, as 
shields are for defence. A stick sharpened at one end and hardened in the fire 
was probably the first spear, and it continues to be the principal offensive 
weapon with the Australian natives. 

Shields are unquestionably the oldest and most general defensive armour in 
the world. They are mentioned in the Bible long before helmets, and are the 
only defensive armour mentioned in the books of Moses. 

Some of the ancients took much delight in ornamenting their shields with 
all sorts of figures — ^birds, beasts, and the inanimate works of Nature. In like 
manner, the natives of Western Australia — at least some tribes north from 
Perth — ^adorn their narrow shields which are made of the soft wood of the 
Nuyisia Jlorahunda. They are only about two and a half feet long by four 
inches wide in the middle, and taper to a point at each end. They are convex, 
with a handle inside, cut out of the one piece of wood, and are almost as 
light as cork, and generally elaborately carved. Many of the tribes, however, 
use no shield at all. 

The boomerang or kylie of Western Australia may possibly indicate an 
early commimication with some more civilized people, or the enjoyment of a 
much higher degree of knowledge among themselves before they relapsed into 
their present state of utter barbarism. There is much variety in the shape of 
these weapons in different parts of Australia. 

The natives use a number of different kinds of ornaments, especially the 
men,* who paint their bodies all over with various devices in red and white 
ochre on such important occasions as a corobboree. They wear bunches of emu 
feathers on the arms, a wild dog's tail round the head just over the brow, and 
bunches of the beautiful long feathers of the large black cockatoo or of the 
white cockatoo on the top of the head. The young men wear the small bone 
of the leg of the kangaroo through the cartilage of the nose as a sign of their 
having attained the age of puberty. 

On some parts of the coast the women make very pretty necklaces, two or 
three yards long, of small shells, which they string together and wind round 
their necks, letting them fall in graceftil curves over the breast. I have a very 
handsome necklace of this kind which was made by a Tasmanian native. 

The Murray Biver women make pretty but delicate necklaces with the small 
bones of the firesh-water lobster. They have several other ornaments, which I 
need not here refer to. 

* Set the cat at page 236. 



252 APPENDIX: 

The hnts of the Western Australian natives are qnickly and ingeniously 
constmcted, and are admirably adapted to the requirements of a nomadic people 
in such a dimate. In the warmer weather of the more northern parts of the 
territory they seldom make any huts, and generally go without any clothing 
whatever. 

I have seen two native women construct and complete a well-built and 
symmetrical hut in half an hour from the time they arrived on the ground 
and began to collect the materials. The huts on that side of the continent 
are always made with the grass-tree {XaiUhorrhoea arbarea)^ except where the 
paper-bark (a species of melaleiica) is occasionally used. 

These women, immediately on arriving on the ground with their tribe, set 
about collecting bundles of dead, and therefore hard, flowering stems, six or 
seven feet long, of the grass-trees which were growing around; they then 
skilfully made holes in the ground with their "yam-sticks," to receive these 
stems. They made the holes about eight inches deep in the sand, enlarging 
them at the bottom without increasing the size at the surface of the ground, 
about ten inches apart in a row, in the form of a horseshoe, the heel repre- 
senting the door-way. They then proceeded to fix the grass-tree sticks in the 
holes, adjusting them carefully, so as to converge to a common centre at the 
top. The framework being now ready, they covered it with withered curled 
grass-tree rushes, which were kept from slipping down by the hard-pointed 
seed-vessels of the sticks. The next operation was the thatching. Each 
woman having gathered a bundle of green straight grass-tree rushes, which 
she held under the left arm, proceeded expertly to throw them with her right 
hand, handful after handful, at an angle of forty-five degrees, so that when 
the sharp points stuck among the covering of dead rushes the heels or thick 
ends of the green rushes bent down by their own weight, thereby causing 
them to remain in their places. The thatching was begun at the ground, 
and continued up to the top, and when a second coating had been given, the 
hut was rain-proof and complete. The next day the heat of the sun caused 
the thatch to settle down and look smooth ; it then received a third coating. 
This thatch would renuiin compact and good, if not disturbed, for many 
months, requiring only the top to be renovated. The natives of Western 
Australia never, however, return to a hut once vacated. 

The Swan River colonists often use grass-tree rushes to thatch cottages and 
bams ; but I am sure no white man could thatch with them as well as an old 
native woman. The Europeans tie them ; but as the rushes dry, they slip down ; 
whereas in the native method there is a bend or key which prevents them from 
slipping. 

The large stone house erected in 1848 by the Spanish Missionaries, at the 
Moore Biver, took them many weeks to thatch with grass-tree rushes, which 
would fell off nearly as fast as they tied them on. 

The natives inhabiting the lacustrine district to the north of the Glenelg 
River in Victoria, and some of the tribes in North Australia, used to construct 
substantial huts, and plaster them on the outside ; but they only used them 
periodically. 



NOTES AND ANBCDOTBa 263 

The following instance of ingenuity in a native guide occurs to me. We 
had been travelling on the Darling Range for many hours on a very hot day, 
without water, when he suddenly stopped, and squeezing his head between two 
stems growing out of the hollow stump of a jarrah tree, saw water about four 
feet down at the bottom. The question arose how it was to be got at, the hole 
at top, between the stems, being very small. I confess I could not have 
obtained any of that water; but the blackfellow, without a mementos hesitation, 
made a sort of besom with some heath which he tied to the end of a long 
stick, and having scooped a basin in the ground, adroitly filled it by repeatedly 
and rapidly drawing up the water with the besom. He covered the basin 
with grass-tree rushes, which prevented the water from becoming muddy as it 
trickled out of the besom. All this he did without uttering a word until it 
was finished, when he invited me to drink first. 

As has been shown in the case of the cricketers, a native's hand and eye 
work together with marvellous rapidity and effect, and his powers of imitation 
are very great. I once saw a stockman put his whip into the hands of a native 
who had never before handled one. The handle of the whip was fourteen inches 
long, and the lash fourteen feet, of cow-hide, about one and a half inches through 
in the thickest part of the plait. The stockman had been showing his dexterity 
in cracking this formidable weapon, and handed it to the blackfellow, who, 
after two or three attempts, performed the difficult feat nearly as well as the 
Englishman. 

Endurance under Suffering. 

One day the clothes of the boy Wengalj whom I have before mentioned, 
caught fire y^n he was alone in a room. Instead of calling for assistance, 
he shut the^ODr and silently tried to extinguish the flames. His back, 
hands, and arms were so burnt that the hospital surgeon asserted that he 
believed a European so injured could not have survived ; he, however, 
recovered rapidly. 

In 1852, 1 saw a tribe at the Moore Biver who were nearly all blind. The 
warm climate and their uncleanly habits caused flies to swarm about these 
poor wretches all day long. They seemed to be eating their eyes out of the 
sockets almost uncared for. I was much surprised at beholding so many 
blind men, women, and children, apparently so contented, and the younger 
ones even cheerful. The old women always whine when they are suffering; 
but in this instance they seemed to be xmusually happy^ probably because 
when I passed their camp they had several kangaroos which had recently been 
speared by the few men who could see. There was one very large, stout, 
blind old woman among them ; she had a snowy-white beard about half an 
inch long. 

Frequent privations and brutal treatment are too often the lot of the women, 
who, as a rule, prematurely decay, though I have seen many who appeared to be 
sixty or seventy years of age. 



254 APPENDIX: 

When on an excursion in the Darling Bange on 30th May 1846, I ascer- 
tained the age of a native in the following manner. He showed me a 
grass-tree against which his mother stood when he was bom. His father had 
cut the top off to commemorate the event, after which a shoot grew out of the 
side of the stem which showed distinct annular rings ; these were forty-five 
in number, which represented no doubt the age of the man. 

I have never observed insanity, or hereditary or chronic * complaints 
among the natives. But when Swan River was first settled, in 1829, several of 
the old people were marked with small-pox, which had been among them 
many years before. 

The courage and endurance of the natives under privations and physical 
suffering has often attracted attention. They will endure painfiil surgical 
operations with scarcely a murmur. They are too plucky to complain. Wyeiir 
rmjen signifies a coward, and is a term of great reproach. Bugor means a 
brave man. 

The following interesting narratives in illustration of the wonderM powers 
of endurance of bodily pain were related to me by the Rev. Henry N. 
WoUaston, of Trinity Church, Melbourne, who was formerly an Assistant 
Colonial Surgeon in Western Australia. I copy firom his own writing : — 

No. 1. "In the summer of 1852-3, I started on horseback from Albany, 
King Creorge's Sound, to pay a visit to Mr. George Cheyne at Cape Riche, about 
seventy miles south-east from the former place, accompanied by a native on 
foot. We travelled about forty miles the first day, and camped for the night 
in a clump of tea-tree scrub, called spear-wood, near a water-hole. After cooking 
and eating our supper, I observed the native, who had said nothing to me on 
the subject, collect the hot embers of the fire together, and deliberately place 
his right foot in the glowing mass for a moment, and then sudteily withdraw 
it, stamping on the ground, and uttering a long-drawn guttural sound of mingled 
pain and satisfaction. This he repeated several times. On my enquiriAg the 
meaning of his strange conduct, he only said — ^Me carpenter make-em,' t »nd 
then showed me his charred great toe, the nail of which had been torn off by a 
tea-tree stump in which it had been caught during the journey, and the pain of 
which he had borne with stoical composure until the evening, when he had an 
opporttmity of cauterizing the wound in the primitive manner above described. 
He proceeded on his journey the next morning as if nothing had happened, his 
toe bound up in a piece of the native tea-tree bark." 

2. "When residing at Picton, near Bunbury, a native about twenty-five 
years of age applied to me, as a doctor, to extract the wooden barb of a spear, 
which, during a fight in the bush some four months previously, had entered his 
chest, just missing the heart, and penetrated the viscera to a considerable depth. 
The spear had been cut off, leaving the barb behind, which continued to force its 
way by muscular action gradually towards the back ; and when I examined him 



* Except in those ritiated by the white people, 
t That is "I am mending my foot." 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES. 255 

I could feel a hard substance between the ribs below the left blade-bone. I 
made a deep incision^ and with a pair of forceps extracted the barb^ which was 
made, as usual, of hard wood about four inches long and from half an inch to 
an inch thick. It was very smooth, and partly digested, so to speak, by the 
maceration to which it had been exposed during its four months' journey through 
the body. The wound made by the spear had long since healed, leaving only a 
small cicatrix; and after the operation, which the patient bore without flinching, 
he appeared to suffer no pain. Indeed, judging ftom his good state of health, 
the presence of the foreign matter did not materially annoy him. He was 
perfectly well in a few days." 

3. "When residing at King George's Sound, as Assistant Colonial Surgeon, 
a native presented himself to me with one leg only, and requested me to supply 
him with a wooden leg, which some settler had told him he could procure in 
Albany. He had travelled in this maimed state from Kojenup, about ninety- 
six miles in the interior, for this purpose. I examined the limb, which had been 
severed just below the knee, and found that it had been charred by fire, while 
about two inches of the partially calcined bone protruded through the flesh. I 
at once removed this with the saw ; and, having made as presentable a stump of 
it as I could, I covered the amputated end of the bone with the surrounding 
muscle, and kept the patient a few days under my care, to allow the wound to 
heal, which it did very rapidly, as I have observed is usually the case with the 
Aborigines of this country. On enquiring, the native told me that in a fight 
with other blackfellows a spear had struck his leg, and penetrated the bone below 
the knee. Finding it was serious — and I suppose taught by experience that he 
could not hope to save his leg, and fearing mortification — ^he had recourse to the 
following crude and barbarous operation, which it appears is not uncommon 
amongst these people in their native state. He, or his companions, made a fire, 
and dug a hole in the earth only sufficiently large to admit his leg, and deep 
enough to allow the wounded part to be on a level with the surface of the 
ground. He, or they, then surrounded the limb with the live coals or charcoal, 
which was replenished until the leg was literally burnt off. The cauterization 
thus applied completely checked the hadmorrhage, and he was able in a day or 
two to hobble down to the Sound with the aid of a long stout stick, although he 
was more than a week on the road. I got a wooden leg made for him by a 
clever carpenter in the town, with a suitable cup and straps and padding, and 
fitted it careftdly to the stump ; and the patient seemed highly delighted with 
his new acquisition, and took his departure for his home with apparent ease and 
comfort. A few days afterwards, however, to my surprise and amusement, 
another native brought the wooden leg back to me, with a message to the 
effect that my patient had travelled as far as Keudenup, about fifty miles 
from Albany, with his new leg, but then got tired of it, as an encumbrance, 
and sent it back to me, preferring to spend the remainder of his days with 
but one leg, rather than having two legs, one of which was only a ^make 
believe,' which had no sense, or motion, or feeling of its own. I saw and 
heard no more of my friend." 



256 APPENDIX: 

On some of thsib Mental Chabacteristics. 

Mr. Wake* says that ^^to speak of intellectoal phenomena in the Australian 
Aborigines is somewhat a misnomer. This race presents, in fact, hardly any 
of what are usually understood as the phenomena of intellect. Nor could it 
be otherwise with savages, who — almost without clothing or ornament, with few 
implements or manufactures, and with very inferior habitations, or means of 
water locomotion — ^have no aim in life but the continuance of their existence 
and the gratification of their passions, with the least possible trouble to them- 
selves. When, therefore, I speak of intellectuality, I refer to that simple 
activity of mind which is necessary to. the performance of the actions required 
for the maintenance of life, and for the display of those simple phenomena, 
almost instinctive nevertheless, in their nature, which may be supposed to 
result from the reflective exercise of the human mind on external objects, as 
distinguished from the merely instinctive thought of the animal." 

It is probable that when Mr. Wake wrote this he had no personal experience 
of the Australian Aborigines. On the other hand, Mr. Parker, who was for many 
years Assistant Protector of Aborigines at the Loddon Aboriginal Station, 
expresses his opinion as follows : — ^' Let it not for one moment be supposed 
that there are any intellectual obstacles to the Christianization and civilization 
of these people. I have always maintained that the obstacles are purely 
moral. It is the utter sensuality of their habits and dispositions that is the 
main hindrance to be overcome. They are just as capable of receiving instruc- 
tion, just as capable of mental exercises, as any more favored races. And it 
is just because their association with the European has, in so many instances, 
tended to foster and encourage this sensualism, that so little success has been 
attained in the efforts that have been made to reclaim them." 

My own humble opinion is, that the adults, whose habits are confirmed, are 
beyond the hope of reclamation ; but that the children, if taken young enough, 
are quite as capable of receiving and of profiting by instruction as the children 
of untaught parents among the white race. 

Their perceptive faculties and memory are of a superior order, but they find 
it difficult to grasp abstract ideas, or to foUow out a train of abstruse reasoning. 

Mr. Wake's remarks refer to these people as they are^ in their wild state, 
rather than to their capacity if taken young enough for mental exertion. The 
absence of all moral restraint, combined with habitual indolence — ^which, I 
suppose, is a characteristic of all savages — seems to be the immediate cause of 
their mental degradation. 



* Paper read before the Anthropological Institate ''Onthe Mental CharaeteristieM of 
Man as exemplified by the Australian Aborigines " on 17th April 1871. 

One of Uie greatest thinkers of onr time, who has recently passed from this life, remarks on 
the supposed differences of race : — " Of all ynlgar modes of escaping from the consideration of the 
effect of social and moral influences on the hnman mind, the most ynlgar is that of attributing the 
dirersities of conduct and character to inherent natural differences."— AftlTt MneipUs of PoHtieal 
Eeommuf, rol i., p. 390. 



NOTES AND ANBCDOTBa 257 

Mr. Oldfield^ as quoted by Mr. Wake^* declares that the Aborigines of 
Australia '^ cannot distinguish the picture of a man from that of any other 
object^ unless all the lesser parts^ such as the head, &c,, are much exaggerated." 
This, as the following anecdote indicates, cannot with truth be said of the 
generality of the young men and women, although it is quite likely that a stupid 
old woman, who had never seen a picture before, would not be able, at first 
sight to recognise the resemblance. And are there not many uneducated people 
of our own country who would be equally at a loss to know what a picture 
meant if they had never before seen one? 

Soon after the settlement of the York district, the natives came to believe 
that we divined with paper on which there was any writing or drawing. It 
originated in this way : — Some natives had speared some of Mr. Bland's pigs, 
and a man was arrested on suspicion at York, but no proof could be obtained 
against him, when the officer in charge of the police, Mr. Norcott, son of the late 
Sir Amos Norcott, drew a sketch on the fly-leaf of a book of this man running 
aftier a pig with a spear sticking out of its back, and showed it to the prisoner, 
who instantly recognised his own likeness, and was so struck with terror that 
he trembled all over, and admitted the offence at once, at the same time begging 
Mr. Norcott to put away the Djenga^ or devil's book. 

I have sometimes shown pictures to natives who had never before seen any, 
and they generally, at once, recognised the objects represented. 

Mr. Wake remarks, regarding their own drawings—" They may sometimes 
exhibit a certain amount of rude vigor, but, as a rule, they may be classed with 
the productions of children." Yet, placed under similar circumstances, I believe 
at least as much, and often considerably more, artistic skill is exhibited by 
them than by the untaught of our own people. 

The annexed plates (Figs. 253 and 254) are from drawings with pen and 
ink by an untaught Aboriginal lad of the Upper Murray, known as " Tommy 
Barnes." 

No. 1 gives a good idea of a war-dance at the top and a corobboree 
beneath, in which the dancers wear girdles round their bodies, and fillets of 
emu feathers or of small boughs round their legs, and hold waddies in their 
hands, which they energetically strike together, keeping time with the dance. 
The women, fourteen in number, sit together, with £heir hands uplift;ed, in the 
act of beating time on stretched skins, while behind them is a tree with a bird 
on the top of it. In the same picture the artist indicates the method of emu- 
stalking and of fish-spearing. 

No. 2 also illustrates a variety of subjects : a native man in a canoe 
catching a turtle; a pair of emus standing by their nest, and a man throwing a 
spear at one of them ; another man throwing his dowak at a large lizard ; 
another in a canoe spearing a fish, which is very well drawn; nine men are 
engaged in a mimic war-dance for the amusement of a squatter and his wife, 
who are looking on ; they are brandishing boomerangs, clubs, and shields, and 
one has a pipe in his mouth. A tame emu is standing by, doubtless belonging 

* Paper read before Anthropological Institate, 17th April 1871. 
VOL. IL 2 K 



to the station, which stands in the hac^ronnd. There ia much spirit in these 
drawings j the attitudes of some of the figoras, and the fiices of some of the 
women, are very good. If careinlly examined, I think we cannot avoid the 
conclnsion that Tommy Barnes is s close observer, and is possessed of some 
artistic skill, which, if ciiltivated, would have enabled him to draw well. 
These sketches were hastily drawn, with no particular object in view, and 
probably only for hjs own amusement. 

The following (Fig. 255) is a copy of a very spirited sketch of two groups 
of squatters drawn by a native lad. The attitudes are admirable, and clearly 
indicate the humourons train of thought passing through the mind of the lad, 
who mast have been a close observer and a good mimic. 




Many of the yonng people are capable of delineating objects and of prac- 
tising the art of design. In an old treatise, dated 1803, the writer, referring 
to the natives, says: — "They have some taste for sculpture, most of tlieir 
instruments being carved with rnde work effected with pieces of broken 
shell. On the rocks are Irequently to be seen fignres of fish, clubs, animals, 
Ac, not contemptibly represented." 

On the Murray River, where they nsed to cover their hnts with bark, the 
young men often amused themselves with carving, or drawing with charcoal, on 
the inside of the bark, various objects and scenes in illustration of any events 
which they desired to record, in the same way as I have known a gentleman 
ornament the walls of his boudoir with scene paintings. 

Many of the yonng men have a taste for drawing, and sketch with rapidity ; 
but we must not suppose that a wild blackfellow, when in the homour for 
drawing, would leave off and rise from his camp-fire to procnre more bark or 
paper merely because he wished to commence a fresh subject They often 



NOTES AND AiraCDOTES. 259 

record events deemed worthy of note on their throwing-sticks.* I feel con- 
vinced that the powers of observation and of delineation in the Australian 
Aborigines will compare favorably with those of any other people who had no 
better opportunities for mental culture, or better materials for practising the 
art. The ancient Romans sometimes used the fine inner bark of such trees as 
the lime, ash, maple, or elm, as a substance for writing or drawing. It was 
called liber, and this word came permanently to be used for all kinds of books. 

The results of the various native schools which have been established in 
different parts of Australia from time to time will doubtless afford ample 
illustrations of the general intelligence of the Aboriginal children. It is said 
" that the native school at Coranderrk, on the Yarra, has gained the highest 
percentage of passes of any school in the colony of Victoria." 

I wlQ now proceed to give some account of a native school which is perhaps 
not so well known as most of the other establishments for the Aborigines. I 
refer to that which formerly existed at King Greorge's Sound. It was originated 
by the excellent and benevolent wife of the late Mr. Henry Camfield, Resident 
Magistrate at that place, and continued for many years under her care. The 
following trivial incident was the immediate cause of its origin. In June 1852, 
when I was residing at the Sound, the natives one day went off on a bush 
excursion, leaving Kojonotpat — a solitary, naked little girl, about three and 
a half years old — ^to wander about the settlement at Albany. She came to our 
gate for break&st every morning, saying, " Me very hungry," and at length we 
mentioned the circumstance to Mrs. Camfield, our near neighbour, who took 
her in, and soon afterwards obtained the consent of her mother to keep her. 
Her father had been killed a short time before this. In 1858, Mrs. Camfield 
published a report of her school, from which I extract the following particulars. 

There were then eighteen children — thirteen girls and five boys — ^in the 
establishment ; the six elder girls being from ten to sixteen years of age. 
Every attention was paid to their comfort and cleanliness. The bigger girls 
were taught all useftd domestic works — they washed, ironed, and mangled all 
the clothes of the institution ; baked, cooked and scrubbed, and made butter. 
The school routine did not extend beyond reading and writing and a little 
arithmetic. They read well, marking the stops, and could spell very correctly. 
In writing from dictation they seldom misspelt a word. 

Among the younger girls there was one brighfc^yed intelligent Bessie, who 
aimed at excelling all the big girls, and repeated the collect and gospel on each 
Sunday as well as the best of them. She worked with her needle, too, almost 
as well as they did. She was a gentle, loving little girl, and was never happier 
than when she could get to sit by Missie (the pet word for Mistress), and 
insinuate her little hand in Missie's. 

Her younger sister was also a pleasing, promising child. One little boy, 
who was subject to fits, did not care to play with the other children, but would 

* The Hebrews wrote on Bticka (see Ezekiel xxxvii., 20), and so did the earlj Greeks ; the 
laws of Solon were inscribed on billets of wood, and the Ancient Britons nsed to cut their alphabet 
on sticks. The nse of sticks in keeping accounts has even remained in some country places in 
England to our own day. 



260 APPENDIX : 

Bit apart from them^ and putting his hands on each side of his iace^ would sit 
rocking himself backwards and forwards, singing softly and sweetly some hynm 
he had learned ; sometimes it would be the line, ^^ When they die, to heaven 
will go," but he would always put it, " When / die, to heaven Fll go." He 
died fourteen months after he entered the school. 

Little Kojonotpatj who had increased in favor with all who knew her, died 
suddenly three years after Mrs. Camfield took her. 

It is contended in the report that their faults are not greater than those of 
children of European descent, and that they are quite as capable of compre- 
hending the truths of the gospel as any white child is. Some of them take 
particular pleasure in reading the Scriptures, and all the elder girls will answer 
questions on them with as much intelligence as the generality of children in 
Sunday-schools, and they quickly find any passage referred to. 

The eldest girl was engaged to be married to a well-conducted, sober, 
industrious '^ conditional-pardon " man on 1st August 1858. She was by her 
usefulness and other good qualities in every way calculated to make a happy 
home for -her ftiture husband. Another girl was married to a young man, a 
European. She will bear comparison with any white woman among the most 
respectable of the laboring population, as a sensible and companionable girl. 
Two other girls — one black and the other half-caste — ^make good wives to tiieir 
respective husbands, one of whom is an old settler. 

The children in the asylum are a merry-hearted set, and are now engaged 
in working on the marriage outfit of Rhoda, who is greatly beloved by all of 
them. They are intelligent beings, capable of great improvement, if not as 
great as Europeans are. 

I will here relate a little anecdote of Bachel, one of the school girls 
mentioned by Mrs. Camfield. 

In 1863, 1 visited the Moravian Mission near Lake Hindmarsh, and again 
in 1872, on which last occasion there were sixty-four Aborigines permanent 
residents, of whom a considerable number were children. Mr. Spieseke, the 
Missionary in charge, informed me that since these people became married and 
led regular lives, dwelling in their own cottages, their children had greatly 
increased in number. 

On my first visit, in 1863, 1 was chiefly concerned to see Bachel, or Mrs. 
Pepper as she then was. Her husband was an Aborigine, I believe of the 
Lake Hindmarsh tribe, who had been educated and had visited England. On 
his return voyage, the ship called in at King Gteorge's Sound, where he was 
introduced to Mrs. Camfield's school ; and being fascinated with the charms of 
Bachel, proposed marriage, and was accepted, with the understanding that she 
should follow him to Victoria, which in due time she did, and they were 
married and residing at the Mission Station when I was there. 

I called at the station on a Sunday, and found the village nearly deserted, 
many of the people being at church. Mr. Spieseke, the Moravian Missionary 
in charge, was preaching to them. There were about thirty-five present — ^men, 
women, and a few children. They appeared to be very attentive ; and I was 
much pleased with their singing, good behaviour, and cleanly appearance. 



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tTbe foraKofng ts %fai>9lmiSU of & letter written by ftn AnatnUlan pore AborigUiel girl* a pnpU at BCn. Camfleld'e school. 

King Geoige's Sound.] 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES. 261 

After church, Mr. Spieseke took me to Pepper's cottage, where we found his 
wife still in bed after a recent confinement. From the comfortable little parlor 
we were introduced to her bedroom by her husband. She was lying with her 
face towards the wall, but turned her large, lustrous black eyes on us with a 
look of surprise at seeing strangers enter her room. I spoke to her in her own 
language of Mr. and Mrs. Camfield, of King George's Sound, and of the native 
establishment there; as I did so, large tears stood in her eyes. She then asked 
her husband to hand down from a bookshelf a daguerreotype case, which she 
opened, and I at once exclaimed, ^^Kil Neeja, Mr. Camfield," at which she 
seemed much delighted, as I was doubtless the first person she had seen since 
she left the Sound who had been acquainted with her native place and early 
friends. - Several of the men and women afterwards read portions of the Bibla 
to me, and sang some hymns, in which the children joined. 

Among the passengers taken by the Charles Edroard from Melbourne to 
Port Albert, in Gippsland, in June 1867, were five "Aboriginal ladies," from 
Western Australia, in charge of the Bev. Mr. Hagenauer, named respectively 
Ada, Norah, Bhoda, Emily (half-caste), and Elizabeth. Two of them proceeded 
to the Mission Station "Bamahyuck" to be married to Christian Aborigines 
of the Tarra tribe. One of these — James Matthews — ^was found by Mr. Hagen- 
auer, about six years before, nearly naked, and almost wild. He was better 
known at Port Albert as James Pitcher, where he used to wander, for the pur- 
pose of begging. He subsequently joined the station, and became a respectable, 
industrious man, working readily and perseveringly at agricultural pursuits, 
and was baptized at the opening of the Aboriginal church at Lake Wellington. 
He induced all the males of the Tarra tribe to go up to the Mission Station. 
Mr. Hagenauer experienced great difficulty in finding suitable helpmates for 
the men, as it was the native custom to fight for a wife ; so he hit on the happy 
expedient of exchanging portraits with the Christian natives of King George's 
Sound, which, I believe, resulted in the marriage of two of them with two of 
the Tarra tribe. One of the party, Betsey or Elizabeth Flower, is accomplished 
and highly educated. She was adopted by Mrs. Camfield at Albany, and not 
only passed a creditable examination in the Government school, but acted as 
organist in the Church of England there. 

I have just received a letter, dated 16th October 1877, from the Rev. F. A. 
Hagenauer of Gippsland, from which I extract the following regarding the 
five native girls from Western Australia : — " Bessy Flower is now twenty-six 
years of age. She married Donald Cameron, who came with me years ago 
from the Wimmera district. He is a half-caste man of very superior character, 
fair education, pleasant manners, and considerable talents. He is here at 
Bamahyuck my rights-hand man, and acts as overseer. He works very well 
in all the branches of our business at this station. Formerly the Camerons 
had charge of our orphans' house for Aboriginal children, but Bessy got tired 
of it, and they left, and live now in a neat cottage on the station. They 
are doing well, and live happily and faithfully together, but could do much 
better if Mrs. Cameron had more tact for her household duties. The great 
hopes we entertained of her ftiture useftilness among the natives have not 



262 APPENDIX : 

been ftilfilled, though of course her superior education helps her on wonder- 
ftilly well. She is still playing the harmonium in our church, and I still 
entertain the hope that she may be of great use some day to the black people, 
especially to the children here. I enclose you a photograph of herself and 
her husband, also one of her two little girls. Of the other four girls who 
came here, one died a happy death — ^Ada, Bessy's sister. One, Bhoda, is 
suflFering from consumption; she is a good .wife and mother, and keeps her 
house in good order. Norah and Emily have both large families, but they 
are careless, and will not attend to their household work, and neglect their 
children very much. Bessy's younger brother Harry is here also ; he is very 
clever, but careless, and always ready for some mischief." 

I must not omit to say something about the Roman Catholic Mission to the 
Aborigines of Western Australia, which was established in 1848, at a large 
pool or reach of the Moore Biver, some eighty miles north from Perth. The 
natives' name for this pool is Mouriny and the establishment was first known by 
the euphonious name of " The Mourin Mission ;" but I find that the place is 
now called by the awkward and inappropriate appellation of " New Norcia." 

In 1848, a ship arrived at Fremantle from Lisbon, bringing about forty 
Spanish and Italian priests and students, headed by Don Serra, Bishop and 
Administrator of Temporalities. They came out under the auspices of the 
Queen of Spain, for the purpose of propagating their faith among the sable 
tribes of Western Australia. Among them were some well educated and 
gentlemanly men, who, although they could speak several European languages, 
seemed to have no aptitude for acquiring a knowledge of either the language 
or turn of mind of the natives. They purchased 2,500 acres of land at the 
Mourin, carted" up a supply of stores, and erected a large rubble-stone house, 
which they thatched with grass-tree rushes. Their nearest neighbour was a 
young English gentleman, who had sailed with them from Portugal, and who 
took a pleasure in teasing them. He took up some land, and built a house at 
a place called Bindoon, thirty miles nearer the settled districts. There was a 
large tribe of natives at Mourin, and another at Bindoon. A number of the 
former were baptized by Bishop Serra ; and on such occasions the newly-made 
"Christians" received a small supply of rice or potatoes. The natives, on their 
part, brought in kangaroos to the Missionaries. 

Thus all went well for a time, but mistakes began to be made on each side. 
The Missionaries imagined that the blacks presented them with the produce of 
the chase in recognition of the spiritual advantages received ; whereas the 
natives supposed that these friendly white men gave them the rice as a payment 
for submitting to the ordeal of baptism. When, therefore, some of these novel 
Christians presented themselves to the Bishop, asking to be baptized over again, 
he became irate ; and the more so when he found that some of them had sur- 
reptitiously obtained the rite a second time by disguising themselves. He 
exclaimed — " Don't you know, you ungrateftd fellows, that we have come aU the 
way from Europe for your benefit?" " iSar /" they shouted, " Nganya eulup 
boola^^ " Yes, I am very hungry" (mistaking the word Europe for eulup y hungry). 
" Nyirmee maryne yunge^^ — " You give me some food." 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES. 263 

All this time the master of Bindoon had been making friends with his tribe^ 
and got plenty of work done by them, for he was a good-natured merry fellow, 
and readily picked np their language. He used to amuse himself and them by 
telling them stories about the priests, whom he represented as having " plenty 
of rice and potatoes," the proper way to obtain which was to use an expression 
in one of Lever's novels — " Bloody end to the Pope ! " 

They used, therefore, to learn these words, and practise saying them when 
sitting by their camp-fires at night, without, of course, having the least idea of 
their import. The futile attempts of some new learner to repeat the sentence 
would evoke the most boisterous merriment, in which Mr. H. heartily joined 
when present. 

In course of time an arrangement was made by the two tribes for a friendly 
meeting at a certain intervening rendezvous ; and one fine morning the Mis- 
sionaries were astonished and disconcerted at finding that the natives. Christians 
and all, had decamped. They little thought that no offer of reward or fear of 
punishment would deter a native firom leaving, once he had determined to do so. 

For three weary days Bishop Serra was chafing at the unaccountable absence 
of his new converts, when he determined on making a journey, accompanied by 
one or two coadjutors, to the settled districts. On their way they fell in with 
a large encampment of natives, which proved to be the assembled tribes from 
Mourin and Bindoon. He thought it a fitting opportunity for expostulation, 
and accordingly the three venerable clergymen rode slowly up with all possible 
dignity of demeanour. The natives had evidently had a corobboree the night 
before, for some seventy or eighty of the men were so painted and ornamented 
as not to be easily distinguished by those who knew them. 

No one who has never seen a camp of friendly tribes can have an idea of 
what a lively, noisy scene it is. There are groups of huts scattered about, each 
hut with its fire and fiimily sitting round. Conversation is kept up between 
distant parties as though they were near each other — some are quiet and moody, 
but the greater number are shouting, laughing, and talking. On this occasion 
they had much news to tell each other — ^the Mourin tribe of what queer fellows 
the priests were, of the big house, the baptizing, and, better than all, of the 
rice and potatoes, and of their attempts to get more by offering to be baptized 
again. But the Bindoon tribe knew of a far better method of getting the good 
things ; they had been teaching their friends to repeat the pass-words which 
were to have so desirable an effect. 

As the clerical party advanced, they were met by a number of boisterous, 
laughing, painted, naked savages ; but they rode into the middle of the camp 
before alighting. The young men then swarmed round them, clapped the 
Bishop on the shoulders, pulled his long beard in admiration, and by way of the 
greatest compliment they could pay him, told him he was goombar — that is, 
"very big," "as big as a gum-tree ! " * But he motioned them to stand back, and 
then began — " Don't you savez you have been made Christians, you ungratefiil 
fellows ? We have come all the way from Europe for your benefit, and now you 



* Like the Asiatics, they practise the most preposterous flattery. 



264 APPENDIX: 

leave the station." ^^Kiar! nganya eulup boolaf — Bloody end to the Pope!" 
shonted a nnmber of voices at onoe. '^ Why ? what for ? what hann has the 
holy Father done yon, yon nngrateful fellows?" ^^ Nganya eulup j nyinnee 
maryne yunge^'' — " I am hungry ; you give me some food." " No I I did not 
say eulup — ^I said Enrope," exclaimed the haughty Spaniard, beginning to lose 
his temper, as he found that his venerable and dignified appearance had no 
effect on these barbarians, who now closed round him, shouting at the top of 
their voices, " Bloody end to the Pope I " " You give me rice 1 " until the good 
Missionaries had to mount their horses and ride off as fast as they could, with 
a troop of savages running after them, laughing and yelling, and shouting 
with all their might.* 

This occurred a short time after the Mission Station had been established, 
and a little before I visited it. It has since then prospered, and I believe has 
for years past exported wine and wool, the produce of the labors of the 
domesticated natives. 

Don Bosendo Salvado, with whom I was acquainted, is the present Bishop. 
He is a gentleman possessing much learning and ability, and is an accom- 
plished musiciau. A fine-toned bell, one of the largest in Australia, dating 
from the period of Charles Y., and consecrated to St. Anna (if I remember 
rightly) calls the people to church. 

As guides in travelling, or assistants in the bush, the intelligence and skill 
of the natives is generally superior to that of the white men, who by com- 
parison appear rather stupid. If there are difficulties to be overcome, food 
or water to be obtained, or the best travelling ground to be selected, their 
advice and assistance are invaluable. The late Sir Thomas Mitchell f says — 
" I have found those who accompanied me on my expeditions into the country 
superior in penetration and judgment to the white men comprising my party." 

These people never evince surprise at any novel or extraordinary sight. 
Once, when travelling alone in the Darling Bange, I fell m with a native lad, 
who had recently come down with some of his tribe firom the far interior, and 
had seen very little of the white people ; — ^he had certainly never beheld a 
mask. I alighted from my horse, and walked with him for the purpose of 
conversation. After a while, I let him get a little in advance of me, when 
I took a mask out of my pocket, which I had brought with me on purpose 
to show it to the natives, and putting it on, stepped up to him, and looked 
him in the face. On beholding the hideous sight instead of the white man 
who he supposed was talking to him, he evinced no sign of emotion, but just 
looked for an instant, and then went on talking just as though no change had 
taken place. Another Aboriginal lad, on seeing the sea for the first time, 
just took one comprehensive gaze, and then turning away, quaintly remarked — 
" Big fellow water-hole ^hat." He had evidently never before seen a water- 
hole the opposite side of which his keen eyes could not descry. 



* I pnbUflhed this anecdote some years ago in the Chtwch News, signing myself " An Old 
Anstralian."— P. C. 

t Tropical AutiraUa, p. 412. 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES. 265 

The Aboriginal men have often been employed in considerable nnmbers, 
and with much success, as frontier police in the several Australian Colonies. 
Indeed, without their aid, it would generally have been impossible to capture 
offenders among their own people; and they have not unfrequently been 
employed to take white men against whom warrants had issued but who 
had successfully eluded the English police. 

That the Aborigines sometimes display much readiness of invention under 
difficulties, and uncommon skill and courage in the execution of the plan 
formed, is amply illustrated by the two following anecdotes, for which I am 
indebted to Mr. Bland, of Clunes, who in the early days of Western Australia 
was for many years Eesident Magistrate and Protector of Aborigines in the 
York district. 

An Aborigine, one of the crew of the .Twofold Bay whalers, apprehended 
an escaped European convict whom the police were unable to capture. He 
took one of his mates with him, and on the next day brought the man in. 
When asked how he succeeded in taking the convict, whom he had never 
before seen, he gave the following story : — He met the man on a road, and 
thinking he might be the right person, went up to him, and said — " Who are 
you?" The man gave some name; the native then, pistol in hand, said — 
" You are a ticket-of-leave man, am't you ? " " Yes, I am." " Then show me 
your pass." The man gave him a piece of paper, which turned out to be 
an old public-house bill. The native could not read, but stood in front of the 
man, holding the paper up before his eyes as though reading it, but he was 
really looking over it into the convict's face ; his quickness of perception and 
intuitive knowledge of human nature enabled him to see that the man looked 
frightened, and he shouted to his companion — " Oh ! this is the right man." 
They caught him, put the handcuffs on him, and took him in to the police 
station. A London detective could not have done better. 

The other example is as follows : — ^A desperate native offender had for 
some time eluded capture, when a constable, accompanied by a blackfellow 
from another tribe, went to a native camp, where they saw the man they were 
looking for, but did not know how to catch him. The constable's native 
assistant said to him — "Oh, I will pretend to be in a great passion, as if 
I were going to spear some one ; the other, being a strong man, wUl then come 
and hold me, to prevent me from doing mischief, and theti you can put the 
handcuffs on him." This ingenious and bold plan was carried into execution, 
and was quite successful, as they brought the culprit away as their prisoner. 
I should, however, here remark, by way of explanation, that when a native 
works himself up into a passion for some grievance in which the others do 
not sympathize, some one always holds his arms, to prevent him from injuring 
any one. I have frequently seen this done. Men hold the angry man, and 
women the angry woman; the person so held being often rather glad than 
otherwise to find that he has produced an effect great enough to induce some 
champion thus to interfere to prevent him from doing a mischief which he 
would rather be credited with than really accomplish. 

VOL. n. 2 L 



266 



APPENDIX : 



The perceptive faculties of the Aborigines are very clear, and their powers of 
observation and imitation sometimes quite extraordinary. They are therefore 
excellent mimics, and display much original humour. 

Monotonous and harsh as their chants are, the natives are by no means 
imsusceptible of the power of music. The young people readily learn to sing, 
and some of them to play on instruments. Often, when approaching a native 
encampment on one of those lovely mornings which, at Swan River, shed an 
indescribably balmy influence on all around, I have heard the plaintive morning 
song — the men as they sat sharpening their spears, the women as they lazily 
put together the smouldering embers, while the others slept around. The 
following is a line of one of their chants : — 

Da Cap, Fino, 




They have names for all the conspicuous stars, for every natural feature of 
the ground, every hill, swamp, bend of a river, &c. ; but not, in Western Aus- 
tralia, for the river itself — ^the water, a native laconically remarked, runs away 
into the sea ; it is no use naming that. 



Language. 

As so much has doubtless already been written about the numerous 
languages or dialects of Australia, I will only remark that I have observed 
many words in Victoria, especially on the Goulburn River and Upper Murray, 
which are identical with or similar to those denoting the same thing in Western 
Australia. This may be noticed particularly with regard to parts of the body, 
indicating, I think, notwithstanding the opinion of Count Strezelecki, the 
common origin of the several languages. In the Darling Range the language 
is not always sex-denoting. I have known the masculine he used to women as 
well as to men. 

The dialects change with almost every tribe. Some tribes name their 
children after natural objects ; and when the person so named dies, the word is 
never again mentioned ; another word has therefore to be invented for the object 
after which the child was called. I knew a man whose name was Karla (not 
Calor)y which signifies "fire" or "heat ;" when he died, another word had to be 
used for "fire ;" hence the language is always changing. 

I am not aware of any word in Western Australia to denote a Supreme 
Being or even a good spirit. 

Intebmarriages. 

My friend the late Mr. W. H. Knight, of Swan River, kindly sent me, last 
year, a copy of Bishop Salvado's Genealogical Tree of the natives of Western 
Australia, from which it appears that they are divided into six families, and 
intermarriages within a family are prohibited. There are the — 1, Tirarop; 
2, Ngocognok ; 3, Palarop ; 4, Tonchrop ; 6, Mondorop ; 6, Jiragiok. Every 



NOTES AND ANECDOTEa 267 

native, male and female, belongs to one or other of these six families. The 
names are inherited by the children not from the father, but from their mother. 
No native can marry any of his family name, nor any one of some of the other 
fitmilies, but of those only which their law allows. 

The Perth and Murray natives are Ballarok; then there are the Dtondarup 
and the Ngotak^ probably identical with some of the above. As the children 
take the mother's name, and the hunting ground or landed property descends in 
the male line, it follows that the land is never for two generations in the hands 
of men of the same family name; and in the event of a man having several 
wives of different family names, his lands are at his death divided between so 
many new families. His male children owe certain duties to men of their own 
family at the same time as to their half-brothers, which often clash with each 
other, and give rise to endless dissensions. 

The natives being divided into six fiamilies, and intermarriages being pro- 
hibited, it follows that a Tirarop cannot marry a Tirarop^ a Mondorop^ or a 
Tondorop; but he may marry either a Jiragiok^ Palaropy or Ngocognok; and 
the children of a Tirarop man and a Palarop woman would belong to the 
Palarop &mily or branch, whose choice of marriage is also limited. I believe 
this theory is correct, and obtains throughout the whole western coast with 
some slight variations ; the same law prevails amongst the natives of the north- 
west coast, the only difference being in the names of the families. 

Customs and Superstitions. 

The natives of Western Australia, when the white men arrived, had no 
religion, no trace of idolatry, and no idea of a God ; no government, no chief, 
properly so called ; and, as regards their social condition, much may be imagined 
when it is stated that they had no cooking utensil whatever, nor did they know 
the use of any metal ; they went almost naked, and in the northern and warmer 
parts, quite so ; their dwellings, as has been already stated, were of the most 
fragile and temporary description, and their means of water locomotion of the 
rudest kind, even in those parts where they used any sort of canoe. 

Although they seem to know nothing of a Supreme Being, they believe in 
the existence of various local demons. The Swan Biver Aborigines say that 
an evil being, called Nyawalangj wanders about in the night-time, in the 
Banksia forests, collecting the gum of the JSfuytma floribunda^* which he 
puts into bags hanging all round his body. They assert that he is like an 
old man walking about in a half-sitting attitude, and carrying a warmdy or 
yam-stick, and that he utters a short, sharp screech at every step. I enquired 
why they never speared him ; but they were indignant at the idea, and replied — 
^< One might as well try to spear a grass-tree, he is so surrounded with gum 
bags." Although they eat the gum which exudes from the acacias, hakeas, and 
other trees, they never touch the NuyUia gum ; for, were they to do so, they say 

* Natire name Mutyar, A loranthns that grows by itself, I beUere only from suckers, and 
cannot, so far as I know, be propagated. It bears splendid orange-colored blossoms. 



268 APPENDIX: 

Nyowalong wonld certainly do them some secret injury ; but the feet is, it is 
not an edible gum — they make a virtue of necessity. Then there is a demon, 
named Winniungy who resides in the winter-time on a hill on the south of the 
Helena River, near Mount Dale, in the Darling Range ; but in the summer he 
dwells on the other side of the river, because he cannot cross it when flooded. 

These imaginary beings are all material, and subject to the same physical 
conditions as themselves. Yet they have some undefined notion of a spirit, or 
soul, or perhaps of a personal identity which is independent of their present 
corporiety. They think that if they are buried they will rise again with some 
different body; hence their desire to take down and bury the two men who were 
gibbeted for the murder of Mrs. Cook.* In like manner, the low-caste natives 
of the Orissa district in India, who migrate to the sugar plantations of Mauritius, 
often become home-sick, and commit suicide in the firm belief that they wfll 
enter through the portals of death into their own country again — ^but only if 
their bodies are not mutilated. They, therefore, often hang themselves, but 
would have a serious objection to be decapitated. Mons. de Chazal, of Port 
Louis, effectually put a stop to any more suicides on his plantation by telling 
the coolies that he would cut off the feet of any one who killed himself. 

An old Swan River native explained to me that the soul {NoytcK) dwells in 
the back of the neck, and that it is by striking a man there that he is surrep- 
titiously killed, when asleep, by some evil being, or by a Wailo^ that is, a 
northern man. " Wailo'^'* is a name given to all people living to the north of 
them by every tribe in Western Australia, be the latter situated where they may. 
The Wailo men are much dreaded, and are believed to possess supernatural 
powers. 

The chief demon of the hUl natives is Waiigaly\ dwelling in the large brown 
snake, which they carefully avoid, and never kill, though they are in the habit 
of eating other snakes equally venomous. I was one day travelling on horse- 
back near the River Dale, with a native guide, when I suddenly came upon 
a large brown snake coiled up and fast asleep. I immediately alighted to kill 
it, at which my sable friend was much alarmed, and tried to puU me back, 
declaring that, if I killed the snake, Waugal would quibble Gidgee^ or spear me 
by stealth when I was asleep, and he urged me to have one of the soldiers of my 
escort to sleep in my tent for protection. 

On the south-west of Victoria, near Port Campbell, several caverns have 
been washed out under the cliffs by the force of the Southern Ocean. One of 
these extends under ground nearly a quarter of a mile, and in one place the 
rain-water has washed a smaU hole from the surface of the ground down into 
the cavern. There is a continual draught of air blowing up through this hole, 
so that if a leaf or any light substance be thro¥m over it, it is iromediately carried 
up into the air. For ages past the natives were in the habit, whenever they 
approached this air-hole, to throw a piece of wood into it to propitiate the demon 

* Set page 280. 

t Waug signifies a spirit. Waugal is a being analogous to Mindi of Sonth-Eastem Australia^ 
a mighty serpent. 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES. 269 

supposed to reside within its profound and mysterious depths. When the late Mr. 
Superintendent La Trobe examined this part of the coast, in 1842, some of his 
men made a rope ladder, and went down over the cliff and explored this cavern; 
When they came to the part nearly under the hole communicating with the 
sur&ce, they found an enormous pile of wood, which must have been the accu- 
mulation of ages, as the natives had to carry the pieces of wood from the distant 
forest. The men set fire to the pile, which lit up and displayed a magnificent 
vaulted chamber, bedecked with long glistening stalactites, and tenanted by vast 
numbers of bats, whose whirring, whizzing noise was probably that which the 
natives attributed to some supernatural being. 

At Mount Grambier also there are some very large caverns in the limestone 
rock, believed by the natives to be haunted. 

To return to Western Australia. WaiLgal^ with some tribes, is an aquatic 
monster, endowed with supernatural powers ; and as the natives do not believe 
in natural disease or death, they attribute all ailments for which they cannot 
otherwise account to Waugal^ or to some other demon, or to the Wailo men. 

I am of opinion that the natives generally do not believe that their women 
have a future state or are endowed with souls. Yet they certainly believed 
that the white people, when they first arrived, were their deceased ancestors 
re-incarnated. 

Before the arrival of a ship from Europe, the Swan Eiver natives supposed 
that the spirits of the deceased passed into the cormorants which frequent the 
Mewstone, a granite rock some miles out in the sea opposite the mouth of the 
Swan River, called by them Gudu mitch, a compound of Gvr-urty the "heart," 
and mit or mitchj the "medium" or "agent" — signifying that this island is 
the medium or agent by which the spirit of the departed one enters the body 
of a cormorant. Large fiights of these birds used to pass up the estuary of the 
Swan every morning on fishing excursions, and return to the Mewstone in the 
evening, and the natives refrained from killing them lest thereby they should 
be slaying their ancestors. When, however, they saw ships coming from the 
same direction, and bringing white people, they called them Djengaj or ghosts, 
supposing them to be the re-embodiments of their progenitors who had come 
back to the land of their birth. 

At first I doubted whether this was really their spontaneous belief, and 
thought it probable that the colonists had originated the idea. Afterwards, 
however, I had good reason to believe that they thought some at least of the 
white men were re-incarnations of their deceased relatives. I was supposed to 
be Bogariy a native of the Middle Swan tribe, who had been killed in single 
combat with another man some time before my arrival. An account of the 
fight, and of the person of BogaUy was given to me by some of the settlers 
when I went to reside at Guildford, on the Swan ; and on the 19th October 
1841, about two years after his death, the grave having been shown to me, I 
took up the skeleton, and sent it to the late Dr. Jacob, of Dublin, who had it 
set up in Trinity College Museum, as I was afterwards informed by his son in 
Melbourne. On questioning some members of his tribe about Bogan, I found 
they thought I was he. 



270 APPENDIX: 

I knew a gentleman who had a scar on his leg similar to one which had 
been on the leg of a deceased native man. This gentleman was the first to 
settle in a new district, at Ohittering, near Bindoon, where the natives had then 
seen very little of white people. On perceiving the scar, they immediately 
asserted that he was their deceased friend, and the widow claimed him as her 
hasband. 

Europeans were frequently claimed as relations by the old people, who 
seemed sure of their identity, and treated them with the love they bore to the 
individual supposed to be recognised. This belief, however, began to die out as 
they saw that children were bom to the white people.* 

In Victoria, where hot winds and other electrical disturbances of the 
atmosphere are common, the natives used to think that the ground was haxmted, 
and that the swirls of dust, so often seen in the summer-time, were caused by 
demons passing along in the ground. It was sometimes amusing to see a 
whole encampment of lazy natives hunying out of the way of an approaching 
whirlwind charged with dust. The crashing of trees during a hurricane was 
also attributed to the same occult influence. 

Some of the old people appear to be stupid ; but this may be the result 
rather of mental indolence and want of culture than of the absence of intellec- 
tual faculty when young. 

In Western Australia, a Bulyor^adak^ — ^that is, a magician or sorcerer — ^is 

considered a very wise man, and advises the young men, who greatly respect 

him. 

The old women, too, have much influence over the younger members of 

the tribe. They are often great termigants, and the instigators of many of the 
quarrels. When there is a disturbance in the camp, one of them will be sure 
to &n the kindling flame. When there is a death to be revenged, or an enemy 
to be punished, or a quarrel to be adjusted, some nude old virago will be seen 
pacing backwards and forwards with great rapidity, pouring forth in a declam- 
atory tone — a sort of chant — a volley of abuse against the adverse party ; and 
calling on her own people to take signal vengeance by tearing out his liver, or 
otherwise tormenting him ; and it is surprising what an effect this often has on 
the men. 

Thus it will be seen that the old people, if not greatly respected, were at 
least looked up to as the guides of the young, They always were, so &r as 
I have observed, treated with kindness, fed and attended to when sick or 
decrepid, and never left to starve or die, as is too often the practice among 
the Boschmen of Southern Africa. 

The Bulya-gadaky like the magicians of ancient Egypt, is applied to for 
explanation and aid in all things that lie beyond the circle of conmion know- 
ledge and action. Thus, in cases of sickness, he is the only physician called in, 
as in Egypt, where the profession of medicine was in the hands of the lowest of 
the three orders into which the priestly caste was divided. 

* The anctent Egyptians belieyed that when the body perished the banished sonl began its 
career anew in connection with physical existence, 
t Called Koradgee by the Port Jackson tribe. 



NOTES AND ANBCDOTBa 271 

The Bulyongadcbk professes to cure diseases by enchantment ; that is to eject 
the evil spirit^ called Bulya — ^the supposed cause of all sickness and disease. 
The operation was as follows : — ^The magician would squeeze the aflfected part 
with both hands, and then, drawing them down, would attract Bulya to the 
extremities, and finally bring it out, shaking and blowing upon his hands each 
time, in order to get rid of Bulya^ who was supposed to make his escape 
without being seen by the uninitiated, but who sometimes appeared as a piece 
of quartz, which was kept as a great curiosity. 

A Fort Jackson native stated that the Koradgee men became possessed of 
their supernatural powers in the following manner: — A man sleeping at 
night on the grave of a deceased person would be freed from the dread of 
foture apparitions ; for during that fearful sleep the spirit of the dead would 
visit him, seize him by the throat, and, opening him, take out his bowels, 
which the spirit would afterwards replace and then close up the wound. 

I have seen their incantations in South Australia during the ceremony of 
changing a boy into a man. 

Mr. G. Q-. McGrae, in his pretty but fanciM poem, ^^ Mambay the Bright- 
eyedy^ * when alluding to this rite, says : — 

** Not ours the wifldom or the light 
To Bbftdow forth that solemn rite i 
Nor what the word, nor what the way^ 
That monlds a man from bojish clay.** 

I did, however, witness the whole ceremony near Adelaide, in the year 
1839. I was the only white person present, and was conducted to the place by 
a friendly native. There were probably a hundred or more Aborigines on the 
ground. The spot selected was a small open space partly surrounded by a 
forest of large trees, facing the thickest part of which, and about twenty yards 
from the edge of it, sat a youth with his head hanging down, and his legs 
stretched out before him. My sable friend took me close up to him ; and from 
him, as the apex of the angle, diverged two lines of men, in the form of the 
letter V, with the open part towards the forest; and about twenty yards behind 
was a semicircle of fires, each surrounded by a group of women, sitting on the 
ground, who made a great blaze with branches of dead leaves during the most 
important parts of the ceremony. The night was very dark, and the effect 
quite imposing. The glare of the fires only tended- to make the darkness of the 
forest more visible. When all seemed to be ready, there was a dead silence. 
I whispered to my friend, but he motioned to me to be still. Every one was 
waiting in breathless anxiety, when suddenly, out of the dark forest, three 
naked, weird-looking old men came shrieking, yelling, and jumping in a zig- 
zag course, and gesticulating in the most frantic manner. The fires were all 
instantly lighted up, and displayed a scene far more remarkable than any I 
have ever seen in a theatre. The old sorcerers were streaked with white, and 
otherwise ornamented. They gradually approached the lad in a devious course, 
nntU their frenzy reached its climax, when one of them suddenly stooped down 
before him at my feet, and a perfect silence ensued while he tickled him with a 

* Canto L, Stanza 23. 



272 APPENDIX : 

small bnnch of emn feathers^ which he twirled between his fingers, from the 
lad's shoulders, down his arms, to the ends of his fingers, making a chirping 
noise between his closed lips the while ; this he did several times, and then all 
three of the old men darted back into the darkness of the forest. The blaze of 
the fires had now died oat, all was enshrouded in darkness, and a dead silence 
was maintained for about ten minutes, when the whole ceremony was repeated, 
except that this time the Bulycu-gadak twirled the feathers down the boy's body 
and legs to his feet; then there was the running and jumping back into the 
wood ; and the scene was enacted over and over again, with some addition each 
time to the process of mesmerism, if such it really was. The subject of this 
solemn rite appeared to be in an unconscious slumber during the whole per- 
formance. The same magician performed the operation each time ; and when 
he seemed to have thoroughly mesmerized his subject, he took a small splinter 
of quartz between his fingers, and, having wetted it on his tongue, cut a great 
gash across the lad's breast, but the latter did not appear to feel it in the 
slightest degree. He then tickled him over with the feathers, and gave another 
and another cut, passing the quartz between his lips each time, and keeping up 
the chirping noise. The three theu rushed back iQto the wood, the moon began 
to rise, and all was over. My kind friend must, I presume, have been a man 
of infiuence, or he could never have prevailed on the tribe to allow me to 
witness this rite. He confidently assured me that when the three Bulya^adaks 
ran back into the wood* they plunged into the moon, which soon after rose in 
that direction. 

The next morning I rode out to the encampment, and foxmd one of the old 
men standing before the novice, giving him some solemn advice, just as illus- 
trated by Major Mitchell, at page 322, vol. i., of his first expedition. 

Circumcision is practised by one or more tribes on the north-west coast. I 
have not myself witnessed this, but have reason to credit the reports I have 
heard respecting it. A most extraordinary practice was resorted to by some 
of the natives inhabiting the country near Port Lincoln. They used to cut 
open as great a length of the urethra as possible from underneath. 

There seems to be no doubt of some tribes occasionally, and under 
particular circumstances, practising infanticide, and they sometimes — ^though, 
I believe, very rarely — eat their offspring.* Can it be that these revolting 
practices are unnatural methods — ^unintentional it may be — of keeping in 
check the too rapid increase of a barbarous people in a region where the indi- 
genous productions afford a very scanty supply of food ? In some countries, 
pestilential diseases or failure of the crops thin overcrowded populations ; in 
others, war accomplishes the same end ; and, as civilization progresses, the 
only natural and reasonable method is adopted — ^that of transplanting the 
people to unpopulated and suitable areas of the earth's surface. 

Twins are occasionally bom. Wengaly the boy whom I educated, was a 
twin — ^the other being a girl, whom its mother killed in infancy. Her name 

* Mr. Stephens, in his Incident of Travel, says of the Bedouins — " I nerer knew them lefoae 
anything that could be eaten. Their stomach was literally their god." 



>. 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES. 273 

was BukanyeeUy and she was considered a very decent old woman by the settlers 
on the Swan. I asked her, eight yeaiPS afterwards, how she could bring her- 
self to kill her child. She replied, pointing to the bag at her back, that there 
was only room for one, and she could not possibly carry another. On pressing 
her for further information, she informed me that soon after it was bom she 
scratched a hole in the sand behind her hut, and, having given it a " little " 
knock on the head, laid it in the hole, and kept on crying, the child crying 
too, till she could bear it no longer ; and then went out and gave it another 
" little '' knock, which, however, killed it ; and then she cried for several days. 

I have already stated the very general belief that the spirit of a deceased 
person assumes a fresh corporeal form ; but I think some tribes must have 
thought that the re-embodiment took place some time after death, for they 
displayed great care in the interment of a dead man by firmly tying the thumb 
of the right hand to the great toe of the left foot, the body being doubled up, 
with the knees touching the chin. There were various modes of interment 
by diflferent tribes. Some placed the body in a sitting posture, with the face 
towards the north, and others lying on the left side, with the face towards the 
rising sun. The grave was scratched out with the hands about three or four 
feet deep, and the body, being placed in it, was covered with thick logs of wood, 
to prevent native dogs from molesting it. The surface of the grave was flat 
or hollow, and a semicircular mound was made on one side of it, opening to 
the east. The weapons which had been used by the deceased, and whatever else 
the affection of the relatives prompted them to bestow, were laid on the grave. 
A fire was kept burning before it for several days, and a hut was sometimes 
built over it. They seemed to think that, notwithstanding their efforts to keep 
their friend down, he got up and warmed himself. 

While the interment was being made, the Bulya^gaddk sat at the head of the 
grave, bending from time to time his head to the ground to listen for the flight 
of the spirit, and the information it might have to give him as to the evil being 
who had caused his death. 

From the time of death until after the burial, which took place within 
twenty-four hours, the wives and female connections of the deceased kept up 
their lamentations by shrieking, howling, and declaiming. They scratched 
their noses and cheeks until the blood flowed down, and deep cicatrices were 
left which always helped to disfigure them.* They also smeared their heads 
with pipeclay, t 

The following account of an Aboriginal ftmeral is given in the Central 
Australasian of the 30th January 1875 : — " Towney, four years attached to the 
Bourke police as tracker, died on Wednesday, from injuries received by a kick 
from a horse, and was buried on the following day with all the ceremonies of 

* See Matthew tI ch., 16 t. A dmilar cnstom still maintains its ground in Moslem countries, 
though Mahomed endeayoured to put a stop to it. The men sometimes wound themselves in excess 
of grief with kniyes, but the women are content to lacerate themselves with their nails. Examples 
of this custom might be obtained from many parts of the world in different stages of civilization. 

t The putting dust upon the head was and is still a sign of great affliction in many countries of 
Asia^ as it also was among the ancient Egyptians. 

VOL. n. 2 M 



274 APPENDIX: 

his tribe. Soon after death, the body was covered with gum leaves, and rolled 
in an opossum rug and a blanket. His gin lay with her head resting on the 
corpse, and one of the oldest men lay in a similar manner. All were silent, 
and remained so for twenty-four hours. When preparations were made for the 
burial, two widowed gins, with hair cut short and heads covered or plastered 
with pipeclay, took prominent parts in the arrangements. The oldest men 
carried the body to the grave (some half a mile from the camp) on a pole, one 
end resting on each shoulder, and passed through the cords which secured 
the blanket and opossum rug on the corpse. A grave was dug in the shape 
of a well, about four feet six inches deep. When it was ready, the bier was 
raised by two old warriors, and at this moment a pitiful cry was raised by all 
the blacks. After silence was partly proclaimed, an old warrior named 
Kangaroo^ with a small branch of a gum-tree in his hand, commenced address- 
ing the corpse, with his head close to the body. He continued doing this 
incessantly for twenty minutes, and was answered by an old man in a stooping 
posture on the opposite side of the bier. Two men in the grave laid an opossum 
rug round it to receive the remains, which were lowered down amidst the cries 
of every black present. Gum leaves were then thrown over the body. And 
now comes the revolting part. Two men adjusting the body in the grave, 
stand up. One takes a boomerang, the other stoops and receives a blow which 
draws blood freely. The boomerang is handed to the other ; he then strikes, 
and both bleed copiously over the corpse. They are then removed, and three 
meli go into the grave and strike each other tiQ they bleed, bowing down their 
heads the while. One throws himself down, and is with diflSculty removed. 
Three others repeat the same thing. These men all bled freely, and in 
submission, till the grave was covered with blood. The bleeding men now 
retired in sadness under trees ; the gins applied gum leaves till the blood was 
stopped, meanwhile keeping up an incessant cry. They submit, it seems, to 
their heads being cut in order to strengthen the deceased in the grave, and 
assist him to rise in another country — ^not, as is generally supposed, a white 
man, but a black. They carefully covered in the grave, and buUt a sort of 
gunyah over it, with a bush fence round it. They swept round all the old 
graves, and returned to camp, leaving the wife of deceased and the widowed 
gins to mourn." 

On one occasion, Mr. Bland, in endeavouring to refute their belief that the 
white men were re-embodied blackfellows, said — "Nonsense! I was never 
here before;" and was answered by an intelligent lad, named Komt — "Then 
how did you know the way here?" 

Observations on the Moral CoNnrrioN of the Australian Aborigines — 

CHIEFLY THOSE OF WESTERN AUSTRALU. 

Mr. Samuel Qtison, a Police-Trooper, who was stationed from the year 1865 
until recently in the vicinity of Lake Hope, some six hundred miles north from 
Adelaide, states that the tribes in the vicinity of Cooper's Creek number about 
1,030 persons. He represents them as being very treacherous and lying, but 



NOTES AND ANECa)OTES. 275 

adds that they possess in an eminent degree the three great virtues of hospi- 
tality, reverence for old age, and love for their children and parents.* 

The same traits of character are more or less conspicuous in the natives of 
Western Australia, though they are certainly not remarkable for their treachery, 
and I have very seldom known any of them accused of it. 

The following reminiscences and notes may convey some idea of their 
general moral character, which is doubtless at a very low ebb indeed, though it 
should not for a moment be supposed that they are less capable of moral 
training than any other people. Nothing has been added to the moral code 
since the commencement of the Christian era, and I presume the moral 
sensibilities of man under similar circumstances are the same everywhere as 
ever they were, making allowance, of course, for individual idiocrasies. 

The following account of Wengal — ^the lad who lived with me for six years, 
and who was a type of his people — ^will give some idea of the development 
of his mind, both intellectually and morally, under culture. He belonged 
to the Middle Swan tribe, and to a family famous for their courage and 
activity. He was endowed with originality, confidence, good natural abilities, 
and an excellent memory. When his mother consigned him to us, at six years 
of age, he was a very handsome child, quick and intelligent, and soon learned 
to speak English fluently. At ten years old he could read and spell well, and 
had a fair knowledge of geography — ^better, I think, than most boys who had 
similar opportunities for learning. He could learn to repeat from memory 
a chapter in the Bible, or a page or two from any English book, in a 
remarkably short time ; but found much difficulty in working out arithmetical 
problems, though he could eventually master sums in long division as well 
as most boys of his age. He readily apprehended any simple proposition, 
but could not easily grasp abstract ideas or follow abstruse reasoning. It 
would have been interesting to have watched his improvement had his 
education been continued for some years longer. While living with us, he 
evinced many good qualities; he was frank, brave, and generally attentive 
to the duties imposed upon him, and was much attached to his mistress. 
However, he occasionally became troublesome, and when once he began to be 
so, it was difficult to bring him back to his generally steady course of life. 
Though habitually truthful, he did on one fiuch occasion, when about eleven 
years old, iuvent a most extraordinary falsehood, and bore it out with a very 
ingenious and plausible tale. He had large black eyes, with long curled 
eye-lashes, and a well-shaped head and features. We could often see the 
color mount to his fiwje, his skin was so transparent, though of a dark 
chocolate-brown. After I left Western Australia, Wengal obtained a good 
situation at a squatting station, and in the course of time married. He led 
a regular life, and never at any time evinced any desire to return to his own 
people; indeed he did not like them. His grandfather, BeeditCy a fine old 
man, was greatly respected by his tribe. He had nine children, of whom 



♦ Manuscript book. Gason was recently wounded in the attack on the telegraph station on 
the overland line. 



276 APPENDIX : 

I can mention Molimeggetj Molidobbin, NarraUj and Weeban as brave men 
and notable warriors^ thongh always friendly with the white people. 

Weeban was the father of Wengal^ and in the year 1840 it devolved on 
him to avenge the death of a relative, which he did by killing a little black 
girl belonging to the tribe of the aggressors, who was in the service 
of Capt. Shaw, of the Upper Swan. For this deed Weeban was tried, 
convicted, and sentenced to banishment for life to the island of Bottnest. 
Having proved himself one of the best behaved of the prisoners in that 
penal establishment, at the end of five years, Gh)vemor Hntt was pleased, at 
my solicitation, to grant him a reprieve. We were residing at Fremantle 
at the time he was liberated, and I saw him jnst after he landed. The color 
of his skin was a sort of iron-grey — ^unlike any native I had before seen. 
This was because he had not been allowed any grease to anoint himself with, 
in accordance with the custom of both men and women. 

As soon as he had been set free by the Besident Magistrate he hastened 
to see his son, who, however, was not aware of his father^s return. I was 
anxious to witness the meeting after a five years* separation. Some Fre- 
mantle natives had congregated to receive Weeban on his landing, and as 
soon as possible led him to our house, and pointed out Wengalj who had 
just dressed for dinner, and was walking into the house, when his father 
rushed at him, hugged him in his arms, and kissed him nearly all over. 
Wengaly not knowing who the half-naked, grey-skinned old man was, shrieked 
with terror, and did not appear less agitated when told that he was held by 
his own father. He afterwards informed me that his father had once speared 
him in the leer when he was bein^ carried on his mother^s back, and he had 
been afraid of him erer since. 

An offender is sometimes outlawed by his own or a neighbouring tribe, and 
he then takes to an unfrequented part of the country, often with a stolen wife, 
but is seldom able to bear the banishment for more than a few months, when he 
returns, and braves the punishment that awaits him. 

I remember seeing a large, stout young man named Yungher thus surrender 
himself. He stood in front of a large tree, without clothes or weapons, other 
than a single spear and mirOy or throwing-board. Before him, at a distance of 
about fifteen or twenty yards, sat some thirty or forty men and women in a 
semicircle &cing him, many of them talking loud and rapidly ; while in the 
open space nearer to him a little man with a spear seemed to be making 
frantic efforts to work himself up into a passion ; but Yungher cared not for 
him; all his attention was directed to two men behind the lookers-on, who, with 
their spears quivering, were pacing rapidly to-and-fro, every now and then 
making a feint to throw the spear, but seldom uttering a word. They seemed 
to be incited by an old hag, who, perfectly naked, but grasping a wanna* in 
both hands, was running backwards and forwards before her hut, violently 
gesticulating and pouring forth a volley of invective, or rather keeping up a 
monotonous harangue; the rapidity of her speech and her physical exertion were 



* Tam-Btick. 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES: 277 

qiiite surprising. Yungher all this time was standing tip against tlie tree^ 
slapping his head first on one shoulder and then on the other. I noticed that 
he did this more rapidly as he expected an attack. 

In about half an hour the little man's passion seemed to have spent itself^ 
and the two fighting-men threw their spears simultaneously, and continued to 
do so from time to time, Yungher dodging them with great coolness and 
dexterity for nearly an hour, until at length a spear pierced him in the leg, and 
the afifair was over. He was then received as a firiend among them, and they 
had a dance in the evening. 

The foregoing is an illustration of a conmion occurrence among them. The 
little old man may have been a Bulya-gadak; and, if so, he was endeavouring 
by his imprecations to exert an occult influence with the unseen world to devote 
Yungher to inevitable destruction, in the same way that Goliah cursed David 
by his gods ; and in similar cases we read of the Romans devoting a person to 
the infernal deities. In the present day, the Indian nations have always their 
magicians with them in their wars, to use incantations against the adverse 
party. 

I once saw two or three hundred natives, in the York district,* fighting in 
open ground, the adverse parties fisLcing each other. I saw great numbers of 
kylies or boomerangs flying through the air, but had no opportunity of making 
any observations worthy of record. 

YagaUy whom I have mentioned before, was a daring patriot. During the 
period that a mortal feud existed between some of the settlers and the Abo- 
rigines, a party of the former rode out from the Upper Swan on a shooting 
excursion in pursuit of a tribe whom they expected to find down the river. 
The late Mr. James Drummond, senior, the Western Australian botanist, who 
was one of the party, related the anecdote to me. After a great deal of riding 
about the bush and mistaking the grass-trees f for black men, they halted, and 
while some were preparing the lunch, Mr. Drummond, as was his habit, walked 
about with his hands and gun behind his back, in search of new plants. 
Having wandered rather far from the rest of the party, he was suddenly 
surprised by a naked native man jumping from behind a tree a little in 
advance of him, and crying " Tchoot ! tchoot ! " % and at the same time leaping 
into the air as he would have done to avoid a spear. This man Mr. Drummond 
at once recognised as Yagan, who was evidently daring him to shoot at him, 
in order to show how he could avoid a bullet as he would a spear ; but Mr. 
Drummond was too humane to take advantage of the ignorance of fire-arms of 
this brave man. 

The natives seem to have no proper conception of truth, and would 
doubtless lie when it suited them to do so ; yet, as a rule, the men are candid, 
frank, cheerftd, confiding, and independent. The late Mr. G. F. Moore, when 
Advocate-General of the colony, wrote — " Fortunately for the ends of justice, 

* In Western Australia. 

t The grass-trees after this were called '' black boys.'* 

X '* Shoot I shoot I" They do not pronounce the letter t. 



278 APPENDIX: 

when a native is accased of any crime^ be often acknowledges his share in the 
transaction with perfect candour, generally inculpating others by way of 
exculpating himself. Were it not for this habit, there would be a total failure 
of justice in the great majority of cases of aggression committed by them 
against the white people." 

I have said that they are frank, cheerful, and confiding ; but I should explain 
that these terms are scarcely applicable to any but those who are in the full 
possession of their natural vigor and independence, and who are uncontaminated 
by the vices of the Europeans. It is not an uncommon occurrence for such an 
Aboriginal man in his own district, on meeting a gentleman whom he had 
previously known, to approach him with a firm elastic step, a cheerful inde- 
pendent air, and, in imitation of the English custom, hold out his hand in a 
confiding, if not a patronizing manner. 

Here is an instance of confidence, as related to me by Mr. Bland, and 
which would rarely if ever be met with in a European : — ^A tribal murder 
was committed at King George's Sound by three natives who were appointed 
to the task. They caught a boy, took him to the end of the jetty and wrung 
his neck. They then buried his body in the sand, but it was rooted up by 
some pigs. Two of them escaped in an American whaler, but the third, 
named Lindol, went into the bush, and would not be taken. Mr. Bland, in 
his capacity of Protector of Aborigines, having arrived at the Sound, sent 
a message to Lindol to come to him. He was afraid to go into Albany, but 
met him on the York road on his return journey. Mr. Bland said — ^^ You 
know you ought to be in gaol." He replied — "I will go along with you;" 
and accordingly walked with him 240 miles to York. Thence Mr. Bland sent 
him by himself with a warrant of commitment 60 miles down to Perth. He 
walked straight down to gaol, and faithfully delivered himself up to the 
authorities. He was tried and transported to the island of Rottnest — the 
gaol for natives. 

These primitive people have no ideas of the rights of property such as we 
have. In fact they have no separate property in any living animal, except their 
dogs — of which they are very fond— or in any produce of the soil. The habit of 
the men from youth to old age is to spear every living animal they come across, 
and of the women to dig up every edible root they find. The only property 
claimed by a native is his wife, his weapons, his cloak, girdle, ornaments, and 
his name ; for this last he sometimes sells. It was not therefore surprising that 
they occasionally speared the sheep and robbed the potato gardens of the early 
settlers before they understood their views with regard to property ; but, as I 
have before remarked, only entrust a native with property, and he will invari- 
ably be faithfiil to the trust. Lend him your gun to shoot game, and he will 
bring you the result of his day's sport ; send him a long journey with provisions 
for your shepherd, and he will certainly deliver them safely. Entrust him 
with a flock of sheep through a rugged country to a distant run, and he and his 
wife will take them generally more safely than a white man would. 

I believe the members of a tribe never pilfer from each other. Yet, like 
the Bedouin Arabs and other Asiatics, they would not consider the act of 



NOTES AND ANEODOTEa 279 

pillaging base when practised on another people, or carried on beyond the 
limits of their own tribe. 

Generosity is not a virtue often found among savages, yet I have always 
known these people share their food with each other. The following instance 
of forbearance is worthy of note : — Soon after the settlement of Swan River, an 
outlawed native, remarkable for his intelligence, courage, and patriotism, had 
been implicated in some homicide, and the Government offered thirty pounds 
for his head. He quite understood this, and that, if taken, he would be brought 
up and shot in the public square in Perth. Yet, on hearing that his old father 
had been lodged in prison as a supposed accomplice in the robbery of some 
flour at Fremantle, he deliberately walked about Perth one afternoon,* in the 
hope of seeing his father; but failing in this, he returned, and the next day, when 
on his way to the Upper Swan, he asked a man whom he saw baling out a boat 
to ferry him across the river. The man acceded to his request, but when they 
were half across he heard the sound of a volley of musketry come reverberating 
up the river, and immediately jumped up in the boat, exclaiming — " They have 
shot my father 1" and holding up three fingers before the face of the boatman, 
added, " I will kQl three white people." He rightly surmised ; his father was 
then shot by a picket of soldiers. However, on reaching the other side, he 
strode up the bank grasping his eight spears, and never looked back on the 
terrified boatman who had done him a kindness, but who fully expected to be 
the first victim. He proceeded at once to the Upper Swan barracks, where six 
soldiers were stationed, not one of whom happened to be at home. Seeing a 
soldier's wife inside at a wash-tub, he threw a spear at her and kUled her. He 
spared the man who had shown him a kindness, and walked about fourteen 
miles in order to confront the fighting-men in their own barracks. 

Many of the natives are doubtless treacherous, and the homicides committed 
by them are probably generally attended with treachery. The following is an 
instance : — 

Molimeggetj one of WengaVs uncles, arrived one day firom the Swan district 
at the Half-way House in the Darling Bange, where he found a few natives 
from the interior encamped. After going through the usual form of sitting at 
a distance, silent, for some time, he approached, and being, as he supposed, on 
friendly terms with these people, sat down at their fire. One of them asked him 
to go for a piece of bread to the house. He rose, leaving his spears on the 
ground, but had not proceeded many steps before he turned to pick them up, 
when he saw the hand of another man on them, and he was then instantly 
speared to death. This murder may have been committed as a satisfaction for 
the death of one of the tribe, with which occurrence Molimegget may have been 
wholly ignorant. 

Homicide with them was not only a savage vindication of the law of life for 
life taken by the hand of man, but of their superstitious belief that a death 
from disease is caused in some occult manner by a neighbouring tribe. 

* I published this anecdote in the Church News some years ago, signing mjself ** An Old 
Australian." — ^P. C. 



280 APPENDIX: 

Nomerous instanoes of personal fidelity might be addaced. I have already 
referred (page 225) to that noble youth Jacky^ who accompanied Mr. Kennedy 
in his expedition towards Cape York in 1848, and was with him when he was 
murdered. Wylie also^ who accompanied Mr. Eyre, in 1841, in his perilous 
journey from Port Lincoln to King (Jeorge's Sound, deserves a record in a 
historical work for his faithftil attendance on his patron, when the rest of the 
party forsook him, and when the other two natives murdered Mr. Colin Camp- 
bell, the overseer, and tried to persuade Wylie to accompany them when they 
ran away. I knew Wylie well, and took his likeness. — {See Fig. 252, No; 7.) 

I give the following account of a very barbarous murder, and of the punish- 
ment which followed, as an illustration both of the savage manner in which 
revenge is sometimes taken, and also of the practical influence that the super- 
stitious belief of the tribe concerned in the resurrection and after-life of persons 
buried has on their conduct. 

The tragedy was enacted between York and Beverly, in Western Australia, 
about the year 1839. I remember being shown the place where it occurred, but 
am indebted for the following particulars to Mr. Bland : — 

The wife and child of a shepherd, named Cook, residing in the Avon district^ 
were killed in revenge for the murder of a native by a white man near Green 
Mount. When Mr. Bland reached the spot, he found the roasting bodies in the 
smouldering hut, which had been set on fire after the murders had been com- 
mitted. The poor woman had been wounded and rendered insensible, and then 
further maltreated by the blacks, who afterwards speared her to death, and, 
seizing the child by the ankles, dashed its brains out against the wall ; they then 
set fire to the hut, and burned the remains. 

BarraAong and Ytigkite^ two of the principal murderers, were shortly after- 
wards apprehended, tried, convicted, and sentenced to be hung in chains on the 
spot where the deed was committed. This was carried out, and had an effect 
the result of which was not anticipated at the time. No other murder was ever 
afterwards committed in that district. 

It was subsequently discovered that the natives believed that unless they 
were buried there was no future existence for them — ^that they would never 
"jump up" again. This indicates that savages, even of the low type in which 
some eminent English writers class these people, have an idea of a ftiture life. 
They consider that if the body is devoured by crows and native dogs it cannot 
live again. They distinctly said this. So that the prisoners begged to be shot 
and buried rather than to be hung in chains ; and they tried to provoke the 
soldiers who accompanied them in the cart to the place of execution to shoot 
them. 

The Australian natives, like the desert Arabians, display a wonderftd patience 
when in pursuit of game or of an enemy. Their avidity, acuteness, and perse- 
verance are equally surprising. They never relinquish the object on account 
of delay in its attainment, nor until they feel assured that ultimate success is 
hopeless. While in pursuit, they are continually turning their regards to every 
quarter, endeavouring to obtain some indication of the object sought for. For 
tiiis purpose, the slightest and most distant indication of smoke or dust, and the 



NOTES AND ANECDOTES. 281 

feintest track on the ground^ is instantly perceived^ and conveys to them the 
information they desire. They display extraordinary patience, as well as skilly 
in creeping upon and spearing emns, kangaroos, native ^'turkeys/'* and wild^ 
ducks — ^the most vigilant of birds. 

Mr. "Wake saysf "There seems to be an almost total absence from the mind 
of the Australian native of any idea of abstract morality, or even true instinct of 
moral propriety." There is no doubt that their normal condition is a most 
degraded state of barbarism ; but I believe the obstacles to the civilization of 
the young people are attributable to the gross sensuality of their habits, and 
not to a want of capacity for becoming moral. It is because their associations 
with the white people have so often tended to encourage sensuality that so little 
success has attended the efforts to reclaim them. The result of the occupation 
of their country by our race is that they have been compelled to abandon 
their old barbarous habits, and, instead of them, they have adopted our 
vices. 

I think the natives of Western Australia have no abstract ideas of truth- 
fulness and honesty as virtues, though they are habitually honest among 
themselves, if not truthful. I mean they very seldom steal or lie with a sense 
of guilt. Moral turpitude was in no way connected with the pillaging which 
was sometimes carried on in the early days of the settlement, as may be seen 
by the address of Yagan to Mr. MoorcJ And during my many years' 
acquaintance with them I do not remember ever hearing a native utter a 
falsehood with a definite idea of gaining anything by it. K questioned on any 
subject, he would form his reply rather with the view of pleasing the enquirer 
than of its being true ; but this was attributable to his politeness, like that of 
the Asiatics, and not to any desire to deceive. 

Finding among the guests at a recent evening party at a friend's house an 
educated and gentlemanly Chinese doctor, I had a long conversation with him 
on some of the customs of his people, and found that he assented in the most 
good-humoured way to all I said when asking him if so-and-so was what he 
meant, when I did not quite comprehend him — ^for he spoke English but 
indifferently; and yet, immediately afterwards, he would tell me exactly the 
opposite of what I had said. He would say what was not true rather than 
contradict me, and would tell the truth afterwards without any sense of shame 
at contradicting himself. And so with a native. Ask him if he is going to 
the north, and he would say, " Yes, yes," though presently after he would tell 
you he is going to the south. 

The following anecdote will frirther illustrate their character in this 
respect : — 

In the year 1844, 1 returned from Eling George's Sound to the Swan, in 
the colonial schooner Champion. We had on board some native prisoners, to 
be tried in Perth, three of whom were Denniny WelMnburt, and Kcron^ whose 
likenesses are engraved in Fig. 252. 

* The Anfitralian bustard, 
t Journal Anthropological iMtitute, yoI. i., No. 1, p. 80. t Page 228 

VOL. 11. 2 N 



282 APPENDIX: 

These men were severally charged with robbery or cattle-stealing ; they 
were from oatlying districts^ and had had bat little commnnication with the 
Europeans. I took their likenesses, and waa present at their trial, and give 
the following particnlars from notes made at the time. Denning abont forty 
years old, was a wily savage, charged with several offences. First, with stealing 
rice from Mr. Belcher. When pat into the prisoner's dock, he at once stated 
that he and another man scratched a hole in the ground and got through into 
the store-room where the rice was kept, some of which he carried off and ate. 
He also confessed to stealing floor from Oandyup, Mr. Taylor's station. He 
said he was asleep during the robbery of sugar from Mr. Warburton's staticHi, 
but another man put some of it into his mouth I Webbmburtj a fine-looking 
young man, confessed to having speared and partly eaten a caUl KoroHj with^ 
out hesitation, owned to having killed a sheep belonging to Mr. Gillom. He 
said he ate the inside, and next day returned and ate part of the 1^. Address- 
ing the Clerk of the Court, whom he took to be the principal personage 
present, immediately he was put in the dodc, he stretched out hifl aim and 
called out, '' Me eat him." 

With regard to marriage, a common mode of obtaining a wife was to abduct 
or carry one off from another tribe. In suck a case the woman was in danger 
of losing her life ; for, if she already had a hujsband, he would, if possible, 
kUl her for adultery ; or, if she reftured to accompany her new suitor, he would 
seek her life. Otherwise, a man's wives consist either of the females who have 
been betrothed to him from their birth, or those whom he has inherited from a 
deceased brother. A man may never marry a woman of the same name or 
fr^mily division as himself. 

The following are instances of revenge which I remember : — 

A fine young Irishman, the son of one of the first Swan Biver settlers, took 
to the bush and lived for about two years with the natives. On <me occasioD, 
he took the young wife of Marabunda, a Swan native, and eloped with her over 
the Darling Bange into the Far East. Marahmda followed their tracks day 
after day, until at length he came up with them in one of the great qttangangj 
or sand-plains. In accordance with the native practice ia such cases, Marar- 
bunda crept towards them one morning, just as the day Was dawning, when 
people are supposed to sleep the soundest, and was in the act of quivering his 
spear for the deadly aim, when ^' Betiy/' hearing his approadi, silently twirled 
a little piece of stick in her paramour's hair. H^ bad just time to seize the 
gun at his side, and, raising himself in a sitting posture^ polled the trigger 
at the same moment that Marabunda let fly his spear. It was a remarkable 
coincidence that the bullet and spear met in mid-air, when the latter was 
shivered by the concussion, and Marahmda went off declaring that his enemy 
was the devil — Oenga. 

The young Irislmian, notwithstanding the vagabond life he thus led for a 
time, was generous and brave, and never joined with the other colonists in any 
vindictive or cruel practices against the natives. For twelve months after the 
occurrence of this incident, whenever he and Marabunda met, it was on equal 
terms — ^the one cocked his gun and the other raised his spear as they passed^ 



NOTES AND Al^CDOTBS. 283 

nntil at length a leoonciliation took place. This colonist was afterwards 
appointed by the Governor chief of the native police at York, and while I was 
in that district information was brought to him by some native couriers that his 
younger brother had been killed by a blackfellow, under similar circumstances 
to those in Marabunda^s case. He immediately mounted his horse, and rode a 
hundred and fifty miles, to the Victoria Plains, until he reached the tribe in 
which he found the slayer of his brother. The native, on seeing a white man 
approach on horseback, ran towards a grass-tree thicket ; the other pursued at 
Aill speed, and shot him dead just as he was turning round to throw his spear. 
For this act the Governor suspended the Police Inspector, but some months 
aftierwards reinstated him, on evidence being adduced that he had shot the 
native in self-defence. 

A third similar example of the summary mode adopted by the natives in 
punishing an aggressor, and which will likewise be remembered by the old 
Swan River settlers, is as follows :— The son of a landed proprietor on the 
Upper Swan took off a native woman to the valley of the Toodyay, whither he 
was pursued by the husband, who found him asleep lying on his back on the 
ground. The native stealthily approached him, and chopped his face in two 
with an axe, severing the nose and cheek-bones. He, however, so far recovered 
that be lived for many years afi;erwards. 

Some tribes are very careftd and jealous of their women, while others are 
oftien willing to barter them. The women sometimes quarrel among themselves, 
and fight desperately with their wannas^ while the men look on with apparent 
indifference. 

I have not observed that the natives usually bear malice towards an 
aggressor after the wrong has ceased to exist. Their acts of retaliation, if not 
committed to punish a present offence, are perpetrated for the sake of con- 
formity to their traditionary customs rather than for the purpose of gratifying 
a vindictive spirit for some past aggression against the individual offender. 
The cases of Mr. Kennedy, Mrs. Cook, and perhaps nearly all the murders that 
have been committed by the natives, are instances of this. The real offender 
seems never to have been sought for ; but acting under the influence of a 
natural feeling of revenge for some great wrong committed against them, they 
have attacked the first whi|;e person they could get at. Their idea was that 
all the white people were cognizant of and approved of the acts of each other. 

Though the men make drudges of the women, and often treat them in a 
harsh and sometimes a brutal manner, yet they are capable of strong affection. 
I have always observed at a native camp that the women appear as hilarious 
and independent as the men. Husband and wife are often much attached to 
each other, and continue to be so when they grow old. 

I remember an old man named Dugebtibj at the Middle Swan, who used 
generally to be encamped with his wife and children near the Eev. Mr. Mit- 
chell's parsonage. They made this their head-quarters for many years. At 
length the old woman died, and Dtigebub so took her death to heart that he 
pined away and died a few weeks after her. His affection and care for her were 
well known to the neighbouring settlers. 



284 APPENDIX. 

The natives are kind and attentive to their sick, and are very fond of their 
children, especially the boys. 

I have observed that some of the yonng people are vain of their personal 
appearance, and fond of adorning themselves ; the men as much, or more so, 
than the women. When fresh mlphied, and decorated in their own fSeishion, 
they are often really handsome — ^with a dignified air, a fine fignre, and a pleas- 
ing countenance, which is always expressive. Some of the faces are quite of the 
Asiatic type. Some of the young people of both sexes are fond of imitating 
the dress of the white people. So great was the vanity of a certain lad on the 
Swan, that failing to obtain a hat or cap, he wore a cast-away iron saucepan, 
which had lost its handle, for several weeks, although he was put to great 
inconvenience in continually pushing it up, to prevent it from slipping over his 
eyes. They do not, however, like incongruity in dress. When a white shirt is 
given to a Swan native, he smears it over with wilghee before putting it on. 

They are strongly impressed with the idea of their superiority to other dark 
people, especially to the Chinese. The following amusing illustration of this 
conceit took place a few years ago in Heathcote, Victoria : — ^A Chinaman was 
making a purchase in a grocer's shop, when an Aboriginal man came in, and 
passed on higher up the counter. The shopman turned to him and said, 
"What you want, John?"* The native instantly replied — ^'^Me not John ; that 
fellow John ;" and seizing the Chinaman, he flung him into the street. 

They have no idea of cleanliness. Except the tribes who live by large 
rivers, or near the sea, they never wash themselves from their in&ncy to the 
day of their death. 

The new-bom infant is rubbed over with sand, and the adults plaster their 
hair and anoint their persons with wilghee^ made of red ochre and grease. 
This seems to keep them in health, and protect them from the assaults of flies 
and mosquitos, which otherwise would be intolerable. 

* The colonists hare faUen into the absurd practice of caUing the heathen Chinese bj the namft 
of the beloTed disciple of our Sariour, and which is also the national name of an Engli^man. 



APPENDIX B. 



TRADITIONS OF THE AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES ON 
THE NAMOI, BARWAN, AND OTHER TRIBUTARIES OF THE 

DARLING. 

(COMMUinOATSD BT THE BbY. WiLLIAM RiDLET, M.A., ETC.) 



I. — Baiame. 

"Baiamk" (pronounced like the three words "By-a-me," and in the 
Wellington district south of the Namoi ^^By-a-my") is the name by which 
tribes scattered over a great portion of the north-west and west of New 
South Wales designate the Supreme Being. The blacks there who are 
acquainted with English, if asked what ^' Baiame'*^ is, reply, " Carban-massaj'* 
i,e.j the Great Master; and to further enquiry as to what they and their 
fathers know of Baiame^ they reply that He made earth, and water, and sky, 
animals and men ; that He makes the rain come down, and the grass grow ; 
that He has delivered their fathers from evil demons ; that He welcomes good 
people to the great ^^WarrambooV* (watercourse and grove) in the sky — ^the 
Milky Way — a paradise of peace and plenty ; and that He destroys the bad. 

The Rev. James Giinther, of Mudgee, long a Missionary in the Wellington 
district, has recorded in his grammar of the " WiradhuTTV language that 
the thoughtful blackfellows ascribe to "BaiamaV^ these three attributes — 
inmiortality, power, and goodness. They say that Baiame is present at their 
Cora — ^the periodical assembly at which young men are initiated into the 
privileges of manhood. Among the ceremonies of the Cora is the exhibition 
of a sacred wand, which they say was given to their people by Baiame^ the 
sight of which is essential to impart manhood. 

^^ Baiame^' is derived (as the Rev. C. C. Greenway has shown) from 
^^baiay*^ to make, cut out, or build. Like many other words, it is variously 
pronounced — sometimes aspirated, sometimes sharpened. The ^^b" which is 
generally heard at the beginning of words sometimes becomes ^^ bh,'' or almost 
" V," sometimes " p." 

For ages unknown this race has handed down the word signifying " Maker" 
as the name of the Supreme. 



286 APPBNDK J 

11. — Ideas of the Stabs. 

King "Rory," an old chief of the Wdilmm {Wile^ne) tribe, on the 
Barwan, near the junction of the Namoi, gave me the following account of 
stars : — 

The Northern Crown is "Mullian ivollaij^ the eagle's-nest Q^wollaV^ means 
"camp"). The several stars in the Crown are the young eagles. When this 
constellation is on the meridian, Vega rises, and shortly before it Altair. These 
are the two old eagles springing up to watch their nest. It was a startling 
word of the old chief when Altair (in Aquila) appeared, to hear the name 

Arcturus they call " Guemhila^^ (red) ; Canopus is " Wumba^'* (deaf) ; 
Benemasch, and the next star in the tail of the Great Bear — ^the only 
bright stars of that constellation visible in this latitude, which rise about 
N.N.E., and set N.N.W., never rising high, but moving, as it were, under the 
branches of the high trees — ^they call ^^ Ngung^gU^"* (white owls). 

The Milky Way they call Warramhoolj that is a strip of land abounding 
in fine trees and shrubs, with a stream of water running through it — the 
home or promenade of the blessed dead. The Pleiades are Worrul (bees'- 
nest) ; Bungula and Agenor, Murrai (cockatoos) ; the Southern Cross, NgSii 
(tea-tree) ; the dark space under the Cross, Gao-ergi (emu) ; Magellan Clouds, 
Buralga (native companions) ; Antares, Guddar (lizard) ; two stars across 
the Milky Way, near Scorpio, Gijeri-^a (small green parrots) ; a dark space 
near them, Wurrawilb&ru (demon, or ghost); the "S'^-shaped line of stars 
in Serpentarius between the Northern Crown and Scorpio, MundSmtr (notches 
cut on a tree to climb up); Spioa Virginis, G&ri9 (small crested parrot); 
Fomalhaut, Gani (small iguana) ; Corvus (4), Bundar (kangaroo) ; star iu 
Peacock's Head, Murgu (night cuckoo); Venus, Ngindigindoer (you are 
laughing) ; Mars, Gumba (&t) ; Saturn, Wungal (a small bird). 

III. — Laws of Descent asd Mabbuge. 

A social classification, carried out by means of family names, and embracing 
every human being of the race, is known to exist all over the tributaries of the 
Darling, including the Balonne and the Maranoa, and over the Wide Bay 
district of Queensland. This classification is the basis of strict laws of 
marriage and descent. The same class-names are in use among tribes speaking 
different dialects, and the system is known to be established even beyond the 
extent over which the same names are used. Among the Kamilaroi^ Wolaraiy 
Wiradhurri, Wailwun, and Pickumbul tribes, the class-names are, for men, 
Ippaij Murriy Kubbi, and Kumho ; for women, their sisters, Ippathay MdtAa^ 
Ktcbbothd, and BfUa (or Budka), Besides these, they have other class-names, 
derived from animals, which also come by inheritance. The mother's name 
determines that of the child, and generally, not always, the child's class-name 
may be known from the father's. This will be seen by the subjoined rules. 
Besides the names that come to them by birth, the Aborigines have oilier 
distinctive names, commonly taken from some personal characteristic, as long- 



TRADITIONS OP TETBES. 287 

arm, short-leg, sharp-eye. Murri {Murry) is the name of the race— meaning 
Australian Aboriginal. Mvrri {Murree) is the most important of the four 
classes. 

Rules of Descent. 

1. The mother's second name descends to all her children. Thus 

all the children of Budha nurai are ^^nuraV^ (black snake).; her 
sons are Ippai nurai ; her daughters, Ippatha nurai. 

2. The sons of Matha are Kubbi; her daughters, Kubbotha. {Matha 

rnurruroHs sons are Kvhbi murriira (paddy melon) ; her daughters, 
Kvhboiha murriira. 

3. The sons of Budhxi are Ippai; the daughters, Ippatha. 

4. The sons ot Ippatha are Kurnho; her daughters, Budha. 

5. The sons of Kubbotha are Murri; her daughters, Matha. 

N.B. — Murri and Matha are the highest grade; but Matha! s children 
are Kubbi and Kubbotha^ the lowest. Again, KubbothoCs son is Murrij 
of the highest grade. So every family passes, in two or three or 
four generations, through the highest and lowest grades — a curious 
combination of the ideas of aristocracy and levelling; but the 
difference of rank is slight. 

Rules of Marriage. 

1« Murri duli (iguana) may marry a Matha murriira^ or any Budha. 

2. Murri murriira may marry a Matha dulij or any Budha. 

3. Kumbo dinoun (emu) may marry a Budha nuraiy or wiy Matha. 

4. Kumbo nurai may marry Budha dinoun, or any Matha. 

6. Ippai dinoun may marry Ippatha nurai, or Kubbotha duli, or 

Kubbotha murriira. 

6. Ippai nurai may marry Ippatha difioun, or Kubbotha mute (opossum). 

7. Ippai bilba (bandicoot) may marry Ippatha nurai, or Kubbotha 

murriira. 

8. Ktibbi mute may marry Kubbotha duli, or Ippatha dinoun. 

9. Kubbi murriira may marry Kubbotha duli, or Ippatha nurai. 
10. Kubbi duli may marry Kubbotha murriira, or Ippatba bilba. 

A man may have many wives of the names that are legally open to him, if 
he has the art or force to get them. But if he attempts to take one whose 
name is not allowed to one bearing his name in these rules, the tribe will kill 
him, or at least attack him with deadly purpose. The law is sacred ; curses 
and spears fall upon him who dares to violate it. 

From the above rules, it follows that generally the children of Kumbo are 
Kubbi and Kubbotha; those of Murri are Ippai and Ippatha; those of Kubbi 
are Kumbo and Budha; those of Ippai are Murri and Matha. But if Kumbo, 
instead of marrying a Matha, takes a Budha (with a different totem), his 
children are Ippai and Ippatha; and if Murri, instead of marrying a Btulha, 
takes a Matha (with a different totem), his children are Kubbi and Kubbotha. 
Bo, in all cases; the mother's name determines that of the children. 



288 APPENDIX 

Among the Kogai tribes, west of the Balonne, and also at Wide Bay^ 
Qneenslandy the feminine names are derived from those of the brothers, by 
affixing 'Un or -gun. Thus, among the Kogai^ the names (answering to 
Ippaiy Ac.) are these: — ObUr^ Wungo, Urgil/a, Unburri; and their sisters, 
OburuguTiy Wungogun, Urgillagun^ Unburrigun. And at Wide Bay the names 
are Derwunj Bdrdng, Bundar, T'andor, Balkoin; and their sisters, Dentwngun^ 
BaranguTiy Bundaruny Tandarun, Balkoingun — ^the only case I have heard of 
where there are five names to each sex. 

'Brothers and Sisters. 

Daiadi is elder brother ; Gullami, younger brother. Boadi is elder sister ; 
Buri, younger sister. 

Among eight brothers, the first-bom has no daiadi, seven gtdlami; the 
youngest has seven daiadi and no gullami; the fourth has three daiadi and 
four gullami. 

So the eldest sister among eight has no boadi and seven Imri; the third has 
two boadiy five buri. 

Father is BUba, sometimes ^^Papa" 

Mother is NgumJba. But its appellative, used by children in calling on their 
mothers, is Guni (pronounced just as yvvri is pronounced at Oxford). 



IV. — Names of Lakguages. 

Most of the languages are named from their negative. Thus in Kamilaroij 
^^kamiV^ means "no" or "not;" in Wolaroiy ^^woV^ is "no;" in Wailnmnj 
^^wair' is "no;" in WiradAurri, "nnra" is "no." But in Pikumbul ^^pika'^ 
means "yes." 



APPENDIX C. 



NOTES ON THE NATIVES OF AUSTRALIA. 

(Bt Albbbt a. C. Lb Soubf.) 



The natives are much more numerous in some parts of Australia than they 
are in others, but nowhere is the country thickly peopled ; some dire disease 
occasionally breaks out among the natives, and carries off large numbers* 
This was the case among the Goulburn, Devil's River, and Upper and Lower 
Murray tribes some few years before the country was peopled by the whites ; — 
the small-pox, or some very similar disease, made its appearance, and played 
havoc among the tribes. But there are two other causes which, in my opinion, 
principally account for their paucity of numbers. The first is that infanticide 
is universally practised ; the second, that a belief exists that no one can die 
a natural death. Thus, if an individual of a certain tribe dies, his relatives 
consider that his death has been caused by sorcery on the part of another 
tribe. The deceased's sons, or nearest relatives, therefore start off on a 
"bucceening" or murdering expedition. If the deceased is buried, a fly or 
beetle is put into the grave, and the direction in which the insect wings 
its way when released is the one the avengers take. If the body is 
burnt, the whereabouts of the offending parties is indicated by the direction 
of the smoke. The first unfortunates fallen in with are generally watched 
until they encamp for the night; when they are buried in sleep, the 
murderers steal quietly up until they are within a yard or two of their 
victims, rush suddenly upon and butcher them. On these occasions they 
always abstract the kidney-fat, and also take off a piece of the skin of the 
thigh. These are carried home as trophies, as the American Indians take the 
scalp. The murderers anoint their bodies with the fat of their victims, 
thinking that by that process the strength of the deceased enters into them. 
Sometimes it happens that the "bucceening" party come suddenly upon a man 
of a strange tribe in a tree hunting opossums ; he is immediately speared, 
and left weltering in his blood at the foot of the tree. The relatives of the 
murdered man at once proceed to retaliate ; and thus a constant and never- 
ending series of murders is always going on. Not now in Victoria (for the 
tribes are nearly extinct), but in the more distant part of the country, I have 
no doubt the same thing is still going on. 

I do not mean to assert that for every man that dies or is killed another 
is murdered ; for it often happens that the deceased has no sons or relatives 
who care about avenging his death. At other times a ^^bucceening" party 

VOL. n. 2 o 



290 APPENDIX : 

will return without having met with any one; then, again, they are some- 
times repelled by those they attack. I remember an instance of this kind 
many years ago on the Goulbum. There were a large number of natives 
encamped close to the station at the time. One night about ten or eleven 
o'clock, just as I was going to bed, I heard a woman's shriek, followed by 
the excited cries of the men. In an instant the whole camp was in an up- 
roar, and every man, snatching up a fire-brand and spear, rushed to the river, 
and they spread themselves over the fallen timber which choked the stream. 
It was a wild, weird scene — ^the dusky forms of the blacks holding their spears 
aloft, ready to strike the foe ; their numerous torches, as they moved quickly 
over the fallen timber, reflected in the black water beneath, and lighting up the 
spreading trees above. As I stood wondering what it all meant, I heard some 
natives on the opposite bank of the river shouting defiance as they retreated. 
I then guessed the cause. Next morning I was told that the woman whose 
shriek I had heard had been sent to the river by her husband—too lazy or 
frightened to go himself — ^for water. On her way she was attacked by a 
" bucceening " party in ambush. Her shrieks at once brought the men to her 
rescue, who, being numerous, were bold. The "bucceeners" at once plunged 
into the river and swam across, and it was in the hope of intercepting them 
that the men spread themselves over the fallen trees. The unfortunate woman 
got off with a severe blow on her head from a waddy, but, no doubt used to 
such treatment, she seemed to care little about it, and was greatly rejoiced at 
having escaped with her life. I recollect a case on the Loddon where a camp 
was attacked ; the men fled, and a number of unfortunate women were mur- 
dered. I could tell of cases where weak tribes have been almost annihilated 
by their stronger and treacherous neighbours. 

The constant treachery practised prevents the different tribes from often 
leaving their own territory; if they do, they are never sure of their lives ; for the 
same reason they do not like going about after dark, or leaving their camps, 
unless several are together ; — ^there may be a lurking foe behind every tree or 
bush. 

I have mentioned infanticide as being prevalent. This is not practised so 
much from want of affection for their offspring — on the contrary, those they rear 
they are very fond of— but simply as a matter of convenience. If a woman has 
a child before a former one can take care of itself, it stands but a poor chance 
of its life, especially if a girl. I once asked a young woman who shortly before 
had dashed her infant's brains out against a tree why she had done so. ^'Oh I'' 
she coolly replied, " too much cry that fellow." On my telling her that was no 
reason for killing her infant, she said, pointing to a child of two years of age, 
" Oh, too much young fellow Jinamy; no good two fellow pickaninny." 

The River or fish-eating tribes are the most numerous and the most robust. 
I have seen many six-foot men among them, well built and stout in proportion. 
The tribes who inhabit country with no rivers, and but little water, are miser- 
able creatures, repulsive in appearance, stunted in growth, without vigor, having 
more primitive encampments, fewer appliances, and ruder weapons, and alto- 
gether inferior to the fish tribes. The dialects are indeed widely different ; the 



THE NATIVES OP AUSTRALIA. 291 

words signifying the same object having no similarity whatever in tribes not 
far removed; but it is a singular fact, showing the common origin of the 
language, that although an individual of a tribe may not be able to understand 
the dialect of the natives a hundred miles from his birthplace, yet, take him 
considerably ftirther, and he will probably meet with those speaking a very 
similar language to his own, and with whom he can converse. 

The girls are betrothed when very young, sometimes as infants ; and at the 
age of thirteen or fourteen are taken possession of in a very summary manner 
by their Aiture lords. If they wUl not go quietly to his mia-mia, they get a tap 
over the head with a waddy to enforce obedience. They are often promised to 
men of a neighbouring tribe. In that case, they are taken at some general 
meeting. In all my long experience of native life I have only met with one 
instance of anything like love being shown. This was in the case of a pretty 
young girl, who was given to a man old enough to be her father, and who 
already had one wife, showing a most decided preference for a young man of 
her tribe. Charley — ^for that was the favored one's name — ^took possession of 
his lady-love when her intended husband was absent on a hunting expedition. 
On the return of the latter to the camp, he vowed vengeance, and at once 
endeavoured to recover the girl by force of arms. He armed himself, and 
approached Charley's mia-mia, waddy and malka in hand. Charley arose, 
Z, taking up his weapouB, coolly awited his opponent^the poor girl cower! 
ing and trembling behind him, for well she knew what her fate would be if her 
lover was defeated. A desperate fight now took place between the two men. 
Charley was much the smaller of the two, but younger and very active, and I 
am glad to say victory declared for him, as he gave his opponent a terrible 
thrashing. However,'as he had committed a breach of tribal usage, all were 
against him, and he had to take himself off with his fair one until the affair 
had blown over. The Goulbum and Murray blacks had a curious custom or 
superstition with regard to betrothment. The mother of the betrothed girl 
would never look at or meet her intended son-.in-law if at all possible to avoid 
him ; but if compelled to pass close to him, she would cover up her head and 
face with her opossum cloak and shuffle past in a most ridiculous fashion. I 
never could get at the meaning of this apparently absurd custom, called by 
the Goulburn tribe Ulandibe or Ulandibo. 

Polygamy is universal ; but it is generally the old men of the tribe who 
have the greatest number of wives. The reason of this is that they exchange 
their young daughters for young wives for themselves. Many of the young 
men are consequently without any, and the result is perpetual fights and 
quarrels about the women. They, unfortunate creatures, lead a wretched life 
of drudgery. They have to collect yams for their husbands^-which alone is 
no joke, as they eat an immense quantity— ^fetch wood and water, and when 
on the move carry everything— the man walking along majestically with his 
tomahawk and a few spears, his poor lubra trudging behind loaded. Their 
life depends much upon the temper of their generally morose and sullen 
masters, who beat them brutally with the first thing they can lay their hands 
on, tomahawk or waddy, for the veriest trifles. When eating, the man sits in 



292 APPENDIX : 

front, devouring all the choice parte, occasionally throwing a half-picked bone 
or some entrails to his lubra behind. 

In the many fights which take place, I am sorry to say that the women, 
especially the old ones, always make matters worse by taunting the men. 
They work themselves into a perfect ftiry, lashing the ground with their yam- 
sticks and opossum cloaks, throwing dust into the air, yelling and screaming, 
and looking like very fiends. 

Although each tribe is confined to its own territory, they have assemblies at 
different times, at which several tribes assist. On these occasions there are 
great feastings and corrobboree — ^the national Aboriginal dance of Australia — 
and the meeting generally ends in a fight. When any recent cause of quarrel 
exists, a fight ensues almost as soon as the tribes meet. I have frequently 
been present at these native gatherings. I remember once strolling up to the 
camp of the Pangarangs, who had arrived about an hour before on a visit 
to the Oorilim. I had been told that a fight was likely to take place, as 
a Pangarang^ rejoicing in the .name of Neptune^ had recently lost a son, and 
he suspected his death had been caused by one of the Oorxlim. I went to 
Neptune^s mia-mia, where he was sitting cross-legged roasting an opossum, his 
two lubras squatted behind him. In a few minutes the mother of the dead boy 
commenced a low, mournftil dirge ; directly she did so, her husband, who up to 
that moment had been laughing and talking to me, became grave and silent. 
The woman gradually worked herself into a rage, until I knew, from my know- 
ledge of the language, that she was cursing the Oortlim for causing the death 
of her child, and taunting her own people, and her husband in particular, for 
not avenging his death. G-radually the noise of the camp became hushed, and 
several other women joined in the mournful chant. Neptwne^ who had sat 
motionless as a statue until now, suddenly sprang to his legs, as if he had 
received an electric shock, and with a wild cry seized his spears, and dashing 
his cloak to the ground, rushed into the open space between the two camps, and 
threw a reed-spear high into the air. As it fell quivering in front of the 
Oorilim camp, every man arose and ran to his weapons. In a minute the 
two tribes, about thirty men in each, stood opposite to each other. The conflict 
now commenced in earnest ; spears and boomerangs whizzed through the air, 
the men shouted and yelled defiance, while the women hung on the outskirts of 
the combatants, lashing the ground with their yam-sticks and dancing like very 
maniacs — ^as they were for the time — taunting and spitting at the opponents, 
and urging on their respective tribes to the combat ; every now and then the 
vixens would rush at each other, and smash each other's fingers with their long 
sticks. After a time the spears were thrown aside, and the men rushed on each 
other with their waddies and leangles, and a general hand-to-hand fight took 
place, and lasted for some time, until a third tribe, who were camped close by, 
but not mixed up in the quarrel, separated the belligerents, and succeeded in 
making peace after much loud talking. 

When the fight commenced, I got behind a tree and watched the combat. I 
thought that some would have been kiUed ; but, when quiet was restored, I found 
that no great damage had been done ; one man was severely cut in the thigh by 



THE NATIVES OP AUSTRALIA. 293 

a boomerang, another had a spear through his leg, and a few broken heads 
made up the sum total of the casualties. At night, a grand corrobboree was 
held, and the tribes seemed to have forgotten their quarrel, and to be on the 
best possible terms again. On another occasion I witnessed a desperate fight 
among those same PangarangSy which took place after dark, from some dispute 
which had arisen in camp. They fought with tomahawks and waddies, holding 
torches in their left hands. The shouts and curses of the combatants, the 
screams and yells of the women and children, the howling of the dogs, the 
whole camp enshrouded in darkness, excepting where the apparently deadly fray 
was going on, which was lighted by the glare of fire-brands — ^made up the most 
unearthly scene I ever witnessed ; and the thought struck me, as I gazed on 
the savage sight, that if any one unaccustomed to bush life had been suddenly 
transported to where I stood, he would have thought himself in the infernal 
regions. It was not safe to go near them, and so they fought the matter out by 
themselves. After a time they became exhausted, and quiet was gradually 
restored. In the morning some showed ghastly wounds ; but, as they were all 
on the head, it did not much signify, as a blackfellow's skull seems to be 
impenetrable. 

They are fond of wrestling, and, when two tribes meet, often amuse them- 
selves in this manner. They all collect and sit or stand in a circle about 
a clear space, and the best wrestlers on either side try their skill. When a 
fall is given, a shout of approval greets the winner ; but these games some- 
times lead to serious results, as it seems to be thought a disgrace to be 
thrown three times in succession. On one occasion when I was a looker-on at 
a trial of skill of this kind, a native, named Davy, was thrown three times 
heavily by a man of another tribe named Long Bill. Davy took it all in 
good part until the third time ; then, as he rose from the ground, he left 
his opponent, and walked towards his mia-mia, and an ominous silence at 
once settled on all present. I was standing in the circle, and Long Bill, 
seeing me, ran over to where I stood, and said — " You pull away, plenty 
boomerang fly about directly." I took his friendly advice very quickly. On 
reaching shelter, I turned to watch. Davy had reached his mia-mia, and was 
again advancing with his weapons in his hand. The two tribes now rose and 
separated. As soon as Davy got near enough, he threw a boomerang right 
among Long BilPs tribe. They opened out in a crescent, and the missile 
passed through without striking any one. All now rushed for their weapons, 
and, in a few minutes, those who had just before been apparently such good 
friends were engaged in a fierce fight. After a while another tribe, who were 
neutral, interfered, as neutral tribes generally do, and the fight was stopped ; 
but the disagreement led to a general break-up of the encampment — each 
tribe retiring to their own territory. 

I could describe numbers of fights I have witnessed, but they are all very 
much alike. I can only say I never saw a man killed in one of them ; thanks 
to their great quickness of vision and agility, they escape many a spear that 
would transfix a white man in the same position. The corrobboree is common 
to all Australian tribes, although there is a great difference in the way in 



294 APPENDIX : 

which it is danced. The following is the manner in which it is usually per* 
formed by the Victorian tribes. 

It is generally danced when two tribes meet, one dancing one night, the 
other the next. The lookers-on congregate about the large fires made to light 
up the scene, and admire or criticise the performers. The women seat them- 
selves in a body, with their opossum cloaks tightly rolled up before them, on 
which they beat with their right hands, keeping perfect time, at the same time 
chanting one of their corrobboree songs. One of the oldest men, generally a 
man of note, acts as leader. Suddenly, through the gloom, the dancers one by 
one glide upon the scene, each man painted with white streaks of pipeclay on his 
face, legs, and body, and a large bunch of green leaves tied tightly round his 
ankles, which make a peculiar rustling noise as he dances. They commence 
by beating time simultaneously with their corrobboree-sticks (short pieces of 
green wood which give out a loud ringing sound when struck), and shaking or 
quivering their extended legs in the manner peculiar to the corrobboree. As 
the performers become excited, the vigor of the dance increases, and, with loud 
shouts, they advance in a body towards their leader, who, chanting at the top 
of his voice, with his face turned to the dancers, slowly retires before the 
advancing mass — ^vigorously beating time meanwhile — ^until the large fire is 
reached. The dancing now ceases, and the men, rushing into a compact body^ 
stamp with their right feet until a cloud of dust arises, when, with a wild shout, 
each one at the same moment throws up his arms above his head, and they then 
retreat to commence again. The perfect time that is kept is wonderful. If 
fifty men are dancing, they strike the corrobboree-sticks as if they were but one 
pair, and they exhibit an extraordinary degree of elasticity and grace in their 
movements — indeed some seem to have no joints in their legs, so supple and 
pliant are they. Sometimes they perform with spears in their hands, but not 
often ; and sometimes around the rude figure of a man cut out of bark. This 
latter dance is connected with some of their superstitions. 

As I have stated, the corrobboree is differently danced in other parts of the 
country, and some tribes have a greater variety of dances than others. In 
Western Australia they represent the hunting of the kangaroo. — {See Mr. 
Eyre's work.) 

They lead a rude, simple kind of life. The day is spent in hunting and 
fishing, and the women go out and gather yams, or fish in the lagoons with 
small nets they make for the purpose. As evening advances, the hunters 
return, and the produce of the day is cooked and eaten. After nightfall, the 
elders of the tribe often address the rest on some subject interesting to them« 
They speak in a loud tone of voice, so that the whole camp can hear them, for 
the mia-mias are built close to each other for protection. Whenever the speaker 
makes a point, a loud shout of approval is raised. After an hour or two, they 
cease, and sleep gradually overcomes them, and all is hushed for the night, 
unless indeed, which often happens, some unfortunate woman oflfends her brutal 
husband, and is beaten or speared by him, in which case her piercing ya-ki / 
ya-Jd! is heard a long distance ; or that most melancholy and depressing of all 
native chants, the wail for the dead, rising and falling on the still night air, 



THE NATIVES OP AUSTRALIA. 295 

breaks the silence of the otherwise sleeping camp. Summer is their busiest 
time. It is then the tribes meet together and hold their corrobborees and settle 
their disputes. Spring is also a time of rejoicings for their yams and roots are 
plentifiil and good^ and the ground being soft, the kangaroo and emu are more 
easily captured ; but in winter they do nothing more than they can possibly 
help. In July, emus' eggs are eagerly sought after ; and from that month until 
the end of the egg season is the time when they obtain the greatest quantity 
and variety of food. 

A good deal has been written and said about chieftainship, but nothing of 
the kind exists ; there are certainly a few men — ^generally the boldest and 
strongest and very often the most mischievous — ^who acquire some ascendancy 
in their tribe, but they have no recognised authority as the American Indian 
chiefs have. Each tribe is bound together by a common cause and a common 
danger; unity is their only safety from their neighbours. They have some 
curious superstitions and customs. Any theft or breach of tribal usage is 
generally enquired into by the leading men of the tribe, and punished. The 
culprit, if found guilty, has either to stand at a certain distance and receive 
three spears aimed at him in rapid succession, or to receive a blow on the head 
from a waddy. The spears are generally avoided, but the other punishment is 
more serious in its results. I have more than once seen both ptmishments 
inflicted. In the latter, the culprit has to hold his head down, and he stuffs his 
beard into his mouth, to take off the jar of the blow ; the executioner then 
deliberately strikes full on the head. Sometimes, among the South Australian 
tribes, when they use for the purpose a heavy two-handed sword, the skull is 
smashed, and the man dies. In other cases, the offender is an idiot for the rest 
of his days ; but among the Goulburn and Murray tribes, where most of my 
experience of native life has been gathered, it is seldom such results ensue. I 
remember one case especially, where a man had stolen a small quantity of sugar 
from one of his fellows. The tribe took it up, and condemned the thief to 
receive a blow on the head from the man he had wronged. The culprit stood 
as I have described, and the other walked quickly up to him, stopped for a few 
moments, and then dealt him a blow which would have smashed a white man's 
skull. The man who received it, however, never stirred, but simply looked up, 
the blood streaming down his face. The man who struck him now burst into a 
violent fit of crying, and, lifting his waddy, struck the pointed handle again and 
again into his own head until it was covered with blood ; then, turning round, 
he threw his waddy from him as far as he could, and, still crying violently, 
threw his arms round the neck of the man he had struck. It was a most 
touching sight, and one I shall not easily forget. 

I never could discover anything among them approaching to religion ; they 
certainly have a vague idea that when they die they will, as they express it, 
''jump up whitefellow," but the superstition must of course be of recent origin. 
They also believe in evil spirits, which roam about at night; and in others 
which cause sickness, and which the doctors of the tribe try to exorcise by 
placing their mouths on the part affected, and speaking or chanting in a 
singular and rapid manner. But all their superstitions bearing on this subject 



296 APPENDIX: 

are so utterly vague — ^they being unable to explain anything themselves — that 
it is impossible to make head or tail of it. My opinion is that they have no 
religious notions or ideas whatever. 

The natives of Australia are cannibals in a modified sense ; they do not 
often eat their fellow-creatures^ but there is no doubt that occasionally they do. 
I have myself seen the hands of a man in the moogger-moogger or bag of a 
native; the same man had also a large piece of human fat, with which he 
anointed himself all over, warming it by the fire and rubbing it well in. I 
have read of some revolting and well-authenticated cases of cannibaliBm; but as 
the theme is not a pleasing one, I will say no more about it. 

In every tribe there is a doctor, always an elderly man, and sometimes 
there are several; and there is no complaint they will not attempt to cure. For 
cuts or wounds, they apply bandages and often earth poultices, which, by-the- 
by, often have a marvellous effect. They are also skilled in the art of bleeding ; 
they open a vein with a piece of sharp flint or shell ; they often rub and knead 
with their knuckles the affected part. For rheumatism, they plunge the 
patient into cold water. But if all their usual remedies faO, they proceed to 
incantations, in the hope of driving the evil spirit out. 

They are very superstitious. Comets are their peculiar aversion. The first 
night the great comet of 1842' [1843] appeared, there was dreadftd commotion 
and consternation among the Australian tribes. A large number were en- 
camped close to the station where I resided, and I remember the intense alarm 
it created — different spokesmen gesticulated and speechified far into the 
night ; but as the comet still remained, and all their endeavours to explain the 
unusual appearance were fruitless, they broke up their camp in the middle of 
the night — the only time I ever remember its being done — ^and crossed the 
river, where they remained huddled up together until morning. Their opinion 
was that the comet had been caused and sent by the Ovens blacks to do them 
some direful harm. They left the station, and did not return until the comet 
disappeared. 

Many tribes follow a singular custom of knocking out the two firont teeth of 
the upper jaw. This is done to the young men only. They also tattoo, which is 
a most painful operation. In some tribes the whole back and part of the chest 
are covered, and the women are also tattooed, but not to the same extent. 
Among others, the men only have a single row, high up on the back. The 
operation is always performed by a man, and consists in making a number of 
broad and deep gashes in the fiesh : those on the men are generally about an 
inch and a half in length. It is astonishing how stoically this horrible opera- 
tion is borne. I once saw a young man undergoing the operation, and he bore 
it with the greatest fortitude, although his back was literally cut to pieces. 
By some process, with which I am not acquainted, the cut, when healed^ 
protrudes half an inch from the skin, forming large lumps, which are con- 
sidered a great adornment. Circumcision is not known among the Yictorian 
or. New South Wales tribes, but is common among those on the north coast. 
Among the tribes to the north-west of Adelaide a very singular custom 
prevails — an incision is made at the base of the scrotum. It is common among 



THE NATIVES OP AUSTRALIA, 297 

the Gkkwler Bange blacks. At the age of seventeen or eighteen, the boys are 
inducted into manhood by a singular custom, called by the Goulbum natives 
^^ Jibbdgoop.^^ The noviciate is painted in a fantastic manner, and for some 
weeks is the butt and fool of the tribe. After the absurd ceremony is com- 
pleted, he becomes a man, and can take part in the counsels of the elders, and 
take a wife, if he can get one. In some tribes the boy is started off with a 
tomahawk naked into the bush, and cannot return until he has clothed himself 
in a cloak of opossum skins, made by his own hands. But, although now a 
man, he cannot touch the flesh of the emu ; that is only for the elders of the 
tribe ; it is fat and oily, and considered a great luxury, which accounts for the 
old fellows keeping it to themselves. 

They have different modes of disposing of their dead. Some tribes bum 
the body, carefully collecting the ashes into the centre of a small cleared space; 
others bury, first tying the body into a ball ; others place the body on a scaffold 
some distance from the ground ; and others put them into hollow trees. Sir 
Thomas Mitchell mentions in one of his works that he once saw a regular 
grave-yard prettily laid out, the paths kept perfectly clean ; it was situated 
in a beautiful grove of acacia, and had evidently been the burial-place of the 
tribe to whom it belonged for a long time. I recently observed that one of 
the parties now engaged in erecting the telegraph line across the continent 
met with a similar grave-yard on the Finke. 

When a death occurs, the relatives cover their heads with clay, and daub 
their faces with the same material, and the most intense grief is exhibited. If 
a man dies, the women (his wives) cut and bum themselves in a most shocking 
manner, and the camp at night resounds with their mournful lamentations. 
The wail of the women on these occasions is intensely melancholy and depres- 
sing, especially when heard on a calm, still night. They will never, if possible, 
unless for the purpose of revenge, mention the departed by name, and I have 
often made them very angry by doing so. 

Before the advent of the whites, I do not think human life was shorter 
among the natives than it is among Europeans. I have seen many old men 
with hair as white as snow ; at least it would have been so had it been clean. 
I am sure they were upwards of eighty years of age. I know several instances 
where men were grey in 1841, when I, as a child, first made their acquaintance, 
and they really looked but little older when I last saw them in 1861. 

Before they became so degenerated by contact with the whites, they were 
excellent huntsmen. The kangaroo and emu were speared — ^the hunter 
stealing on his game against the wind, under cover of a bush held in his left 
hand, the womerah and spear being grasped in the right. When the black had 
crept up within spearing distance, the bush was suddenly thrown aside, and 
before the astonished animal or bird could escape, it was transfixed by a spear. 
Some of the River tribes — ^those on the Darling — catch numbers of wild-fowl by 
stretching a net across the river, from tree to tree, close to the water. A native 
then ascends a tree, and when a flight of ducks approach, he imitates the cry 
of the hawk ; the ducks immediately drop close to the water, where they strike 
the net and become entangled. 

VOL. II. 2p 



298 APPENDIX : 

They are also expert in spearing fish at night from their canoes. The canoe 
-which is simply a sheet of bark cut off a tree with a bend in it — ^is allowed to 



drop silently down the stream ; a small fire is lighted in the bow, on a raised 
piece of clay, of a peculiar resinous wood, which bums with a clear, bright 
fiame; the fish, attracted by the light, swim up to it, and are immediately 
speared. The canoes, being so firail, require great steadiness in their manage- 
ment, though on the Lower Murray I have seen them large enough to carry a 
dozen men at once. These large canoes are cut off the giant swamp-gums. 
They also snare the wild turkey or bustard. They approach as they do when 
stealing on an emu ; but instead of a spear, they carry a long light stick, at the 
extreme end of which is tied a fluttering moth, as well as a strong running 
noose hanging just below. The bustard is so intent on looking at the moth 
that he does not notice the noose, which the cunning black at last succeeds in 
slipping over his head. 

They cook their large game in ovens made in the following manner : — ^A 
hole is made in the earth, and lined with stones ; in it they make a fierce fijre, 
until the stones become almost red hot ; the kangaroo, or what they intend to 
cook, is then placed in the oven, on the top of which some more hot stones are 
placed, and the whole covered with earth ; the heat of the stones and the con- 
fined steam together cook the meat. 

The natives, as a rule, are splendid swimmers, though there are tribes living 
in dry country who will not go near the water, and cannot swim a stroke ; but 
among River tribes water is second nature — children hardly able to walk swim 
like ducks. It is strange to watch a blackfellow catching ducks by diving. He 
drops down the stream with merely a small portion of his head above water. 
When he is close to the fiock, he quietly dives, and draws one or two birds under 
the surface ; these he at once kills and tucks them under his belt ; he then rises 
to the surface, but only shows his nose ; in a moment he is down again, and 
another duck or two disappear. I have seen a black take seven ducks in this 
manner without creating any suspicion in the flock. They are also expert in 
noosing wild-fowl. 

Their weapons consist of different kinds of spears, some being jagged on 
both sides, others on one ; others again are jagged with flint, especially among 
the northern tribes. These are all most dangerous weapons, for, once in the 
flesh, they cannot be extracted or drawn back. Some spears aie thrown by the 
hand only, being held in the centre ; but all the light spears, especially those 
used for hunting, are those thrown by the womerah ; at the throwing end there 
is about a foot or eighteen inches of grass-tree, which causes the spear to fly 
straight. 

The Murray and Lower (Joulburn natives used principally reed-spears, the 
reeds being found in large quantities in certain parts of the rivers mentioned. 
In former years, there was a regular system of barter going on — ^the tribes 
owning the country about what is known as Lancefield used to exchange large 
quantities of greenstone, for making tomahawks, for reed-spears. There is a 
large native quarry still to be seen on Mount William, near Lancefield, where 
this stone was quarried. It is extremely hard and tough, and well adapted for 



THE NATIVES OF AUSTEALIA, 299 

stone tomsJiawks. The same kind of stone was universally used^ and I have no 
doubt the Mount William stone found its way from tribe to tribe for hundreds 
of miles. They also use the waddy, the leangle — ^a peculiar weapon not unlike 
the miner's pick — spear and waddy shields^ and a variety of that most singular 
weapon the boomerang. All their weapons^ with the exception of the spear, 
are more or less carved, and covered with white and red ochre. The natives 
generally have a considerable taste for carving and drawing. I have repeatedly 
seen the inside of their mia-mias covered with rude etchings of the kangaroo or 
emu, or anything else that might occur to them. The sheets of bark are first 
blackened in the fire, and the drawings are made with a piece of pointed stone 
or a nail, and some are really very well done. 



APPENDIX D. 



NOTES ON THE ABORIGINES OF COOPER'S CREEK. 

(Bt AlWBMD W. HoWITT, F.G.S., P. 11. ASD WaBDBV of THX GOLDriSLDS at BADUrtDALB.) 



A GREAT central chain of Salt Lakes extends from the Flinders Range north- 
ward. Into these lakes flows the surplus water of Cooper's Creek. The 
Aborigines living on these waters and extending to the eastward on the various 
watercourses may be said to be numerous, when the nature of the country is 
considered. I estimated them at about 1,200. They are divided into tribes ; 
and again subdivided, and I am inclined to think that every lake and per- 
manent water may be regarded as having its sub-tribe. I am acquainted with 
four tribes. The DeerieSy who live at Lake Hope {Bando Pinna; or the Big 
Lake); the YantruTtmnterj who live at Cooper's Creek proper; and two other 
tribes who live towards Lake Lipson {Bando PcUckaditti); and Sturt's Desert 
{Murda Pinna, or the Big Stones). 

The natives living at Strezelecki's Creek are called the ^' Tifigatingana " 
blacks, from the native name of the creek ; they are, I believe, a subdivision 
of the DeerieSy and have a very bad name. Perhaps it is worse than they 
deserve, for all the misdeeds done by blacks on the border are laid to the 
charge of the Tingatingama blacks. 

The language is the same from Sturt's Desert down to Flood's Creek, in the 
Barrier Ranges ; and from the chain of Salt Lakes eastward, I know not how 
far up the rivers. 

A small &mily of the Yantruwunter go from the end of Strezelecki's Creek 
down to Flood's Creek, and there meet natives of the Darling back country. I 
think that the native mentioned by Sturt as coming to his camp (I think at 
Fort Grey) was probably one of this family. Capt. Sturt mentions that he 
made signs of great waters to the west or north-west, and also represented the 
paddling of canoes ; I think this really represented the hauling in of a net or 
^' Yammcu^^ I have seen such a pantomime, but I never saw a canoe or any 
place where bark for a canoe had been stripped in Central Australia. This 
small tribe meets the Darling natives as I have said, and some of them have 
spoken to me of them derisively as being so ignorant as to call a snake ^' fire." 
The YantruwurUer call fire ^' Touroy The Darling blacks use the same word for 
^^ snake" — ^for instance, on Burke's track there is a swamp called '^ TouronxUOj^ 
meaning ^'To catch hold of a snake;" or, in the broken English of the tame 
blacks, to ^' Man-em-snake." ^^ Wattoley " is to take hold of anything. 



THE AB0EIGINB8 OF OOOPBE'8 CEEEK. 801 

The Salt Lakes form a line, on one side of which water is called "4?!P^" 
and on the other side " Owie " or " Cowie;^^ the blacks are themselves called 
"Salt-water " blacks and " Hill" blacks; the former living about the lakes, and 
the latter among the hills forming the extreme northern end of the Flinders 
Range and the plain between the hills and the lakes. The word " Orvie " or 
" Come " extends through South Australia to the great Australian Bight, and 
possibly still further towards West Australia, For instance, " Owie^ndiima " 
(jump-up water, or spring) at Mount Serle, and " Yercumian^awie (a water) 
at the head of the Great Bight. This seems to me to point out the migrations 
of blacks spreading oyer the country and meeting at the Salt Lakes, 

The language also changes on crossing the watershed between the creeks 
flowing into Cooper's Oreek and those falling towards Bulloo Creek and the 
Darling Biver. 

The different femilies seem to have distinctive names. Many seem to have 
no present meaning to the blacks ; at any rate I could not find out from them 
that they had any meaning. Some of the names are Tchukurow, a kangaroo ; 
Mungalleey a lizard; Purdee^ an ant; Pitchery^ a native narcotic herb, &c. 
The individuals are distinguished firom each other, as in the case of the 
Pitchery brothers— one being Pitchery pinnarou^ the old man Pitchery^ or the 
elder Pitchery; and the other being Pitchery coono mielkeCy or Pitch&ry with 
the one eye. 

I estimated the number of Aborigines living on the waters derived from 
Cooper's Creek (the Barcoo, &c.) as about 1,200 souls. There were numbers of 
children at some of the camps, and their parents seemed very fond of them. 
There were numbers of old men, and I saw one of great age; he was very feeble 
and almost childish. He was covered from head to foot with a fell of grizzly 
hair. The utmost respect was shown him, and he was brought to see me by a 
deputation of old men. They spoke of him as a ^^ Pinna pinnarouj^ that is 
an ^^ Old, old man." Many of the old men were quite bald, but the sun's heat 
did not at all seem to affect them. 

As I remember now, the sexes were disproportioned. The males pre- 
dominated, and the young men seemed to me out of all proportion to the young 
women. I was struck with the fact that it was quite rare to see young girls — 
middle-aged and old women there were, and also quite little girls — ^infants ; but 
of girls and young women between these ages there were not many. At any 
rate I did not see them. Does this not point to the killing and perhaps eating 
of the young girls ? 

One custom is universal — ^namely, that strangers visiting the tribe have 
women given them as a piece of hospitality. I used to find it most troublesome, 
and I often had great difficulty to make the blackfellows at new camps where 
we made friends understand that we did not want their women. 

The Aborigines do not differ much in appearance from the Coast blacks, but 
their hair is straighter, and I think they are slighter in build. The curly hair so 
often seen on the Darling, the Murray, and elsewhere, is not common. The hair 
is sometimes worn rather long, and done up in a head-net; perhaps with a 
bunch of crow's feathers, stripped from the quills, tied on the top, I have seen 



the hair on one individaal long, and very Bhortty' afterwards cut quite short. I 
have ima^ned this done to provide hair for the hair-cord which is used for 
several parposes. I have seen it nsed for twining ronad the waist, and also for 
working into nets and bags with the common cord made from rash-fibre. I 
have always seen it used in the kidney-shaped bags nsed for bringing down 
"Fitehery." 

The osual scars on the back and breast and elsewhere are seen on most 
blacks. I do not remember that they knock out any teeth ; 
bnt I think not. A hole is bored tbrongh the cartilage of 
the nose, and in it is worn a long pointed bone, which has 
two nses — to extract thorns from the feet and to scratch the 
head. I sometimes have seen, instead of the bone, two 
feathers stack through ; and this gives them a strange ap- 
pearance (Fig. 256), particnlarly when the beard is tied with 
ria (EC. string ronnd and round t^ a point, and a bonch of feathers 

is tied on the top of the head. 

Charcoal, red-ochre, pipeclay, and grease are used to smear themselves with 
on various occasions. On great occasions I have seen them ornamented thus : — 
Borne blood is Obtained from a bird or small animal perhaps, or else by cutting 
themselves ; this is dotted over the body, on a gronndwork of red-ochre, with the 
point of the finger, and then, while still moist, is dusted with bird-down. It has 
a most singular appearance. This is done for " corrobborees," called there 
" Wimma." " Wimmaley^' means "to dance." 

The dress of the men consists of a head-net, and a very long cord wound 
round and ronnd the waist like a belt ; a large tassel hangs in front. The 
women wear nothing at all bat dirt. They have no 'possum or any other kind 
of rags; and I only once saw a covering used. It was a single pelican skin 
belonging to an old woman near Konatie, who was suffering from elephantiasis. 
Their huts are of two kinds — sommer and winter huts. The former are 
mere break-winds of branches or the stalks of marsh-mallows. The latter s^e 
made like bee-hives of sticks, then covered with tufte of grass or weeds, and 
finally with earth or sand thrown on the top and beaten down. The inside is 
generally scraped out a little hollow. They are wind and rain proof, and are 
often large enough to hold several people. Large numbers of these hats are 
sometimes met with near the permanent waters. 

Theur food may be described as consisting of eveiy thing having life. It is 
principally of fish and seeds, which are pounded and then mixed with water, and 
either eaten raw or baked in the ashes. Kardoo is now well known. It may be 
called their "stand-by" when other food is scarce. In many places, miles of 
the clay flats are thickly sprinkled with the dry seeds. Seeds generally are 
called "B&tvar" of which the Portulae — the "Manyottra boicar" — is the most 
prized. It is collected in large qnantities by the natives after rains. It is even 
sometunes collected in such quantities as to be preserved for future use. Kear 
Lake Lipson, one of my party found about two bushels contained in a grass case 
daubed with mud. It looked like a small clay coffin, and was concealed. The 
"Bowar" is ground on a slab of sandstone by another stone held in the hand, 



THE ABORIGINES OF COOPER'S CREEK. 303 

and water is sprinkled with the other hand from a wooden bowl or ^^Feechee^ 
The ground seed runs out like thick batter. The ^^Manyoura bowar^'* tastes like 
linseed-meal, and is by no means unpleasant when baked in the ashes and 
eaten hot. Seeds of the "Papjoar" grass are also beaten out in large quantities. 

The green Portulccc — the native spinach (strongly resembling the New 
Zealand spinach of our gardens) — ^various plants, native melons, and some 
fruits — of which the native orange is the best — are eaten raw. The roots of 
the PartuluCj roots like radishes, small bulbs called " Yowar^'* are baked in the 
ashes. Other food includes fish of three or four kinds, which are caught in 
nets, or in grass weirs placed across runs of water when the floods subside ; 
birds of all kinds, eggs, lizards, snakes — ^which they will eat although not killed 
by themselves — a kind of black ant about as large as the sugar ant, baked in 
the ashes ; rats ; even lice caught on their own persons and the persons of their 
friends. They are omniverous, and eat everything having life. I once saw 
them, however, refuse to eat a deaf-adder. At Lake Hope I saw them eat with 
great gusto a pelican which had been shot the day before, and had drifted 
across the lake. It was very " high." All the pieces of rich fat were collected 
and placed in a membrane bag they got from some part of the bird. This was 
baked in the ashes, and when quite melted, a hole was made in the membrane, 
and each of the blacks had a suck — every drop was treasured, and what ran 
over was rubbed on their faces. The rankest train oil was sweet compared to 
this rotten pelican oil. 

They catch frogs, even in dry places, by searching under the bushes on the 
margins of dried-up clay-pans. The frogs' feet tracks are visible, and near 
them is found a small kind of tank, a few inches below the surface — it is 
smooth inside, and oval, and frill of water ; and in this is the frog. I have seen 
them dug out. The blackfellow dug with a pointed stick, and pulling out the 
frog, turned him inside out, preparatory to cooking him on the coals. I was 
told that blacks had even crossed bad country in droughts by digging out frogs 
and getting the water. 

I remember seeing a blackfellow with his girdle ftiU of unfledged Bttdgerygars 
(shell parrakeets), which he had stufled under by the heads. The trees on the 
edge of Sturt's Desert were small box-trees, frill of holes, and were full of birds 
and their nests. 

The Aborigines cook their food in the ashes, and have no idea of boiling. 
I have more than once seen blacks astounded at the quart pots boiling. 
I remember one being much astonished when he tried to take one up by his 
toes. 

When our food has been given to wild blacks, they have, in many eases, 
gone through the pantomime of putting it in their mouths, chewing, swallowing, 
and rubbing their stomachs while saying ^'Movoalley^^ and all the time holding 
the food in their hands, or having, with complete legerdemain, got rid of it 
some way or another. They fear being poisoned ; but, on being detected, have 
laughed ; and being told not to fear but to eat, have actually done so, but with 
every sign of distaste and dislike. It often took days to accustom some of 
them to our food. They called it ^^ Malingkeey^ or nasty. 



804 APPENDIX : 

Pitehery is a vegetable snbstance which I believe to be a narcotic. It 
appears to be the dried and broken-np twigs of some narrow-leaved shmb. 
It is chewed by many of the blacks, principally by the older men ; I do not 
remember to have seen the women nse it. The mode of using it is, to prepare 
the twigs of a dwarf kind of acacia, which grows on the sandhills, by drying 
them in hot ashes ; then, to break them up small, and mix a little Pitchery 
with them. This is then chewed. I have tasted it, and fonnd it slightly pun- 
gent, and resembling some kind of mild tobacco. I was informed that it was 
procured eight or ten days' journey to the north-west, and I conclude from this 
that somewhere near or beyond Eyre's Creek is where it is found. The blacks 
told me that they went now and then to procure it. 

Their only manufactures are weapons, girdles, bags, cords, nets, &c. 
The weapons are, generally, the shield and boomerang; one in the hand, 
and one or two in the girdle ; sometimes waddies and spears are also carried. 
The spears are of hard wood ; some are simply pointed ; some are jagged. 
Nowhere did I see the formidable reed-spears. A singular weapon is the great 
boomerang, about five feet long. It is made of heavy box-wood, and is used, I 
believe, as a club or broadsword in close quarters. It does not seem to be 
carried about. I have only seen it in the camps, or hidden near them. The 
shields are of the usual shape, and of a soft white wood, which does not, I think, 
grow in the country. On one end is often found a small hemispherical cavity, 
in which fire is made by rapidly turning a hard stick with the hands until the 
dust ignites ; sometimes a little sand and charcoal-dust are added. 

Stones are also used as weapons, and are thrown with great force and 
dexterity with either hand. I have seen them thrown with .great accuracy; 
and it is a common amusement for the children to roll a round piece of bark 
down a sandhill and throw stones at it. 

Oblong wooden bowls are made by cutting off the knees firom a box-tree, 
and then thinning out with a kind of adze or gouge. Water is carried in 
them ; seed cleaned ; or sand dug round the huts. 

Adzes or gouges are made by fixing a piece of the stone, which breaks with 

a flat conchoidal fracture, into the end of a piece of wood, and 
fastening it as mentioned before. It is used by the workman 
sitting down upon the ground, holding the piece of wood b^ 
tween his feet, and then adzing it, with the tool held towards 
him. Flakes of this stone are used for scrapers and knives. 
—(Fig. 257.) 

Axes and tomahawks {Bomako) are made principally 
from a very hard cream-colored siliceous limestone ;* they 
FiQ 2B7 ^^ sometimes also made of greenstone. They are carefolly 

ground, and were much valued until iron tools became known. 
I have seen them produced for us from hiding-places in the sand. 

The large axes are used in the hand without a handle. The tomakawks 
are either fixed in the split end of a piece of wood, or are fastened by twisting 




* According to Mr. Selwjn, who examined one. 



THE ABOEIGINES OF COOPEE'S CEEEK. 305 

a piece of wood round them as a withe is twisted round some blacksmith's 
tools. In both cases it is fastened by cord^ and then coyered with a black 
hard gum, called " P^7^^a," obtained from a medium-sized tree with oval dark- 
green leaves and a rough bark. 

Cord is made from the bark of a shrub, and is used for girdles; and for nets 
from the fibre of a rush which grows universally on the edges of the lakes and 
in flooded ground ; the rushes are soaked and then scraped ; the fibre is very 
tough and strong. The nets are large, and are of two kinds; one, which is set 
on stakes out in the shallow lakes, and in which the fish become entangled, 
and another which is a drag-net, and expands in the centre into a bag. 
Immense quantities of fish are caught in this way. I have seen, after the 
blacks had taken away the large fish, the banks of a water-hole covered with 
small fish in thousands which had been thrown away. 

The red-ochre, or PocartOy I was informed, is brought from somewhere in 
the western plains in South Australia, from whence also (on the edge of the 
hill country) they bring the sandstone slabs for grinding grass and other seeds. 
I was told that a number of young men went down to bring these slabs under 
some kind of permit from the intervening tribes, and that they returned each 
one carrying a stone slab on his head. 

Some kind of traffic between the tribes seems certain, because I was also 
told that the shields were given to them by tribes to the east, in return for 
girdles which they themselves made. Near Kyejerou, I saw the section of a 
conch-shell, evidently brought from the north or north-east coast. It was 
perforated and hung to a cord. It was highly valued. I believe it to be the 
shell ornament called by the Queensland blacks ^^ Tuleen^ 

Connected with this is the fact that there are certain old men who were 
described to me as "walk-about old men," who travelled among the neighbour- 
ing tribes carrying news, and were not meddled with. In fact, a sort of 
herald. I saw two at Konatie, who had come up-country. The tribe were 
holding a grand festival. The men were all collected round a fire — ^the council 
fire, it may be-where speeches were made. I remember a long oration by one 
of the visitors ; he spoke fluently and at length. The women all the time 
were busy pounding the grass and nardoo seed. The sight was very strange, 
and the speeches of the blacks, accompanied by the monotonous tap I tap I of 
the pounding-stones, lasted till past two in the morning. 

The natives are in many things just like children. I have seen a young 
man, on leaving his camp with us for a trip of about a week, burst into tears, 
saying to himself all the time — "My country — ^my people — I shall not see 
them" — {Mitta archanie — kumai archanie — nxUta arto milkele!). In five 
minutes he was laughing and as gay as a bird. 

Another time, at Lake Hope, a little boy had been brought by his father to 
the camp, and had during the day been my " Man Friday" — ^fetching water, wood, 
and doing various little errands I set him. The following morning, when we 
were going to start — indeed, were in the act of starting — the old father came 
up, weeping and in sad trouble. "Where is my boy? — ^he is in your bags;" 
and nothing would satisfy him but to feel all over our packs and see that the 

VOL. II. 2 Q 



11 

97 



306 APPENDIX : 

little boy was not rolled up in one of them. It was almost ridicnlons to see 
his distress ; he was a tall bony old fellow, with grizzly hair, crowned with a 
circlet of red feathers. One moment he was crying " Where is my little boy ? 
— the next, he seemed to have forgotten him, and was begging for a ^^ Bamako. 

More than once the natives near whom we have camped, and with whom we 
have become friendly, have asked us to shoot some other tribe, saying that they 
would take the gins and bury the men. I remember — ^particularly at Lake 
Hope, when we were returning — a deputation of old men came to me, and 
proposed that we should go with them and shoot the blackfeUows at Coona- 
boora ; that they were bad blackfellows ; and that, if we would shoot the men, 
they would bury them, and take the women. The deputation was so importu- 
nate that I could only get rid of them by saying we would go round the lake 
in the morning, and I would see about it. Hie following morning all the 
blacks accompanied us, full of the proposed expedition, to our camp, a distance 
of six or seven miles, and from whence I proposed to myself the next morning 
to start, a distance of forty miles across the sandhills, to Lake Torrens. When 
we were encamped there, I suddenly heard the blackfellows cry out — ^^ Coonor- 
boora kurnai; Coonaboara kumai! — (Kill them; here they comel)." They 
seemed so excited that I fully expected we were in for a skirmish with the 
redoubtable Coonabooros ; but to my surprise, as they drew near, I saw some 
of the Lake Hope men meet them with great cordiality, and, on coming nearer, 
I recognised them as men whom I had seen before with these very Lake Hope 
blacks. Coonaboora was, in fact, only a few miles distant. 

The graves are just such as are spoken of by Capt. Sturt — ^large mounds of 
sand, covered with logs and brush. I believe them to be graves of great men 
{PinTiarou), or of people slain in war. They are not, as I think, numerous 
enough for the burial-places of the commonalty. Several were shown to me 
near Merrimoko, near Lake Lipson of Sturt, and I was told that in them were 
buried the blacks killed in a great battle fought between three tribes at that 
spot. 

In many places where the ground was bare — as on extensive clay flats — 
I have seen circles and circular figures formed with stones of various sizes, 
generally about as large as a two-pound loaf. They are laid on the ground, 
and were explained by the blacks to me as being play. I think they require 
more explanation. 

I must give the natives credit for keeping their agreements with us. On 
forming the dep6t, I got a number of the blacks together, and marked out a 
piece of ground round our camp. I made them understand that inside the 
boundary was ours, and outside theirs. They strictly observed this ; and when 
we left, several came and asked whether we were coming back, and if the 
blackfellows might " sit down " there again. They never used to fish (with 
the net) in our water at Callioumarou without sending a deputation first to 
ask permission. I also required that they should, when coming to us, lay their 
weapons down at a distance, and that at nightfall all blacks should go to their 
camps, and remain there till morning. This last stipulation was made because 
blacks had twice tried to get into our camp at night. 



^^^KK^mmmam^^mmmmmammmmmm^^m^B^^^tmm^MSsaBsn 



THE ABORIGINES OF COOPEE'S CEBEK. 307 

The natives of Cooper's Creek do not seem to fear walking about at night. 
The general impression among them is that we can kill at any distance^ and 
that revolvers never require " feeding " like guns — called by them universally 
" Mucketty "—clearly a corruption of " musket." I have heard them change 
" bucket " into " hucketty^^ They have not the letter " s," and all their words 
end with a vowel. 

There are native doctors among them. I saw one who conjured with a rock- 
crystal like a small pigeon's ^gg. He seemed to swallow it, and bring it out 
of several parts of his body. This kind of conjuring-stone is called " Bulky^ 
amongst the blacks in Gippsland. I believe they use it for "bewitching" other 
blacks. 

I found the belief among the Yantrurounter natives that white men were 
once blacks. I was once asked by some old men how long it was since I was 
a blackfellow. I believe this must arise from this — that they cannot imagine 
how we can travel from place to place in straight lines, or how we can speak 
any of their languages, without having at one time been blacks in their country. 
I was told that I had once been a Yantruwunter — one of the Mungalle family. 
It was often remarked by the natives that we travelled in straight lines across 
the sandhills, while the natives took the easiest line through them; and, 
according to my experience, scarcely any blacks go straight from one place to 
another. I only found one native guide who could make a straight course. 
Generally, they went twenty or thirty degrees on either side of it. I found this 
the case everywhere. 

On nearing any camp, when accompanied by a guide, we have had to halt 
while he went forward. He got on some high ground in sight of the camp, 
and began to bawl out something, holding a branch in his hand. The other 
blacks from the camp would bawl out in reply for some minutes ; the women 
and children would be seen to scurry off in haste. Then several blacks would 
come forward and hold a conference with our guide ; after which we were called 
forward, and a camping-ground shown to us. 

In one instance, after a most friendly meeting and the best under- 
standing the natives took fright in the night and decamped silently. I 
heard afterwards that they were alarmed at our watch parading round the 
camp all night. The next day we were obliged to beat up their quarters, 
land finding them hidden in a scrubby creek, two miles off, caught two for 
guides. 

Another time a guide ran away ; but, finding his track in the sandhills, I 
)ran him to earth in a native camp, and got him given up to me. He was 
dragged out of some bushes, and delivered up by some of the elders of the 
camp. This was among my own blacks, at Cooper's Creek. After this I had 
no more trouble about guides ; I could get them anywhere. I had only to go 
down to the camp, wherever it was, and say I wanted to go in such-and-such a 
direction. Some black who knew the country, who had probably been there 
lately, and who had friends among the natives living there, would agree to go 
for such-and-such a time, and on his return he always received good pay — a 
suit of clothes and a tomahawk, for instance. 



308 



APPENDIX : 



I once had one of these, and alao a Sonth AustrtJian black — a Hill black- 
fellow from Blanchewater — ^with me. The South Australian bolted north of 
Sturt's Desert, and made his way in after very great hardships. He told me 
afterwards he travelled by night until he got among his friends near Lake 
Hope. The wild blackfeUow stayed with me, and was the first to give the 
alarm when " Black Charley " bolted. He ran off suddenly from the camp 
with nothing but his blanket ; he was chased on horseback for some hundred 
yards, but escaped in the gigantic marsh-mallows. I would rather have wild 
blacks any day to deal with than half-tamed ones. 

Bigns are used among the natives. 

One is a sort of note of interrogation. For instance, if I were to meet a 
native and made the sign Fig. 258 — ^by turning the hand palm upwards as 




Fia 258. 



I met him — ^it would mean, "Where are you going?" In other words, I 
should say, " Minna ? " — (What name ?). 

The next sign means ^^ Fannie*'^ (none or nothing). For instance, a native 
says, ^^Bomako irigina'' — (Give a tomahawk). I reply by shaking the hand 
held in the position shown in Fig. 259. 





Fia 259. 



PtG. 260. 



Another (Fig. 260) is ^^ Minnie-minnie'^ — (Wait a little). It is shaken 
downwards rapidly two or three times. Done more slowly, towards the ground^ 
it means " Sit down." 

Sign used to express the "hospitable custom" spoken of in page 301. — 
(Fig. 261.) 




FIG. 261. 



There are numbers of other signs that I do not now remember. 

QtuereF Were not the " Masonic signs" spoken of by Stuart possibly such 
as these ? 

The only times I found any trace of any tradition or superstition, besides 
the " jumping-up of blackfellows as white men," which may be ranked with 



TBB ABOBIGINES OP COOPER'S GBEEE. <l09 

them, TS8 at a camp where I was talking with a blackfellaw, in the evening, 
when a bright falling-BtaT was Tiaible. He said — "An old blackfellow has 
fellen down there." It may have meant that the Bpirit of a blackfellow had 
Mien down, or that some black had died. I coald not ascertain which. 

All the Btars and constellationB have names. 

I have heard the whitea often called " Firrt mrri eoochee.'" When we 
suddenly came npoD a camp, I have heard a yell of " Pirri wirri, Pirri mrri" 
It was explained to me by the South Aastralian black I had with me as 
meaning " Debbil, Debbil, what come long way." 

The word " Coockee " is also applied to an animal living in the deep water 
at CaUiomnaron, which drags down blackfellows — evidently the Bmi-yip. 

Among the back-conutry blacks, at the Barrier Bangea, there is a custom 
of making " rock-paintings." That is, the figure of an out^atretched hand — 
sometimes colored, sometimes plain on a colored ground. When the former. 



the hand is daubed with rednxbre or pipeclay and printed off. The latter mode 
is to place the extended hand on the rock, and to squirt color over it out of the 
mouth ; on the hand being removed, the print is left on a colored ground. — 
(Fig. 262.) 



APPENDIX B. 



NOTES RELAXING TO THE ABORIGINES OF AUSTRALIA. 

(Br John Moors Datis.) 



It is the fashion among many persons to speak of the Australian Aborigines 
in terms of the greatest contempt^ as being far below us in every qualification, 
both mental and physical ; and no doubt the degraded creatures met loafing 
about the bush public-houses deserve all that may be said of them ; but expe- 
rience teaches that it is no more &ir to judge the whole of the Aborigines by 
the specimens alluded to than it would be to judge the Celt or Anglo-Saxon races 
by the police reports, or the scum miet with in the haunts of vice and infamy ; 
and those persons who have seen much of the blacks in the early days of 
these colonies can recall many instances of chivalrous daring, benevolence, and 
patient endurance of hardship and suffering, which perhaps may yet, in the 
hands of some Australian Cooper, '^ serve to point a moral or adorn a tale." 

That the whole of the blacks scattered over the Australian continent believe 
in a future state is indisputable ; for go where you will — east or west, north or 
south — ^yott will still find them strong in the belief that though they will die, 
they will rise again in the flesh, stronger, aye, and wiser than ever. 

Their mode of disposing of the bodies of deceased persons differs in various 
localities. At Encounter Bay in South Australia, and along the coast in that 
vicinity, the bodies are put on platforms in trees, and so allowed to remain till 
they fiUl to pieces. And in cases where a person belonging to another tribe had 
died among them, the body is gradually smoke-dried in a sort of loft made in 
their wirley, or temporary abode of the family he lived with ; and the body is 
carried about from place to place, till it is ultimately claimed by the tribe of 
the deceased. Burying the dead is, however, the most common, particularly in 
New South Wales, the body being tightly swathed in bark, and placed in the 
grave in a sitting position, with the face to the east. The grave is then fiUed 
up with alternate layers of timber and earth, so as to prevent the body being 
injured by wild dogs, or exhumed by hostile tribes. Great taste is often shown 
in the choice of a burying-place, and the writer has often in his travels come 
upon a grave, or cluster of graves, in some romantic spot — ^the hieroglyphics 
carved on the surrounding trees pourtraying, no doubt as truly as our tomb- 
stones generally do, all the virtues of those who slept below. 

I recollect once, on the banks of the Murrumbidgee, coming suddenly upon 
a grave in a most picturesque situation ; and that the tenant was one who had 



THE ABORIGINES OF ATJSTEALIA. 811 

been great in his day was evident by the care taken on the subject, the ground 
having been marked out and raised for about three inches in the shape of a 
canoe, and in the centre stood a little house made of bark in and out, be^ 
tween the upright sheets of which were placed the nets of the deceased, and 
inside were the weapons used by him. There was also a bed made of nice soft 
grass inside, and, as I afterwards ascertained, the nearest male relation of 
the deceased had there to sleep, and keep watch and ward over the body of his 
kinsman tiU such time as it had become too far decomposed to admit of being 
removed by any enemy. 

That cannibalism is sometimes practised by the blacks I have been often 
told ; but I believe that in those cases the bodies of deceased persons only have 
been eaten, and not any one killed on purpose ; and I knew one instance where 
the body of an old woman was eaten, and her own son partook of part of it. 
I have also on various occasions seen blacks during a corrobboree gnawing a 
human thigh-bone — doubtless of an enemy — ^and thereby exciting themselves 
to a pitch of madness. I have also known a lubra, as a punishment for her 
misconduct and negligence, made to carry about for months the body of her 
dead child, wrapped up in an opossum rug ; and on one occasion I happened to 
sit down on a bxmdle near a wirley, and finding an unpleasant smell, I enquired 
what was in the bundle, and soon learned to my great disgust that it contained 
the body of a child which had died some months previous. The blacks, as 
a rule, avoid camping near any grave, and never mention the name of any 
deceased member of the tribe, and regard any enquiry after them by the whites 
as an insult. In parts of New South Wales, such as Bathurst, Goxdburn, the 
Lachlan, or Macquarie, it was customary long ago for the first-bom of every 
lubra to be eaten by the tribe, as part of a religious ceremony ; and I recollect 
a blackfellow who had, in compliance with the custom, been thrown when an 
infant on the fire, but was rescued and brought up by some stock-keepers who 
happened accidentally to be passing at the time. The marks of the bums were 
distinctly visible on the man when I saw him, and his story was well known in 
the locality. In early years, when intercourse took place between the blacks 
and whites, and children were the result, the boys were invariably destroyed, 
but the girls kept ; and it was not till the whites became numerous, and the 
blacks began to dwindle away, that the practice fell into disuse, and the boys 
were allowed to live. 

As a general rule, both fathers and mothers are very kind to their children, 
and very rarely indeed strike them ; and I have been often amused at seeing a 
rebellious urchin of perhaps eight or nine years of age take up his mimic spears, 
run a few yards away, and then hurl them with all his force at his mother, 
who, good woman, would make a buckler of her opossum rug, and thus ward 
them all off, laughing all the time at the harmless rage of the would-be 
warrior. That they are very fond of their children and will at any time venture 
their lives for them is also beyond a doubt ; and I knew an instance where, in a 
skirmish which took place many years ago at New England, the blacks, after 
being worsted in the fight, swam across a river, leaving in their conftision a 
child behind them. A Maori who was living at the station, and had been 



812 APPBNDEt: 

engaged in the straggle, seeing the child, took him ap, and held him out to the 
blacks at the other side of the river. The &ther, on observing the child, 
seemed almost frantic, and held ont his arms eagerly towards the child, making 
at the same time signs for it to be given to him. The Maori pretended to be 
willing to restore the child, and entered the river with it, at the same time 
carefhlly concealing his tomahawk, making signs to the black to meet him. 
The man eagerly waded into the river and swam across, and when he got 
within reach of the Maori, the treacherous monster immediately braitied him 
with the tomahawk, and the body, with that of the child, which was also kiUed, 
was left to whirl down the seething waters, a sad return for parental love and 
devotion. 

When a male child was bom, a name was given him referring in general to 
the locality where his advent took place. On attaining puberty, a second 
name was conferred; and on arriving at manhood, the third and final one, by 
which he would be after designated. Many tedious and in some cases painful 
ceremonies had, however, to be passed through before the young man was duly 
qualified to take or steal a wife, set up on his own account, and earn for 
himself a reputation for good or evU as a brave and determined warrior or a 
mean and despicable coward. 

All the Aborigines along the coast from York's Peninsula in South 
Australia to Western Australia are not only circumcised but are mutilated 
also in the manner mentioned by Mr. Eyre.* The rite of circumcision has, no 
doubt, been perpetuated by the Malays, who, in days past, visited the Aus- 
tralian coast in search of the trepang or sea-slug, an article prized as much by 
them as the edible swallows'-nests by the Chinese; and the other practice 
was perhaps introduced by some Aboriginal Solomon to prevent the too rapid 
propagation and thereby starvation of the race ; and it certainly is surprising 
how, under the circumstances, there are any children at all. The rite is 
supposed to be practised when the boy is about seven years old ; but I have 
known some who had managed to evade it till about fifteen, but were then 
pounced upon ; and as the operation was performed with either a sharp stone 
or shell, it must have been both a painful and critical affair for the patient. 
During the last year previous to arriving at manhood, the unfortunate novice 
had to live a solitary life away from the tribe, procure his own living, and not 
come near any place where the women were ; no doubt to teach him habits of 
self-dependence, and leave him some green spot for memory to dwell upon 
when, in after years, he would be harassed by the cares consequent on being a 
fitmily man. 

About Adelaide, Encounter Bay, and the neighbouring localities, the young 
man was distinguished during the last year of his novitiate by being plentifully 
besmeared, from head to foot, with red-ochre and grease mixed, which gave 
him the advantage of not only being impervious to the attacks of mosquitos, 
gnats, &c., but of being duly advertised as a marrying man. Both men and 
women were marked on the back, shoulders, chest, and belly with raised ridges 

* ** Finditur usque ad urethram k parte infera perns." 



THE ABORIGINES OP AUSTRALIA. 313 

formed by making incisions and then filling the cut with charcoal, which 
answered as a styptic, and also kept the lips of the wound apart and formed 
the desired ridges. The arrangement of these marks differed amongst different 
tribes, each tribe having its own peculiar and distinct coat-of-arms; so that 
those versed in such lore could at once, in looking over a body, decide to what 
tribe it belonged, and send the information, if required. 

Along the Murray, Murrumbidgee, and Lachlan, and in New South Wales, 
all the males, on arriving at manhood, have either one or two teeth knocked out 
of the left side of the upper-jaw, as a distinguishing mark ; and at certain 
seasons of the year certain ceremonies are gone through at a distance from 
the main body of the tribe. These ceremonies occupy several days, are 
performed in covered-in wirleys, where only the initiated are admitted, and 
from which the females are most carefully kept a long way off. Certain signs 
are also used amongst the initiated, and it may therefore be fairly presumed 
that a species of rude Freemasonry exists amongst the Aborigines, the bequest 
perhaps of some amongst the many strange visitors who visited these coasts in 
the far-off days of yore. It is a well-known fact amongst the old settlers, that 
Aborigines, both old and young, who were in their employ and apparently 
perfectly comfortable and satisfied, would yet, on the receipt of the summons, 
insist upon going away immediately; and no temptation, however great, could 
ever induce them to stop, nor, on their return, could any information be 
obtained from them as to what had been done at the meeting. 

It has always been the practice amongst the Aborigines for the warriors of 
one tribe to make incursions into the territories of another, either to steal 
lubras, or to surprise and attack males, who, after being struck down, had an 
incision made in their sides, through which the caul-fat was drawn, and which 
fat was carefully kept and used by the assassin to lubricate himself — the belief 
being that all the qualifications, both physical and mental, of the previous 
owner of the fat were thus communicated to him who used it. On the Upper 
Murray, a cord, about the thickness of ordinary whipcord, was formed out of 
the sinews obtained from the tail of the kangaroo ; this cord had a running 
noose at one end, also two small bones, each sharpened to a very fine point, so 
fixed that when the noose was drawn tight the points would enter the jugular 
vein at each side of the neck. Armed with one of these, a black would steal 
at night up to the camp of another tribe, and, having selected some sleeping 
man, slip the noose round his neck, strangle his victim, and depart with the 
coveted caul-fat, without creating any noise or alarm. That these nooses were 
not used by the Aborigines on the men of other tribes alone, but also on 
Europeans, is beyond a doubt, as I recollect an instance of a shepherd who, 
having, at the expiration of his term of service, left the out-station at which he 
was employed to go to the head-station, and several days having expired 
without his arrival, an alarm was caused, and a search made, when the body 
was found, with his faithful dogs lying beside it, with the mark of the fatal 
noose round the neck. It was afterwards ascertained that the man had 
engaged a blackfellow and his lubra to carry his swag, and most probably 
the sight of the blankets had been too much of a temptation to the black ; the 

VOL. II. 2 R 



314 APPENDIX: 

noose had been used at some fitvorable juncture with deadly oertainty, and the 
coveted booty taken possession of. The whites of the locality found out who 
was the murderer, and he shortly disappeared ; and for many years afterwards 
the lonely spot on the plains where the body was found and buried was an 
object of interest to the European traveller who passed that way. 

The patience shown by the blacks in snaring game is very great, and I have 
known a man spend hours in catching a turkey. The usual plan is for the man 
to put boughs round him till he looks like a mass of leaves. He then makes 
a running noose out of a piece of cord, £&stens it on to the end of his spear, and 
sallies forth in quest of game. The turkey is only found in open country, and 
is a most wary bird ; but the black is equal to the occasion, and particularly 
patient when on his success depends his dinner. When the bird puts down his 
head to feed, his enemy moves towards him, and as the bird raises his head, the 
black stops quite still ; the bird sees what is apparently a bush, is satisfied, and 
again lowers his head to feed, when the black again moves closer ; and so on 
till the noose is thrown round the neck of the unsuspecting bird, and he is 
secured. Quail are also caught in the same manner. Ducks were sometimes 
caught in narrow creeks, by fixing nets from side to side in the branches that 
grew along the banks. The blacks then imitated the cry of the hawk, causing 
the birds to fly upwards in alarm, and thus get entangled in the net above them. 
A favorite way to take ducks on a lake or large sheet of water was to put 
some small bushes carefully round the head, and then tread water noiselessly 
till the black arrived amongst the ducks ; when he would pull one at a time 
under water, twist its neck, and secure it in his girdle till he got a sufficient 
number, when he would glide quietly away and go on shore. 

The tribes along the Murray made splendid nets, which they used most 
successfully. The Billybongs which run inland for miles, and served as reser- 
voirs to hold the waters which were brought down by the floods, had weirs placed 
carefully across their mouths in summer, when the water was very low ; and 
these weirs, which were formed of stakes interlaced between with little twigs, 
served most efiectually to retain the fish which had passed over them during the 
floods, and which, when the water got low, were secured with ease. In order to 
secure the old men who were unable to get their own food from the danger of 
starving, it had been wisely decreed that animals of a certain sex, such as the 
she opossum, &c., and particular descriptions of fish and other game, could not 
be eaten by the able men of the tribe ; but, when taken by them, should be given 
to the old men, under pain of incurring the penalties duly provided, and in a 
manner losing caste. 

The largest article in the shape of a covering of any sort which I have 
known them to manufacture — ^with the exception of the opossum rug — ^is a 
circular mat, about three feet six inches in diameter, made out of rushes by the 
lubras, on the banks of Lake Alexandrina, into which the Murray empties, and 
used by them and not by the men. These lubras also make rafts out of the 
reeds which grow on the banks, and on them go out sometimes miles on the lake 
to fish with nets. Both men and women are very expert at diving and catching 
the large fish, which lurk amongst the stones and timber at the bottom of the 



THE ABOBIGINBS OP AUSTEALIA. 315 

rivers. On the coast it was quite a picturesque scene of a night, when the waters 
of some little bay were lit up with scores of lights, which were continually 
moving and forming a variety of fantastic groups. These lights were pieces of 
blazing bark, carried by men, women, and children, who, each armed with a 
spear formed of a straight pointed young sapling, waded about the shallow 
waters in pursuit of the fish brought in by the rising tide. 

The blacks appear to enjoy a certain immunity from the sharks ; for although 
I have known numbers of men and women ta swim in and cut off a large 
quantity of fish from the schools of schnapper, extending sometimes more than 
a mile each way, which visit these coasts about December, and which schools are 
invariably followed by a host of sharks, ever on the watch to pick up the weakly 
fish, yet I never knew of an instance where a black was injured. That may, 
however, most probably be owing to the sharks being in a manner gorged at the 
time, as I have also known the blacks to swim off to the stranded carcass of a 
whale to get the coarse meat — or Ereng^ as it is called — ^when the sharks have 
been almost as thick round it as flies on meat during summer. The blacks are 
very expert in getting the schnapper alluded to. For days previous, scouts are 
posted on the various look-out places to give notice of the approach of the fish ; 
and as soon as the alarm is given, the greatest excitement prevails — ^men, women, 
and children rush recklessly into the water, swim towards the school, cut off a 
lot of the fish, and then, forming a semicircle, swim behind the fish and drive 
them into shallow water, where they are dexterously and quickly speared. To 
give you an idea of the quickness of the blacks, I can mention an instance in 
which three blacks, another white, and myself, speared upwards of thirty large 
schnappers in about twenty minutes. 

Another common way of catching mullet and whiting, and such sized fish, 
is, at the time the tide is coming in, for a black to take a bough in one 
hand, a spear in the other, and a piece of lithe sarsaparilla root — ^which 
abounds on the coast — ^round his neck ; he then gets behind a school of fish, 
moves the bough with his hand, causing a shadow to fall on the water, before 
which the fish rush away in terror, till he gradually gets them into water from 
two to three feet deep, where he can deal with them to a certainty, for every 
time he darts his spear he is sure to strike a fish. The black gives each a 
bite at the back of the neck, and strings it through the gills round his neck 
till he gets enough, when he walks ashore, broils his fish, takes his meal, and 
under the shade of a tree rests from his labors. 

The blacks along the coast from Yorke's Peninsula to Krog George's 
Sound will not eat pork, owing, no doubt, to the prejudices acquired by 
their intercourse with the Malays, who are Mahomedans. They are also 
more jealous of their women, and more cautious and treacherous, owing, 
most likely, to the same cause. Numbers of white men belonging to whaling 
vessels which have been wrecked at different times have perished owing to 
their getting embroiled with the natives about their women. I know of one 
instance, where we noticed on the beach the tracks of some white men, who 
had evidently landed from a boat, and gone into the bush with a lot of 
natives ; but there were no traces of their ever having returned, so that in 



316 APPENDIX: 

all probability they were murdered ; and, in support of such belief, we found 
some time after a boat on one of the islands, about ten miles from the main, 
a hut, and the remains of a man in it. On searching the place, we found 
a diary, by which it appeared that the dead man had been one of a boat's 
crew which had been left at another part of the coast, in charge of the 
property saved from the whaler which they had belonged to, and which had 
been wrecked, the rest of the crew having sailed away in the boats to Hobart 
Town for another vessel in which to carry away the oil, &c. The six men 
in charge, being tired of where they were, had gone for a trip in their boat, 
and landed at the place mentioned, where four out of the number had been 
induced by the natives to go on shore and into the bush after lubras. The 
others, who remained in the boat some distance off the shore, were surprised 
shortly after at seeing a party of natives, who came down to the beach, after 
vainly inducing them to land, suddenly throw a lot of spears at them. Both 
men were wounded, but they, however, managed to slip their anchor, and hoist 
the sail, which soon took them beyond the reach of the natives. Finding 
that they were both badly hurt, they sailed to the island alluded to, where 
one man died shortly after landing ; but the other lived for some time, and 
evidently did not die of starvation, there being a small cask of salted mutton- 
birds in the hut, and also a dog at large, who looked quite fat. The poor 
animal seemed quite tired of his solitary life, for he barked and pranced 
about in great glee when he saw us, and was evidently determined not to 
be left behind, as he jumped into the boat when we were getting ready to 
leave. 

When a female child is born, she is affianced to some man of the tribe, 
generally a warrior of repute ; and when of sufficient age, she is taken by him, 
provided she has not been previously stolen by some enterprising youth of 
either his own or some neighbouring tribe. Should the girl have been taken 
by a warrior of his own tribe, the question has to be fought out between 
the rivals, and the girl falls to the lot of the victor; but if the abduction 
has been committed by a member of another tribe, then the friends on each 
side take part in the quarrel, and, in some instances, several tribes thus become 
involved. 

The modes of stealing lubras differ in various localities. In New South 
Wales and about Riverina, when a young man is entitled to have a lubra, he 
organizes a party of his friends, and they make a journey into the territories of 
some other tribe, and there lie in wait, generally in the evening, by a water-hole 
where the lubras come for water. Such of the lubras as may be required are 
then pounced upon, and, if they attempt to make any resistance, are struck 
down insensible and dragged off. There is also this peculiarity, that in any 
instance where the abduction has taken place for the benefit of some one 
individual, each of the members of the party claims, as a right, a privilege 
which the intended husband has no power to refuse. But in cases where one 
tribe has attacked another and carried off a lot of the lubras, those unfortu- 
nates are common property till they are gradually annexed by the best warriors 
of the tribe. The horrors endured by the various white women who have been 



THE ABORIGINES OF AUSTRALIA. 317 

stolen from stations in the early days, or, having been wrecked upon the 
coasts of the colony, have thus fallen into the possession of the natives, may 
therefore be conceived. 

I have known several instances of the abduction of both women and girls. 
In one, the daughter of a wealthy settler was taken away by a tribe at Gipps- 
land, and although every exertion was made by the whites, and a party 
composed of volunteers and the native police, under the command of Capt. 
Dana, sent to her rescue, the tribe who had her managed to elude every attempt, 
and she was at length — ^which must have been a happy release — speared by one 
of the blacks who had previously possessed her, and from whom she had been 
taken by another warrior. I also knew another instance of the daughter of a 
settler being taken away and never recovered. Her course was traced by a 
party of volunteers for a long distance by the letters she had managed to cut 
on the trees. These traces, however, ceased after a time, owing most probably 
to having been observed by the blacks, who prevented her from making any 
more. Nothing more was, however, ever heard of her, and her subsequent fate 
is still a mystery. On one occasion, about twenty-nine years ago, when out on 
the Murrumbidgee, with two other lads, looking after cattle, we came suddenly 
on a camp of blacks, and amongst those present we noticed one who, though 
much sunburned, squalid, and dirty, was yet evidently a white woman. 
Whether from shame at being found in such a situation, dread of the conse- 
quences of holding any communication with us, or through beiug contented 
with her lot, she would not answer any of the many questions addressed to her 
by us; and as we were totally unarmed, and the blacks numerous, it was out of 
our power to then take her away, even provided that she was willing to go. 
Many enquiries were subsequently made by us on the subject, and different 
attempts made to see her, but all in vain, the blacks being evidently on their 
guard and determined to ba£Q[e us. On another occasion, a young and pretty 
women, the wife of a man named Cummings, was stolen from a station at New 
England, New South Wales, and it was only by the most energetic exertions 
on the part of the whites resident in the locality, and after a desperate 
encounter, in which the blacks were defeated with great slaughter, that the 
woman was recovered. 

One day, during the time that Moreton Bay — now known as Queensland — 
was a penal settlement, information was brought in by the blacks of a vessel 
having been wrecked at Wide Bay, and that amongst the few survivors was a 
white woman. There happened at the time to be at the settlement, as it was 
then called, a prisoner of the Crown, who, years before, had absconded and 
lived with the Wide Bay tribe, but subsequently, having become tired of life 
among the Aborigines, had come into the settlement and given himself up to 
the authorities. This man was sent for by the Superintendent, and the matter 
having been explained to him, he volunteered to go alone and rescue the 
unfortunate woman ; because, as he stated, to send a party out after her would 
be almost certain to end in disappointment and her death, as the blacks would 
kill her at once if they found themselves hard pressed by the whites and likely 
to lose her. 



318 APPENDIX : 

The proposition, after mature deliberation, being agreed to by the Super- 
intendent, the man, having divested himself of his clothing, painted and 
armed himself with spear, waddy, &c., in the Aboriginal style, departed on 
his mission, and, after a long and weary journey, reached the hunting-grounds 
of his quondam associates and brethren-in-arms ; and, on falling in with the 
tribe, was received with great joy, under the impression that he was come 
again to live with them. Upon making enquiries, he learned that several men 
and one woman were saved from the wreck, but that the former had, politely 
speaking, been used up ; but the latter had, after the usual preliminaries, been 
annexed by a distinguished warrior to soothe his cares and grace his wirley. 
Watching his opportunity, one day he arranged a rendezvous with the woman 
for that evening, and meeting her there at the appointed time, he started away 
with her. The journey back was most difficult ; for not only had he to take 
the woman, who was the widow of the captain of the ill-fated vessel, on his 
back, and swim across several wide, deep, and rapid rivers, but he had also to 
elude the pursuit of the blacks, who were after him hot-foot to recapture the 
woman. His knowledge, however, of bush life enabled him to baffle all pursuit, 
and to bring the unfortunate lady to within a short distance of the settlement, 
where he left her concealed while he went in and acquainted the Superinten- 
dent with the successful accomplishment of his mission. The Superintendent's 
lady, accompanied by several women, and provided with a supply of clothing, 
were guided to the spot, where they found the unfortunate in a state of nudity, 
and almost dead from hunger and exhaustion. She was conveyed to the settle- 
ment, where she remained at the Superintendent's house for a considerable 
period, till her shattered health was restored, when she left her hospitable 
entertainers to return to her friends in England. The memory of the time 
she spent among the blacks of Wide Bay, and the terror of that journey, when 
she was momentarily expecting to be again captured and led back to the 
horrors from which she had escaped, were never obliterated from her memory ; 
and many a night after, while sleeping at the house of some of her friends, 
she has awakened all there by her screams, faticying in her dreams that she 
could hear the wild and unearthly yell of the blacks in pursuit. 

Promiscuous intercourse between the sexes is not practised by the 
Aborigines, and their laws on the subject, particularly those of New South 
Wales, are very strict. When at camp, all the young unmarried men are 
stationed by themselves at the extreme ends, while the married men, each with 
his family, occupy the centre. No conversation is allowed between the single 
men and the girls or the married women; and about Biverina I have seen 
the young men make a considerable detour to avoid going near a station 
where the lubras were present. Infractions of these and other laws were visited 
either by punishment by any aggrieved member of the tribe, or by the delin- 
quent having to purge himself of his crime by standing up protected simply 
by his shield, or a waddy, while five or six warriors threw, from a compara- 
tively short distance, several spears at him. The man was often severely 
wounded, and sometimes killed ; but occasionally, however, a very agile warrior 
escaped untouched ; and the activity and nerve displayed by the man in evading 



THE ABOEIGINES OF AUSTRALIA. 319 

and parrying at the same time the different spears thrown at him were really 
wonderAil^ and I hare often watched with breathless interest the issue of these 
expiatory trials. 

[Mr. Moore Davis adds some facts which are interesting only to the ethnol- 
ogist. At great corrobborees the practices of the natives are remarkable : — 
Uxoribus plemmque licet eorum bellatorum qnibus sunt du89 pluresque uxores 
— ^nec in ulla tribu desunt multi ejusmodi bellatores — cum juvenibus coelibibus 
coire. Unaquceque femina incendio parvo locum indicante circiter pedes 
trecentos abest ab chore& atque aliquoties juvenis a commissatione excedet 
feminam adibit cum ea coibit et ad saltationem redibit. Nee aliter quum 
amicum accipiunt Aborigines (ut fecerunt temporibus antiquis clariorum 
Bomanorum nonnulli) unam ei ex suis uxoribus praebent. 

On the same authority, the following facts and customs may be accepted as 
reliable, detailing features in the mode of life of the natives which are not* 
without value : — 

ntrisque sexibus fit coitus inita eetate; puellad quidem novem fere aut 
decem annos natse. 

Ad Glenelg et prope Portland anus in secreta virginum si minora quam ut 
penem acciperent anguillaB caput inserebant. Multisque in temporibus albi 
viri quum eo habitatum venissent rogabantur ut causa gratis virginem 
ararent. 

Volunt plerumque Aborigines uxores suas albis hominibus pretio com- 
modare sed quominus uxores omnino relinquant causa alborum hominum suos 
viros fere recusabunt. Trucidati sunt plurimi nigrique et albi cupiditate 
horum quum illorum uxores ut pellices retinere conati sunt. 

Hand quaquam autem semper feminam cum albis hominibus coire volunt : 
in regione Tattiara albus quidam quum feminam etiam invitam coercebat ab 
ea interfectus est. Prope ad Portum Veneris et in ora maritima Begisque 
Georgii Sinum versus Aborigines moribus minus commodis quam in aliis 
regionibus plerumque nolunt uxores albis praBbere et quum quidem id viri 
concedunt uxores id ipsum forsitan voluntes se esse invitissimas simulant nee 
sine vi cum albis abiguntur. Hoc ea causa faciunt quo viri suas uxores abire 
nolle existiment. 

Ad fluvium Darling omnes nonnunquam etiam ad duodecimi nigri si albus 
cum femina nigra coeat eandem in feminam successive inibunt. Kec mirum 
si gonorrhoea in eis locis tantopere valet ; hie morbus autem baud acutus aut 
pestifer est hominesque et feminaa spectatu infirmissimo post solitudinem per 
dies viginti unum plerumque convalescunt. Per eum spatium herbft longe 
lateque in virgultis qua fiorem album effert uti dicuntur earn herbam in 
camino partim coctam mandunt.] 

Where a white man joined a tribe, and was adopted into it — ^as was very 
common during the old times, when penal servitude existed — ^it was the custom 
to give him a lubra to set up with, leaving him, if he wished, to afterwards 
secure as many more as he could get ; and that the women are susceptible of 
strong attachments is evident by the many instances shown. I knew of one 
where a lubra used to visit the different stations within a radius of twenty 



320 APPENDIX : 

miles to obtain food for the white man — ^a bushranger — she was living with, 
and who, having been severely wounded in an encounter with the mounted 
police, was lying quite helpless in a covert in the mountains. No promises of 
reward could induce her to reveal where the man was concealed, and she evaded 
every attempt to follow her ; and when at length he died, her grief knew no 
bounds, and she was inconsolable. 

Greorge Clarke, alicLS " The Barber," was a noted man amongst the blacks 
at Liverpool Plains, New South Wales. He was an escaped convict, who lived 
with them for many years, and taught the blacks to make large stockyards in 
a triangular form, so that the cattle, when driven into the apex of the triangle, 
could be readily speared by the blacks ; and, in consequence of these and other 
similar practices, became most obnoxious to the squatters in the locality. 
Large rewards were offered for his apprehension, and many attempts made to 
captare him. He, however, succeeded for years in baffling his pursuers, and 
so well could he imitate the blacks, that on several occasions, when actually 
seen by the police, he was allowed by them to get away, they being under the 
impression that he was a blackfellow. He was at length captured by the 
celebrated and daring Sergeant Sandy, of the mounted police, who with a party 
of men were in search of him. On it becoming known among the tribe that 
their great friend and benefactor had fallen into the power of his enemies, the 
blacks mustered in great force to rescue him, and threatened to destroy all the 
police if Clarke was not given up. Sergeant Sandy, however, was equal to tlie 
occasion, and putting a pistol to his prisoner's head, he told him that the first 
spear which was thrown should be the signal for his death ; and although the 
blacks might in the end destroy the whole party, yet his escape was impossible. 
Clarke, finding that Sandy was a determined man, gave up all hopes of escape, 
and, standing up, harangued the blacks, advising them to disperse and leave 
him to his fate, and not to lose their lives in vain. They, however, remained 
obdurate for a considerable time, but at length, in deference to Clarke's wishes, 
they dispersed with great lamentations. Four lubras belonging to Clarke would 
not, however, leave him, but followed him all the way to Bathurst ; and during 
all the time he was kept in prison there they remained outside, patiently wait- 
ing for a chance to see him ; and on his removal to Sydney they made their 
way there. Clarke told the Government that he knew of a very large inland 
lake, and offered to accompany Sir Thomas Mitchell on an expedition, and show 
him the lake. The Government seem, however, to have been afraid of giving 
Clarke a chance of escaping, for they declined his proposals, and he was trans- 
ported to Tasmania, where he again took to the bush ; and the laws there, in 
Governor Arthur's time, being very severe in reference to such weaknesses, 
Clarke, though he had never conmsitted any murders, was hung ; and thus the 
locality of the great lake, if it did exist in reality, remains to this day unknown. 

I knew another instance where a lubra called Charlotte, who had been taken 
away off the coast when a girl by a party of sealers, and was living with a man 
named Manson on an island called St. Peter's, about fifty miles from Coffin's 
Bay, was on one occasion proceeding in a boat on a sealing expedition to 
another island, with her man, her two children, and another white man named 



I.^.' ■■ 



THE ABORIGINES OP AUSTRALIA- 321 

Jackson, when the boat was upset by a sudden squall, and sank. Charlotte and 
Jackson rose to the surface, but neither Hanson nor the children could be seen. 
Charlotte swam about for a considerable time in search of Manson and the 
children, whom she was to rescue, if possible, at any sacrifice ; but finding no 
signs of them, she turned to Jackson and said — " I will take you on my back 
and swim ashore." Jackson, however, was equally generous ; and, although they 
were then out of sight of land, refused her offer, saying that he would do the 
best he could for himself. Charlotte then got one of the oars, which was 
floating close by, and stripping herself of the woollen and cotton shirts which 
she had on, she rolled them round the oar for Jackson to lay his breast on. 
They thus floated on for some time, till the distance between them gradually 
increased. Charlotte eventually lost sight of Jackson, and never saw him 
again. On nearing the coast, near Avoid Bay, where the surf breaks with 
awful violence and a noise like thunder for miles off the land, she met with 
great difficulties, practised and wonderful swimmer as she was, and had to dive 
time after time repeatedly, to prevent being dashed to pieces against the rocks. 
She succeeded at length, after almost superhuman efforts, in reaching the land 
about dusk, after being in the water from the early part of a summer's day till 
then. She assured me, and I did not wonder at it, that when she made the 
land, and attempted to walk up the beach, she fell down quite exhausted. To 
increase her troubles, she shortly afterwards saw at a distance some of the 
blacks belonging to that part of the coast, and being afraid of being captured 
by them, concealed herself in the scrub, and remained there all night. Next 
morning she started, and travelled cautiously on, till, finding some cattle tracks, 
she followed the tracks till she came to the herd, which were in charge of a white 
man, who kindly took her to the hut, and clothed and fed her ; and, when suffi- 
ciently recruited, she went into Port Lincoln, where I saw her, and listened to 
her recital of the loss of her husband and children, and her own narrow escape. 

In the earlier days of these colonies, parties of men used to band together, 
get whale-boats and other requisites, and visit the islands and other places 
along the coast in search of the ftir-seal, which then abounded in those 
localities, and which was a valuable article of commerce, the price per skin 
ranging from £1 to £1 5s. These men used to fix upon some island favor- 
ably situated for the purpose aa their head-quarters, and from thence visit 
the different seal-rookeries and occasionally the mainland also, from whence 
they often carried off young lubras, whom they kept as companions during 
their roving life. The woman Charlotte, alluded to in my last, had been 
one of those thus abducted; and having lived for years with a white man 
named Bryant, who had formerly been a sealer, she had become most useftd, 
and was equally at home whether washing a shirt or killing a seal, cooking a 
dinner, or managing a boat in a heavy sea. Charlotte and another elder lubra 
lived with this man Bryant on St. Peter's, an island about fifty miles off Coffin's 
Bay. They had quite a snug little farm there, and Bryant, who was a cooper 
by trade, and also an ingenious man, constructed a windmill to grind their 
corn, and a number of other mechanical contrivances to save manual labor. 
He had likewise a fine garden, and the different American whalers who 

VOL. n. 2 s 



322 APPENDIX. 

frequented those seas often called upon Bryant for a supply of vegetableSi 
giving him tobacco, liquor, and money in exchange ; and of the latter Bryant 
seems to have accumulated a goodly sum, as Charlotte has often told me of the 
quantity of what she afterwards knew to be money which the old man had in 
a box, and which he kept concealed from the knowledge of the two lubras. In 
course of time Bryant, who was well stricken in years, died, and was gathered, 
not to his fathers, but, like many another ancient mariner, laid to sleep by the 
kindly hands of his lubras with the cry of the penguin and the roar of the 
ocean round his sea-girt home for his lullaby. The lubras — Charlotte and 
Sally — ^with two of their little boys, went on cultivating their small farm, and 
lived very happily for some years, when the island was visited by a gang oi 
desperadoes, under the command of one John Williams (an escaped convict 
from Tasmania), a most notorious scoundrel, who had for years infested the 
islands in the Great Australian Bight. 

These worthies had been shipwrecked on Thistle Island, and from thence 
made their way in a whale-boat round the coast to St. Peter's, where they knew 
there was material enough left from previous wrecks to build a small schooner, 
with which they intended sailing back to their old haunts near King Qeorge's 
Sound. Williams and his men, after building the schooner, sailed away 
from St. Peter's, taking the two lubras and the children and a good stock 
of provisions with them, but failing to find the box of coin which had been 
hidden by Bryant. The two lubras lived amongst the crew for a long time, 
but at length made their way back to within a short distance of their old 
island home, St. Peter's. The parties alluded to were composed, in general, 
of escaped convicts, and many a sad scene was enacted by them during their 
reckless career as sealers, and often wreckers. 

The navigation of these seas was then comparatively but little known, and 
many a goodly craft was lost amid the coral reefs and islands. These wrecks 
afforded good plunder, and in cases where a few unfortunates liad escaped the 
disaster, their lives were ruthlessly sacrificed by the wreckers. 

Sally told me of an instance where a mulatto, named Antonio, who used to 
babble in his cups rather strangely of some tragic occurrences, was disposed of. 
Being a powerful and detennined fellow, they were afraid to quarrel with him, 
and therefore determined to get rid of him the first opportunity. On one of 
their cruises, they came upon a seal-rookery, which could only be approached by 
descending the rocks from above — ^a great height, and a considerable part of 
which the man employed would have to be lowered down by a rope, and then 
drawn up again. Antonio volunteered to perform the perilous task; descended 
in safety, killed a number of fur-seals, skinned them, and sent up their skins, 
and then, at a given signal, began to ascend by the rope. His treacherous 
companions, after pulling him up some distance, stopped, and then Williams 
began to revile him for what he had said during his maudlin moments, and 
after taunting him for some time — ^while thus hovering on the brink of eternity 
— ^with the doom they had assigned him — in order, as they said, to keep his 
tongue quiet — they cut the rope, and the wretched man fell some hundreds 
of feet into the boiling abyss beneath. 



APPENDIX F. 



NOTES ON THE SYSTEM OP CONSANGUINITY AND KINSHIP 
OF THE BBABEOLONG TRIBE, NORTH GIPPSLAND. 

(Bt a. W. Howttt.) 



In undertaMng to conunQnicate a paper on the system of consangoinity 
and kinship of the Australian Aborigines, it had been hoped by the 
Rev. Mr. Fison and myself that we should be able to collect and discuss 
a large amount of systematized information firom all parts of the Australian 
Continent. Experience has, however, proved to us that the time required 
to gather together such a mass of materials will be much longer than we 
had anticipated. We had hoped to have received aid from others in our 
enquiries ; but the result has proved our expectation to be almost unfounded. 
In addition to these unforeseen difficulties, my valued colleague in the 
investigation has been compelled by ill-health to leave Victoria, at least 
for a time. Our work has, therefore, made but little progress, and the 
publication of our results must, of necessity, be postponed to some fixture 
undetermined time. 

In order, however, that the promise made by us may not altogether fall 
to the ground, I have proposed to myself, as an example of the subject, 
to consider one system, namely, that of the Brabrolong tribe of North 
Gippsland. It has been careftQly compiled, and thrown into shape in a 
series of diagrams, some of which will be embodied in these notes. 

The knowledge which I may have acquired of the branch of ethnological 
research must be credited to the pioneer labors of Mr. Fison; but the con- 
clusions at which I have arrived in this instance are my own, together with 
any imperfections or inaccuracies in the mode of treatment; and would not, 
I believe, as regards the latter, have arisen had I been so fortunate as to have 
had his co-operation. 

Before entering into the subject of these notes, it may be well to lay down 
some classification to which the Brabrolong system may be referred. 

I propose to avail myself of the classification used by Mr. Morgan, the 
well-known American ethnologist, whose opinion in these researches is of the 
very greatest weight and authority. I have not his works now at hand for 
reference, but I extract the following from communications which he has made 
to Mr. Fison and to me : — 

1. Consanguine Family — ^founded upon the intermarriage of brothers and 
sisters in a group. The Malayan system of consanguinity was created by 
this family, and proves its antecedent existence. 



324 APPENDIX : 

2. Punaluan Family — ^founded upon the intermarriage of several brothers 
to each other's wives in the group, and upon the intermarriage of several 
sisters to each other's husbands in the group; the brotherhood of the 
husbands in the one case, and the sisterhood of the wives in the other, 
forming the base of the relation. The Punaluan family created the Turanian 
system of consanguinity.* 

3. The Turanian Family. — ^This is a form of the Punaluan family, in 
which a man is married to a group of sisters, or a woman to a group of 
brothers. This system is found to exist now in Thibet. 

4. The Pairing Family — ^founded upon marriage between single pairs, but 
without an exclusive cohabitation. The marriage was during the pleasure of 
the parties. It had no monogamic character. The husband claimed fidelity, 
under penalties ; but did not admit reciprocal obligation. This system is in 
existence among the Aborigines of Australia. 

5. The Patriarchal Family — ^founded upon strict polygamy. This existed 
among the Semitic pastoral peoples. 

6. The Monogamian Family — ^founded upon marriage between single pairs, 
with an exclusive cohabitation; the latter being an essential element. The 
existing system of European nations. 

K we consider the present state of any organization, such as the social 
condition of any people, we may perceive that the existing conditions are 
the direct result of accumulated minute changes from somewhat different 
previous conditions ; for instance, the present social condition of the English 
people may be traced from that of the Ancient Britons. In the same way 
we may look at the system of consanguinity and kinship of any people — ^that 
is, the terms denoting the intersexual relations. For instance, such as that 
of the Jewish people, who are now eminently a "Monogamian" people, but 
who in the tiitie of Abraham were in the Patriarchal family. Moreover, 
from passages in the Sacred History of that people, we may infer that 
they were once in the Turanian system. For instance, from the custom 
under which a brother took to wife the widow of his deceased brother — ^which 
is a modification of the principle embodied in the Turanian family system.f 

Were we able to review and discuss the records of a people which is now 
in the Patriarchal system, we might expect to find evidence pointing to the 
former existence among them of the Pairing family, the Punaluan, or even 
the Consanguine systems. In the same way, we might expect that the 
records of a people in the Pairing family system — did such records exist— 
would show us evidence of the former existence among those people of the 
earlier systems of consanguinity. But the only records belonging to savage 
races are those embodied in their customs and beliefs, and therefore in their 
language, in which the terms designating the inter-relations of the sexes, 
together with the customs and beliefs connected with those relations, may 
be found. 



♦ The term "Pnnaluan" is adopted, I beUeve, by Mr. Morgan from Hawaii, where a woman 
not a wife, but in the position of a wife, was called " PumUua" meaning "Particnlar friend." 
T A similar cuAtom Aviafa ■!»*/««.» «w^ t> i i 



t A similar custom exists among the Brabrolongs. 



CONSANGUINITY AND KINSHIP. 325 

In the following notes I shall only touch upon the systems of kinship. 
I shall only allude to the division of the tribe into classes, without entering 
upon the interesting subject of the class-names, or the laws regulating marriage 
in accordance with them under the Funaluan system. Nor can I now mention 
any of the customs and beliefs which are intimately connected with the systems 
of consanguinity, and many of which appear to me to have been contemporar- 
neous with, and to have perhaps arisen out of, the changes of system which 
may be observed, if not the very cause of these changes. The materials for 
such a full discussion are not yet completed ; and I have, therefore, restricted 
myself, as I have before said, to the system of consanguinity and kinship of 
the Brabrolongs, and to such conclusions as it seems to me may be justly 
drawn as to the position which may be assigned to it in the classification 
already given. 

The Brabrolong tribe of Gippsland Aborigines inhabit— or, rather, did 
inhabit, for they are now nearly extiact — ^that tract of coimtry bounded upon 
the south by the Gippsland Lakes, on the west by the Mitchell River, on the 
north by a line passing somewhere near Tabberabbera, Mount Baldhead, the 
mountains at the sources of the Tambarra Biver and Fanwick (on the Buchan 
or Native Dog River), and thence on the east by a line from Fanwick through 
Bruthen to the Tambo Bluff.* The tribe was divided into three classes : — The 
Brabrolongs of Wy Yung, those of Bruthen, and those of Bullum Ware.f The 
members of each class were only permitted to marry members of the other two 
classes and not of their own. 

The Aborigines of Australia having, during long ages, inhabited a conti- 
nental area, shut off from external influences, have had, as regards their social 
condition, a homogeneous development. A parallel to this general statement 
is found in the Aborigines inhabiting Gippsland. Their country was bordered 
by the sea to the south ; on the east and west they were hemmed in by vast 
and almost impenetrable jungles ; to the north their boundary was the Great 
Dividing Range, across which two or three " trails^'* led to the northern slopes. 
In an isolated area such as this we might expect to find, either that the social 
conditions of the tribes maintained an archaic type elsewhere obscured, or that, 
in accordance with conditions peculiar to the area, the type had assumed some 
aberrant form. Among the Gippsland Aborigines, I believe the former to have 
been the case. The existing family system of the Brabrolongs was, that single 
pairs cohabited. The man required exclusive fidelity from the woman, under 
the severest penalties, even death ; but he recognised no reciprocal obligation 
towards the woman. 

Here we have the essential part of the Pairing family. Among the 
Brabrolongs, however, the system was not quite complete, for a man was not 
restricted to one wife, but might have two or more at the same time, and the 

* No such actual line existed ; but I indicate merely the direction stated to me by the names 
of places given by my Aboriginal informants. 

t Wy Yung, now the name of an agricultural area ; Bruthen, now the name of a small township 
on the Tambo $ and Bullum Ware, the post town of Boggy Creek. Bullum Ware means ** two 
spears" — ^Mount Taylor and Mount Look-out. 



326 



APPENDIX: 



wives might be, and even were occasionally, sisters, thus retaining a Turanian 
element* 

Diagram L — Patemal Grand Ancestors. 

Grandfather's Gnuid&ther'a G„ujd£ather. Grandmother. Grandmother'g Gnmdmother's 
slBter. brother. \«*»»*«*»i«*w. via«huu.v»uc,«. gigter. brother. 




Grandchild. 



8 



Diagram II. — Maternal Grand Ancestors. 



Gr^M^er-. Qr««athe,>. o«ndfather. Gn«dmother. ««tSef "'" *'Ti^^'*'' 




Grandchild. 



8 

In the diagrams the mark )- indicates the direction in which the term of 
relationship to which it is affixed is used. 

The term "cAtYrf," or ^^ grandchild^'* includes both sexes, no distinction 
being drawn before the age of puberty. 

In Diagram I. it is to be noted that the terms used between Nos. 4, 5, 6, 
and 8 denote the Malayan system, for it is only under it that brothers and 
sisters in a group can bear the same relation to a child or grandchild. 



CONSANGUINITY AND KINSHIP. 



327 



The tenn nsed between Nos. 2 and 3 and 8 differs from that used hj 
Nos. 1 and 8, and this may be regarded as Pnnalnan or Turanian ; and it is to 
be noted that the change takes place here on the side of the male in advance 
of the side of the female. 

In Diagram 11. the basis is evidently Malayan ; and here we may observe 
the same feature of less tendency to change in the maternal descent than the 
paternal. 

Diagram IIL — Parents and Children. 



Father's 
Bister. 



Father's 
brother. 



Father. 



Mother. 



Mother's 
sister. 



Mother's 
brother. 




Here^ Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5^ and 7 form a Punaluan group— for we have the 
brothers married to the sisters, the children being common to all; and, 
according to this system, we should expect to find the term denoting the /ather^s 
sister and the mother^s brother to differ from that applied to the/ather^s brother 
and the mother's sister. 

Nos. 2, 3, 4, and 5 form the Punaluan group, while No. 1 and No. 6 are 
units of two other and separate groups. 

No. 7 is the child of No. 3 and No. 4 ; No. 7 is, however, also the child of 
No. 4 and No. 6. Therefore we may conclude that No. 4 and No. 6 have at 
some period cohabited. But No. 4 and No. 6 are sister and brother, and this 
is according to the Consanguine system. But while No. 7 is the child of No. 6, 
the latter is the ^' uncle"* of the former. In this, therefore, the relation of 
No. 6 towards No. 7 is an advance on the relation of No. 7 towards No. 6, and 
is Punaluan or Turanian. 

We may notice here that the change on the side of the male parent is 
complete, while on the side of the female parent it is incomplete. 

* If we take Barbuk = mother's brother, the term ** imcle" is Justified as a matter of oonTenient 
expression. 



328 



APPENDIX: 



Diagram IV. — Brothers and Sisters — Brothers-inrLaw and Sisters-in-Law — 

Cousins. 

Brother.") . , . C Brother.) :( Tandmif v f SUter. ) ,^ , (Sister. 

lY J I. <<Bo(irunf V J 



* I. j TuDdimf V J 

~~ f SBmminff}- j 



I i K»muiiff 



J C i Bownng 

( S J <LDiulaE 




Wife 



Bnmaoff > J * I •{ Tmidiiiif V J 

i Bowunf 1 "— r ■{ BmnuBf >■ j 



rHoilNuid. 



( 8 



Child. 
9 



} 



•{ Tnndmiff V 
i Bnmimg Y 

i B0WQI)g> 

•{LnndSf 



IT} 



•{Timdiiiif ^ 

•{ Bnunnnc Y 

-i Bomug)- 

•{Limdiik^ 



Ivl 



<{Tiindinif y 
^ Brmmoog Y 



i Bownng Y 
iUmdSY 



{ 



Child. 



IS 



Each vertical column fonns the group — father, mother, child. The upper 
horizontal line consists of brothers and sisters; the middle line of their 
respective wives and husbands ; and the lowest line of their respective issue. 

It will be seen that distinctive terms are used for elder brother, younger 
brother, elder sister, younger sister; namely, Tundung^ Bramung^ Bonmngj 
Lunduk, The terms denoting the marital relations are given in respect to No. 
1 and No. 5. It will be seen that the term ^^Brar^'' — i.e., husband — ^is also 
applied by No. 2 to No. 7, or by the woman's husband and brother reciprocally ; 
while the term " Wrookut^'* — i.e, wife — is applied by No. 3 to No. 6, or by the 
man's wife and sister reciprocally. The terms "jBrar" and " Wrookut'*'* may, 
however, be regarded as probably meaning "male" and "female," or "man" and 
"woman;" used, for example, as the German terms "Mann" and "Frau." 
^^Brar'*^ is found in a number of Brabrolong words. For instance, ^^Bremty^ a 
young man ; ^^Bremn^^ a supposed evil being who is said to afflict them with 
disease ; ^^Brajeraky^ an Aboriginal of any other tribe than those of Gippsland. 
Here the explanation of the term may be well traced in " JBrar " = a man ; and 
" Ji^aA," or " Fm^" = angry, quarrelsome, wild. 

K we look at the horizontal lines of Diagram IV., we shall perceive a 
complete Consanguine group, in which the parents are all brothers and sisters ; 



CONSANGUmiTT AND KINSHIP. 329 

find consequently all the children of the group bear the same relation to each 
other. If We look at the vertical columns of the diagram in connection with 
Diagram III., it will be evident that it faUd into two Punaluan groups, con- 
sisting of two bi*othei*s and sisters, with their respective wives and husbands 
and children. The distinction is seen here between this and the preceding 
family in the relations of the brothers and sisters and their respective children ; 
for the brothers and sisters are no longer the parents of each other's children. 
Even here, however, we can trace a last link connecting the two systems ; for 
the child of the sister is also the child of the brother — ^for which see Nos. 4, 6, 
and 7 of Diagram III. 

I think the following conclusions may be arrived at from the preceding 
statements : — 

1. The existing system is a not quite complete form of the Pairing 

family. 

2. Some of the terms used denote a previous condition in the Punaluan 

family. 

3. Other of the terms used denote a previous condition in the Consanguine 

family. 

4. The actual intersexilal relations are in advance of the relations denoted 

by the terms used. 

5. We have here, therefore, indicated an apparent advance from the 

Consanguine &mily system at some early period to the Pairing 
family system of the present time. 

I have pointed out, by an instance taken from the Jewish people, that we 
may trace the progress of a civilized people who are now in the Monogamian 
family system from an earlier system — ^the Patriarchal family, with indication 
of still earlier systems of consanguinity, which are now only to be met with 
as existing among savage races. 

Prom the Brabrolong tribe, I have endeavoured to point out that we may, 
with some reason, conjecture that at a former period they were in the Punaluan 
system, and at a still earlier in the Consanguine system. It is, I think, 
difficult to conceive of any earlier social system than that adopted by Mr. 
Morgan as the starting point of his classification — ^namely, the "Consanguine." 
But, if we are justified in concluding that the preceding statements point to 
the Brabrolongs having at one time been in the Consanguine family system, it 
would, I think, follow that we must regard them as having risen through the 
successive stages to the actual system in existence. The question would then 
present itself, whether we should conclude that the Consanguine family was the 
fltartiog point of the race ; or whether their earlier progenitors were under other 
intersexual conditions ? K they were under other conditions, then I think it 
would be admitted that those other conditions must probably have been either 
of a lower or of a higher type. The gradual progression from the Consanguine 
family upwards might imply a probable progression from some still lower 
family system upwards to the Consanguine. 

VOL. n. 2 T 



S30 



APPENDIX : 



Yeiy different replies might be given to such questions by tbose who hold 
to the principles of evolution as being applicable to man and to man's social 
conditions ; and by those who regard the principles of evolution as not being 
thus applicable^ or who do not admit the truih of the evolution hypothesis 
at all. 

It seems to me that the Brabrolong system^ when regarded from the evolution 
stand-point, becomes a coherent whole, and highly suggestive of the past history 
of this race of savages ; while under any other view the ternis used would be 
senseless and without meaning. When it is further seen, as it has been seen 
by me in working out the systems of other tribes from distant parts of Australia, 
that similar conclusions to the above may be drawn from their systems, while 
no two are precisely similar in detail, the evidence as to the truth of the con- 
clusions drawn becomes much strengthened. 

Still there may be many who will demur to these conclusions. As regards 
this, I think it may well be left to those who are of opinion that the principles 
of evolution are not applicable to man or to man's social organizations to show 
what other and adverse conclusions may be legitimately drawn from an inde- 
pendent consideration of the systems of consanguinity and kinship, not merely of 
the Brabrolongs, but of any or of the whole of the Australian Aboriginal tribes. 



The following table of relationships is taken from the Bev. G«orge Taplin's 
work,* and should be studied in connection with Mr. Hewitt's paper : — 



Description of Belationship. 



Natire Teim. 



Tnmalatioii. 



My father- - - - _ 

My fiither's brother - - - 

My mother - - - - 

My mother's sister - - - 
My father's second wife 

My stepmother - - - - 

My father's sister - - - 
My mother's brother's wife 

My mother's brother - - - 
My father's sister's husband 

My son or daughter - - - 
My brother's children 

My grandson - . . . 
My granddaughter ... 
My brother's grandson 
My brother's granddaughter 

My fifcther's brother's son's son - 
My fether's brother's son's daughter 



[ Nanghai - Father. 



~ > Nainimwi - My mother. 



\Bamo 



- My aunt. 



:1 



WcMOwe - My unde. 



[ Porlean 



■I 



My child (I being a 
male). 



^Maiyarari - 



My grandchild (I 
being a male). 



♦ Tht Narrinyeri, p. 88. 



CONSANGUINITT AND KINSHIP. 



331 



Dewsription of RebitiooBhip. 



NatiTe Tenn. 



TranslatioiL 



My dder sister - - - - - 
My father's brother's daughter (if older 

than myself; > Maranorvi 

My mother's sister's daughter (if older 

than myself) 

The relations last mentioned (if younger ) 

than myself) ; also my younger > Tarte - 
sister j 

My elder brother - - - - a 

My father's brother's son - - - I GeUmawe 

My mother's sister's son - - - ) 

My younger brother, and the relations ) 

last mentioned (if younger than > Tarte - 
myself) J 

My younger brother's son - 
My brother's daughter 



- My sister. 



- My younger sister. 



- My elder brother. 



\\^9' 



vppan 



ULj elder brother's son 



My son's wife - - - - 
My brother's son's wife 

My daughter's husband 

My brother's daughter's husband 

My wife's father - - - 






Waiyatte 
\ Maiyareli - 



- > Yallundi 



My sister's son (I being a male) 
My mother's sister's grandchildren 
My sister's daughter - - - - 
My father's brother's daughter's 
daughter 

My daughter's husband 



Nanghariy^A" 
dressed as 
Ung 



- Kvtyi - 



vrra 



My sister's son (I being a female) '\t^ 
My sister's daughter (I being female) - ) ^^ 

My brother's son - - - - 
My brother's daughter - - • . ^^ . 

My mother's sister's son's sons and ^^^'^^^ ' 
daughters (I being a male) 

My mother's brother's child 

My father's sister's son - - -^ Nguyariowe - Cousin. 

My father's sister's daughter 



- My younger brother. 

A title to distinguish 
them from my 
own children. 

(The same). 

[My daughter-in-law. 
They call me the 
same. 

A reciprocal term 
by which a father- 
in-law and a son- 
in-law address 
each other. 

A term for a nephew 
or niece of this 
kindred. 

My son-in-law. 

A term to distin- 
guish them from 
my own children. 



■{ 



A nephew or niece 
of this kindred. 



832 



APPENDIX. 



Description of Belationship. 



Natire Term. 



Translation. 



I Mutthari 



Grand relation. This 
is nearest term we 
have in English. 



My sister's son's wife- - - - 
My sister's grandson - - - ^ 
My sister's granddaughter (I being a 

female) 
My sister's grandson (I being a female) 
My sister's granddaughter - - » 
My father's sister's son's wife (I being 

either male or female) 
My mother's brother's son's wife 
My mother's brother's son's son - 
My mother's brother's son's daughter t 
My mother's brother's daughter's son - 
My mother's brother's daughter's 

daughter 
My father's brother's daughter's ^ 

husband / 

My father's sister's daughter's husband > Ro'nggi- - Brother-in-law, 
My mother's sister's daughter's husband i 
My wife's brother - -» - - J 
My mother's brother's daughter's ) ^^. 

ht^sband ) 

My iDother's sister's son's wife - - j ^ ij^^n^ . gister-in-law. 
My father s brother s son s wife - - J 



No equivalent. 



My sister's son's wife (I being a male) ) ^Zi^aw^^ 

A woman's brother's wife - ■* - ) 

My wife;s sister's husband - - - Ijy- .^;,. . 

My wife s sister- - - - - ) 

My father's father - - - - ] 

My father's father's brother - - > Maiyawme '• 

My father's father's sister - - - ) 

My father's mother - « - •»• ] 

Her brother > Mvttharunve - 

Her sister - ^ - _ - - ) 
My mother's fether - - - - ] 

His brother - - ^ - - V Ngaityarwwe- 
His sister - - - - - - ) 

My mother's mother (I being a female) Bakkano hir- 

ukunu 

My daughter's child (I being a female) Bakkari 

My son-in-law - - - - - j 

My daughter-in-law ; also (I being a > Karinye 

male) my wife's mother ) 

Twins ------ Lalumpe 



- Sister-in-law. 



Relation-in-law. 



Grand relation. 



Grand relation. 



Grand relation. 

Grandmother. 

My grandchild. 

A reciprocal term. 

No equivalent in 

English. 



APPENDIX G. 



NOTES ON THE LANGUAGE AM) CUSTOMS OF THE TRIBE 
INHABITING THE COUNTRY KNOWN AS KOTOOPNA, 

(Bt William Locks.) 



Campbellfield House, 5th December 1876, 

Deab Sm, — ^The following is a corrected copy of a letter of mine which 
appeared in the Arpus some years ago on the above subject. If it is of any 
use to yon in the qompQation of your book, I shall be pleased. 

I am, dear Sir, 

Tours faithfully, 
H. Brough Smyth, Esq. William Lockk. 



When a very young man, I held a large tract of country, called in the 
native language Kotoopna (now wrongly spelled Kotupna)^ extending nearly 
across the augle formed by the Goulbum and Murray. This portion of 
country belonged to a small tribe of blacks called Pangorangy or Waning- 
otbun. The men were very fine specimens of the Aboriginal, many of them 
being considerably upwards of six feet in stature, and exceedingly active and 
warlike in appearance. At that time they subsisted principally upon fish and 
wild-fowl, which they procured in great abundance on the Lower Moira. The 
ducks were caught wholesale in the following manner: — ^A large net was 
stretched across a narrow neck of a lagoon, when a blackfellow would go 
some distance up or down the creek, and drive or frighten the ducks towards 
the net, when pumbers in their flight would be caught in the meshes. I 
have also seen them catch ducks by diving underneath them, and suddenly 
laying hold of them by the legs. 

In consequence of my being located, as it were, in the midst of these 
darkies, I, of necessity, became intimately acquainted with their manners and 
customs, and became a great favorite. I always treated them with great kind- 
ness, and they were only too glad to prove their gratitude at every opportunity. 
The fact of my being able to converse with them in their own tongue gave 
me considerable influence. They used to say — " No stupid, Mr, Locke ; 
always yabba the same as blackfellow." On one occasion a gentleman made 
his appearance on the back portion of the run, intending to "sit down" 
there with a flock of sheep ; but my sable friends would not have it at any 



334 APPENDIX : 

price. They said to him — " What for you comballee along-a this one country ? 
This one country all about belong-a to Mr. Locke.*' Eventually he had 
to depart, the blacks, at my request, cutting bark canoes, to enable him to 
cross his sheep. Although at that time these blacks were perfectly wild, I 
never had the slightest apprehension of suffering any personal injury from 
them. I have often gone out with them in the bush, perfectly unarmed; 
although as to this I once got a piece of advice from one of the tribe. He 
said — "When you walk in bush along-a blackfellow, you make him black- 
fellow walk first time" (in front). I said— "What for?" He replied— "I 
den know ; I believe debil debil jump up, want him blackfellow spear white- 
fellow." It is hardly necessary to add that upon this hint I acted in future. 

Several strange superstitions existed amongst them. I once went to the 
Moira, accompanied by a blackfellow, and on our return I expressed to him 
my opinion that it would be dark before we reached home, whereupon he 
alighted from his horse, and, without saying a word, proceeded to cut a 
small sod of grass, which he placed in a fork of a tree, exactly facing 
the setting sun, remarking — "Plenty quambee (stop) sun now. No puU 
away." As it happened, we got home before it was dark, when Sambo 
exultingly exclaimed — " No gammon ground " (meaning the sod of earth). If 
a young baby died, the mother had to carry the body on her back till her 
husband procured the kidney-fat of a strange blackfellow. This is a very 
horrible custom. I have seen a lubra so carry about her dead child. The 
kidney-fat is wrapped up in several bits of rag, and worn round the neck 
as a charm. They told me that a blackfellow would linger from six to eight 
days before death ensued aft;er the removal of the kidney-fat. The victim 
is first stunned by a "waddy," a small incision made in his side, and a 
portion of the kidney-fat carefully removed, when he is left to his fate. 

The language of this tribe is very euphonious, and, strange to say, at a 
distance of only about fifty miles from Kotoopna, the idiom, indeed the language 
itself, is quite different. Most of the names of places end in " pna," as 
"Kotoopna," " Tarigoroopna," "Jillinupna," "Ulupna," &c. Kangaroo— 
Koyeemar. 'Emu-^BiffarumJa. Young emu-^Woola, Opossum — Bunna. 
Kangaroo-rat — Arenewtha. Dog — Bocka. Horse — Corkitamook (this name 
for horse is the same in Gippsland and other parts of Victoria). Sheep — 
Jumbaga. Supposed bun-yip — Tanutbun. Little — Ingarnaka. Least — Inga. 
Great — Tumeja (as great heat, Tumeja daideja). Extensive — Boymee (as 
extensive plain, Boymee natcha). Nice — Kalnia. Beautiftil — Kalimva (this 
word I think has a very sweet sound ; I have named several of my friends' 
estates after it). No, or none — Uta (same nearly all over Victoria), 
Lightning — Kemyaroa. Thunder — Manena. Come here — Cockiaroo. Go 
away — Berriaroo, Very hot, me too much lazy — ^Turneja daideja^ marri- 
kUchimut neynee. What is it ? — Mivrthe-lay ? Where — WoonuL Knapsack — 
Belshula. Fishing-net — Jegoga. Gum-tree — Belu. Box-tree — Tharmia. 
Bark — Yalmin. Tomahawk — Aanu, Eeed-spear — Gaumur. Jagged spear — ; 
Jikola. Spear with glass — Coico. Woomera — Ulermr. Boomerang — Wadeenia* 
Creek — Bormea. Plain — Natcha. Mountain — Uleela. Sandhill — Malaga. 



LANGUAGE AND CUSTOMa 335 

Goulburn Kiver — Koyeela. Murray River — Fingola. Campaspe — Yalook. 
Hut — Mano. Father — Baapoo. Mother — Cana. Sister — Thajuba. My dear 
brother — Thormi nien boynupa. My dear sister — Thoma nien thajvha. Little 
brother — Kidjika. Acquaintance — Jtieada, White woman — Malawa uniar. 
Blackfellow — Ainbootha. Teeth — Derrara. Very hungry, stomach empty — 
Turneja malunwicky eetunmt boolie. Give me some bread — Mitther eeyanook. 
Be off to your camp, all of you — Berumja beriarroOy memo riaothiga. Go and 
cut some bark for me — Beriarroo wabuja yalmin neeriee. 

The three following were favorite corrobborees : — 

1. 

Bern berri ma jUdomba, 

Bern berri ma jildomba, 
Berri berri ma jildomba-naga. 

Athen jindema, no goi-eela ; 
Jindema, jindema, 0-en-dethen-o. 

Warrim bang-e, berri berri ma jildomba-a, 
Berri berri ma jildomba, berri berri ma jildomba. 

2. 

Aree muthe-e, aree mutho-o, 

Aree mutha, comang-a thalitanga magoonba ; 

Malang-oree, malang-oree. 
Mullin mullin jing-a magoonbang-a jilitang-a, 
Jing-a jing-a, gothanga, magoontanga thalato. 

3. 

Thunda irra tha, thunda raroo, 

Gra imalang-a imee-e ; 
Thunda irra tha, thunda re-e, 

Gra imalang-a, imme-e-e. 

Some years ago I revisited the scenes of my youth. The once powerful 
tribe of Pangoranga had dwindled down to eight or ten men and four women. 
They did not recollect me at first ; but when I mentioned my name, the old 
men were delighted. Aa a proof of the march of civilization, the women 
were engaged at the camp playing with cards — ^the intellectual game of " All 
Fours." tempora^ mores I 



APPENDIX Hi 



HUNTING THE BLACKS* 

(Bt tob Honokablb a. F. a. Gsxbtxs.) 



^'It was when I was Chief Constable of the Port Macqnarie district^** said 

Mr. D "The blacks had been very troublesome; among other murders 

they had committed was one of Mr. 's stockmen, whom they seized and 

sawed up into junks while he was alive. We found the cross-cut saw ; but more 
of that by-and-by. I was only turned nineteen then, and was delighted to be 
appointed to head the party to track and punish the miscreants. The party 
consisted of two half-civilized blacks for guides — ^you know one tribe will 
always betray and attack another; one better sort of young fellow named 
Meade, a sort of second or lieutenant ; and four GK)vemment men, with two 
soldiers. Well, we beat about a long time before we could get on their track." 

"And pray how did you find out their trail?" 

" Oh why, after several days' reconnoitring, at last we found a little bit of 
batk on fire, and one fire smouldering away. It was cold weather, so that all 
were carrying bark torches to keep themselves warm ; but they were cunning 
enough either not to light fires or to cover over the ashes with bark, so that we 
should not find them. However, in this way, we went on day after day untQ we 
came into the wildest country you can imagine. All rocks and stones ; no 
horses could have gone there." 

"What; were you on foot?" 

" On foot 1 Every man of us. Horses won't do to track the blacks ; they 
take too much looking after ; they occasion too much noise in trampling on dry 
leaves and rotten sticks ; besides, when the natives are pursued, they resort to 
precipices and ravines where horses could not go twenty yards. I think it was 
the second day after we found their track that one afternoon, on turning the 
corner of a rock, we found ourselves in a long valley, bounded by rugged preci- 
pices on each side. The bush was open ; there were only a few large trees here 
and there. There were copses of brushwood scattered about of stunted Banksias 
and mimosas, like thickets of hazel at home. Well, just as we entered the valley, 
we saw the whole party of blacks defiling a great height above us, in a zig-zag 
direction, among the precipices. They did not appear to see us, and we hurried 
on after them. At last we began to hear their voices. Sunset was near, and 
we presently heard them breaking off branches to construct their mia-mias— or 



HUNTING THE BLACKS 337 

gnnyahs, as those tribes call them — ^for the night. We went very cautiously a 
little fiirther, until we could, by glimpses through the wood, just ascertain they 
were about to encamp a few hundred yards ahead on the opposite side of a 
narrow scrub of young trees. We halted in silence until it was quite dark, and 
then I gave the signal to move on. We crept stealthily along, one of our 
guides hovering about a little ahead to reconnoitre their exact place. I was 
very near him ; in fact, in the scrub itself; and we were cautiously prowling 
forward, when he trod upon a rotten twig — ^unavoidable in the dark. Snap 
went the twig, sounding in the silent dark solitudes like a pistol shot : instantly, 
within a few yards of me, jumped up about a dozen or score blacks. I was taken 
very much aback, for in the dark we had not thought them so near. They had 
all spears, and I had never been in war before. I must confess I felt rather 
qualmish at the sight of those stout fellows so near me ; however, I had resolution 
enough to cry out — *Now, boys, fire away.' The men fired — ^the natives uttered 
a fearftd yell, shouting ^ white fellow,' threw down their spears, and ran off like 
kangaroos. I newfound my courage much restored, and ordered to reload ; but, 
in my anxiety to lose no time, I put the wrong end of my cartridge into my piece, 
so it was of no use just then. We then set a watch, and waited until morning. 
I don't think many of us slept for fear of a surprise. Nothing, however, occurred, 
and in the morning we found we had killed three big fellows. They had left 
several of their spears and liangles and other things ; amongst the rest was the 
cross-cut saw with which they had murdered the poor stockman, all covered 
with blood. We concluded we had now driven them off our side of the country, 
and taking off the tip of the ears of the dead blacks, according to orders, set off 
back, and without further adventure got to the settlement. 

" When I reported progress to old Major ^ the head Government 

ofScer there, he swore we had only half served them out ; they were too daring 
to be easily driven away ; and ordered me to recruit my party, and, with fresh 
supplies, to be after them agaiQ, and make an example of them. I had had 
quite enough for one spell. However, go I must." 

"But how," interrupted I, "did you get food?" 

"Why, this time we had two extra men — Weenick named them our pack- 
bullocks — to carry an extra supply. The first expedition each man carried 
his own." 

"And water?" 

" Oh, we never found any difficulty. The blacks know every spot of the 
country, and always take care to travel where there is water. Besides, we had 
a favorable season for it : it was winter. Well, we set off and reached the 
limit of our former journey, and got again upon the trail of the blacks. The 
long and slender kangaroo-grass, trodden down as here and there it occurred 
in their line of march, had not yet sprung up again. It is not so difficult to 
follow a track in the bush after all ; but it's keen work, too, and wants a quick 
and practised eye. Anything eatable quickly disappears with the" wild dogs 
and wild cats, as well as by the natives themselves and their dogs. But a 
little twig lying on the ground our off, or merely with the branches and leaves 
stripped off, which show that man had done it, and the condition of freshness 
VOL. n. 2 u 



338 



APPENDIX: 



or dryness, wotdd tell how long since he was there. The notched trees — nicks 
they make in the trees in order to ascend them — are very conspionons guide- 
posts. Occasionally yon come upon a footr-mark in a miry place, or a dry and 
sandy one ; and it is amazing how the blacks will infer the size, age, and sex of 
the persons who imprinted it. In short, they recognise the features of a foot- 
mark just as we do those of the countenance ; and as they are clearly defined, 
or oblitepited, as the minute blades of grass are crushed down, or erecting 
themselves again, can they tell how long since the person passed. For seven 
days did we travel in this manner following the ftigitives. Little did we think 
of their manoeuvre, as will presently appear. Every evening, at sunset — the 
time they camp — did I ascend some eminence, to see if we could observe the 
minute little cloud of curling smoke which indicates their fires. We could see 
nothing, and yet we knew they were not very far off. That night some of 
the party &ncied they heard a chopping of branches, as when the blacks 
construct their gunyahs at eventide. However, next morning, before the party 
started, I went to the top of an eminence with Meade, to reconnoitre the day's 
journey and direction. It was a fine cloudless morning in July. The air was 
chilly, as it always is in winter at morning. Hie sun was just clear above the 
fogs of the horizon, and the dew glittered on the leaves. The parrots were 
wakening up with noisy welcomes to day, and sucking the honey from the 
early-flowering trees. The squirrel and opossum had gone to sleep in their 
holes — ^for the Australian animals live only at night ; and the shy kangaroo 
might be seen slowly hopping away to his lair, having filled his pouch since 
dawn, to ruminate his hastily-got food. I sat down on the brink of the 
precipice which looked towards the country we expected to traverse. There 
was a fog in the valley below rapidly clearing off ; but beyond that was the 
wide wild forest, over which I could not detect a symbol of life. Suddenly my 
companion exclaimed — * My heavens, what a lot of blacks 1 ' I looked down 
the precipice — ^the mist had cleared off — and sure enough there was the sable 
company in vehement agitation. They saw the two white men against the 
sky, on the rocks above them, and they were for off. I hastened down to our 
camp, summoned the party, and off we set. 

^^ We set off direct for the mountains, and after two days we came to some 
ashes, which were quite warm. Towards evening we heard the sound of the 
chopping of branches (preparing their gunyahs) and children playing. It came 
on snowing, and we halted until morning. At dawn a dog came and smelt 
and snuffed around, and then retired a little distance to a big log and began to 
howl. Up jumped the blacks, and rushed towards us ; we let fly; several 
blacks fell ; and a melde ensued. We had to use the butt-end of our muskets. 
One young lad was shot through the chest and both arms, after which he ran 
some three hundred yards before he dropped. Not a woman of them was hurt, 
except one who got her head grazed. The children made holes, and buried 
their heads, looking like black burnt stumps. One fine tall fellow appeared on 
the top of the hill, shouting — * Bail me coolah long with white fella.' Two of 
my men went towards him. I shouted — ^^iTake him, he'll be of use;' but in a 
moment one knocked him down and the other shot him through the head* 



HUNTING THE BLACKS. 339 

All the women and children then fled. We cut off his left ear, wrapped it in 
salt, and I carried it in my waistcoat pocket to take to our superior officers as 
a trophy of onr success. 

" We now determined to return, our provisions all being done but a piece of 
damper. 

" We set a watch every night. We began to feel the pangs of hxmger, but 
were afiraid to shoot any game for fear of directing the blacks; so, having 
caught a native bear, we killed him for food. Next night we halted; it was a 
beautiftd night, and there was a beautiful fall of water on the spot. It was 
Meade's watch, though we all watched alike. I went to wash my shirt in the 
creek ; I was busy there when I fancied I heard a crackle — ^perhaps it was a 
kangaroo; again I fancied I saw a star or two, or a spark; then another. 
'Here's the blacks,' called out all hands; and, crossing the creek above the 
£Edls, we saw the lights coming nearer, and then a shower of spears fell into 
our mia-mias, already deserted by us. 

" * Let fly,' was the word ; there was a great cry; and next day sixty spears 
were found, all where we had been lying. This was the ambush into which 
the party of blacks had wished to draw us from the first. If I had not taken 
charge of the watch, I believe we should all have been killed. 

" We now pursued our return march, and for many days suffered intensely 
from hunger ; but arriving at an out-station, we killed a bullock, upon which 
we fared sumptuously on broiled beef; we left, however, the tips of the ears 
unconsumed ; and, resuming our march, arrived safely at head-quarters. The 
blacks were never troublesome in that neighbourhood any more. Since then 
they have been subject to ordinary law; but previously all they understood was 
^forcey and that retaliation is a virtue." 

This was written down by me from the lips of the above head of the party, 

Mr. J D , then reporter to the Port Phillip Gazette^ and now one of 

the Members of Assembly for Hobarton, in 1844-5. — ^Augustus F. A. Gresves. 



APPENDIX L 



THE CRANIA OF THE NATIVES. 

(Br Geobob B. Halford, M.D.| Tbovkbbou of Aztatomt jlztd Fhtsiologt nr thb Uniyibbitt 

OF Mblboubhb.) 



HAViNa been requested by Mr. Brough Smyth to superintend the drawing 
of some Australian skulls^ and to append to them a few notes^ I have done 
so in as simple a manner as possible, and have afterwards added some 
measurements suitable to the strictly scientific enquirer. 

The reader may depend upon the accuracy of Major Shepherd's drawings ; 
and of the manner in which they were done he shall speak for himself. 

G. B. a 



Note. 

The series of drawings from the skulls committed to my care comprises 
four drawings of each, viz.: — 

1. A front view. 

2. A side view or profile. 

3. A view of the base of the skull. 

4. A view of the skull from above. 

There is also a drawing of the skull of (M), and of the Australian Aboriginal 
(A) seen from behind. 

The method adopted to secure a perfectly similar position and point of view 
for each specunen in the different aspects chosen was as follows : — 

A board was adjusted with its upper surface quite level. On the front 
edge of this board, and rising perpendicularly from it, a frame was placed, 
with crossed threads (perpendicular and horizontal) an inch apart, the lowest 
thread coinciding with the surface of the board. 



THE GBANIA OP THE NATIVBa 341 

At a distance of 33 inches in front of and exactly opposite to the centre of 
the front edge of the level board an upright lath of wood was fixed, with an 
aperture for the eye at the same height as the middle of the object to be 
drawn. In this series of drawings two apertures were used, one for the /rant 
and side views, and the other for the views from above and below. 

It may be mentioned that, having to use a sloping drawing table, allow- 
ance had of course to be made for its inclination in fixing the level board 
and the point of view. 

L In adjusting the skull for a front view, the lower edge of the body of 
the under-jaw rests on the level plane of the board with its symphisis touching 
the middle thread of the frame, the hinder portion of the skull being sup- 
ported in poeition by a wedge. The longitudinal axis of the slmll coincides 
with a line drawn from the point of sight through the middle upright thread 
of the frame. 

The drawings were aU made upon paper ruled in half-inch squares, con- 
sequently the portions of the object that touched the plane of the threads 
are half the size of the originals, the retiring portions being perspectively 
diminished in proportion to their distances from that plane. 

2. In the side view the skull was turned round until the longitudinal axis 
was at right-angles to the line of sight, the ridge of the temporal bone 
touching the middle thread of the plane. 

3. In drawing the basilar aspect, the skull rested on the cerebellum, the 
middle thread touching the spine of the occipital bone and the points of the 
incisors of the upper-jaw. 

4. The view of the skull from above was drawn with the line of sight in 
the same plane, but at right-angles to the front view, the crown of the skull 
touching the middle thread of the frame. 

In the posterior views the skull as adjusted for a front view was turned 
completely round, its longitudinal axis coinciding with the line of sight, and 
the hinder part of the skull touching the middle thread. 

The whole arrangement wUl best be understood from the accompanying 
diagram. 

BiOHD. Shephebd. 

10th October 1876. 



842 APPENDIX z 



(A.) 

SKULL OF AUSTRALIAN. 

Fia. 26Z.—FranL 

The observer will notice — 

L The large superciliary ridges^ overshadowing the orbits, which are very 
extensive, with somewhat angular circumference. These superdliaiy 
ridges, when cut into, were found to be solid bone. 

2. Above these ridges, the small cramped retreating forehead. 

3. Short concave nasal bones, forming the upper boundary of the broad firont 

opening of the nostrils. 

4. Downward and outward sloping of the malar (cheek) bone. 



Fta. 264.-^Side View. 

1. Yeiy prognathous jaws. 

2. The abrupt indentation between the superdliaiy ridges and the nasal bones. 

3. Small mastoid process. 

4. The length of this skull from the brow to the occiput is diminished inter- 

nally by quite 1^ inch, owing to the thickness of the bones. 

Some other features in this view will be referred to when (M) 2 is described. 



THE CBANIA OF THB NATITES. 



(A.) 



344 APPENDIX : 



(A.) 



SKULL OF AUSTRALIAN, 



Fia, 265. — Posterior View. 



1. Narrowing of the anterior parietal and frontal regions of the sknll. This 
feature is not so well represented as it exists in the original skull. 



Pia. 266. — From above. 

1. Shows the narrow frontal^ temporal^ and anterior parietal regions; with the 

coarse bowed zygomata. 

2. Pits for the front teeth in apper-jaws not hidden by the nasal bones. 



9 CRANIA OP THfi NAITTBS. 



(A.) 



Md AFFENPSs 



(A.) 



SKULL OF AUSTRALIAN. 

Fia W7.— Inferior Vim. 

1» Somewhat circnlar ontfine of the occipital hole (fbramen magnum). 
2. Very oblique occipital condyles* 
8« Bowed coarse zygomata* 
4. Narrow alisphenoid region* 
6. Deep zygomatic fossa. 

6. Elongated palate. 

7. Cusps of the teeth MSfl^T cUBfantod. 



THB CBABLi OF THB NATITBS. 



(A.) 



;348 . APPENDIX ; 



(M.) 



SKULL OF MORGAN, THE BUSHRANGER.— (EUROPEAN.) 

To be compared with Australian Skull (A). 

1.^ ) 



Fig. 2GQ.— Front. 

1. Greater development of the frontal and temporal regions. 

2. Less prominent zygomata. 

3. Larger mastoid processes. 

4. More circular circumference of orbits. 

5. Narrower anterior nasal aperture. 

6. More vertical alveolar processes for holding the teeth* 

7. Arch formed by the teeth less prominent. 



Fia. ZQ^.Side View. 

1. Superciliary ridge prominent, containing a large frontal sinas* 

2. Far greater height of skull. 

3. Posterior development about equal with (A). 

4. Floor of temporal fossa more convex. 

^ mm • 

5. Facial bones ^b;f brutal in shape. 

m 

6. Long nasal boiies. 

7. Prominent chin. 



THE CSANIA OF THE NATIVES. 



(M.) 



350 AFPBNDEt : 



(M.) 



Fig. 270.— Posterior View, 

1. Ghreater extent of the vertical portion of the occipital bone. 

2. Greater size of mastoid processes* 

3. All the diameters of this region of the skull greater. 

4. Greater fullness of the superior parietal regions. 



Pig. 21\.—From (ibot>e. 



1. Every possible diameter of this skull of greater extentt 

2. Space between the brain-case and the zygomata greatly reduced* 

3. Alveolar processes of the central incisor teeth quite hidden by the nasal 

bon60f 



S CBANIA OP TEE NATIVES. 
(M.) 



352 



APPENDIX: 



(M.) 
Pig. 272. — Inferior Aspect. 

1. Occipital region far more extensive, both transversely and longitudinally. 

2. Mastoid processes larger. 

3. Foramen magnum more oval. 

4. Occipital condyles less oblique. 

6. Greater width of the sphenoidal region. 

6. Less bowed zygomata. 

7. Palate less extensive &om before backwards. 

8. Crowns of the molars smaller, the cusps not being worn away, as is usual 

in Australians' teeth, owing to the amount of sand mixed with their 
food. 



(M) AND (A). 

Bemabks. 

When these skulls were bisected longitudinally, it was found that the 
superciliary ridges in (M) bounded large frontal sinuses. In (A) they were the 
anterior boundaries of very close diplog between the external and internal 
tables of the skull. The phrenologist's perceptive jGwulties would therefore 
have been in (M) air and mucus; in (A) solid bone six-eighths of an inch thick. 

Measuring from the internal occipital protuberance to the foramen ccecuin, 
both skulls were found to be of the same length, viz., 5f inches; and the 
longest diameter above this of the brain-case was found exactly alike in both, 
viz., 6| inches. But the width and height of the cavity above the floor of the 
skull was much greater in (M) than in (A) ; so that however equal the contaraed 
brains might have been as regards those parts forming their bases and their 
cerebella, still in all that constitutes cerebral development (M) must have been 
superior to (A).. 

The reader. "s^ do well to look now at the following drawing of the skull 
and face of a Chinaman. 

Although the cranial dimensions are less extensive than in (M), they are 
greatly superior to (A), and the whole aspect is much less brutal. 



THB OBAIIIA OP THB HATiVJUk 



(M.) 



^04 



AFFENDIX: 



Fig. 273. 



SKULL OF A CHINESE. 



Far comparison with Australian skull (A). 



XHB ORAMIA OF THE VATWEB. 



SKUIX OF A CHINESE. 



$6$ 



(B.) 



SKULL OF AUSTRALUN (PBOBABLT 



Pig. 274.— FrofU View, 

L Low fiontal region^ flloping away from above outwards and downwardfl. 

2. Posterior lateral bulging of the parietab visible* 

3, Circomferenoe of the orbits less angular than usual in Anstralian sknlla 
4« Anterior nasal opening wide* 

5. Teeth jetj even; crowns worn smooth* 



Fig. 275.— Side View, 



h Very small superciliary ridges, the bone in this region being solid* 

2. Want of hdight in the middle fronto-parietal region. 

3. Good (b^yJO^dprnent of the posterior cerebral region, verified by examinatioii 

of the cavity afterwards. 

4. Parietal eminences prominent. 
6. Zygomata very delicate. 

6. All the bones of the skoll and &m veiy smootiu 



THB ORASIA. 07 THE NATITBS. 



(B.) 



358 



APPENDIX: 



(B.) 



Fig. 276. — From above. 

1. Narrow frontal region. 

2. Comparatively broad posterior cerebral region. 

3. Alveolar processes of central front teeth not hidden by the nasal bones* 

4. Indent on the right side, probably from a blow daring life. 



Fig. 277. -^Inferior Aspect. 



1. Very narrow occipital region. 

2. Prominent parietal eminences. 

3. Somewhat circular ontline of foramen magnum. 

4. Very oblique occipital condyles. 

5. Very narjow anterior temporal and alisphenoid regions. 

6. Crowns of the teeth worn even by attrition. 

7. Palate more elongated than in European. 



B CRANIA OP THE NATIVE3. 
(B.) 



i 



360 



AFFBNDIZ: 



(00 



SKULL OF AUSTRALLIN. 



Fig. 27S.— Front Vierv. 



1. Forehead tolerably broad. 

2. Good breadth and height in the frontal and lateral regions. 

3. Qeneral features less bmtal than in (A). 



Fio« 27IL— fibfe Vim. 

1, Great posterior development of the aknll* 

2. Sloping frontals. 

8, Small mastoid processes. 

4, Abrupt concavity below superciliary ridge. 






THE GBANIA OF THE NATIVES. 



(C.) 



M2 



AFFE3a>IX: 



(C.) 



Fig. 280. 



1. Frontal and anterior temporal regions tolerably well developed. 

2. Alreolar prooeases of indsora not hidden by the nasal bones. 

3. Zygomata not mach bowed* 



Pig. 281. — Inferior Aspect. 

1. Well-developed occipital and posterior parietal regions. 

2. Narrow alisphenoid region. 

3. Oblique occipital condyles. 

4. drowns of teeth worn smooth* 



L 



•THB CR4KIA OP THB NATITBB. 

(O.) 



(D.) 

SKULL OF AUSTRALIAN. 
Via. 282.— IVont. 
1. Narrow and retreating forehead. 



Fio. 283.— 5i£fe View. 

1. Saperciliary ridges large, and containing vell-deTeloped frontal sinoseB.* 

2. Narrow sloping frontal and anterior parietal regions. 

3. Great height in the centre. 

4. Large development of posterior cerebral region. 

5. Large temporal region. 

6. Thin and delicate zygomata. 

* la esamining sii other AoitnlUn ikalla tfaui thoM referred to ia thii work, I fotmd tblM 
witb-goMl frontal smuKs, and three vitbont unj fasce of them. 





TEE CBANIA 07 THE NATIVES. 



(D.) 




866 



APPENDIX: 



(D.) 



Fia. 284. — FromabatCn 



1. Narrow frontal and anterior parietal regions. 

2. Bowed zygomata. 

3. Alveolar processes for teeth seen beyond the nasal bones. 



1. Nearly circnlar outline of the foramen magnnm. 

2. Small occipital condyles. 

3. Bowed zygomata. 

4» Pointed elongated palate. 






TEB CBAHU. OF THE NAHTE& 

(D.) 



S68 APPENDIX : 



(E.) 

SKULL OF KING JIMMY, OF THE MORDLiLLOO TRIBE. 

This Anstraliaa chief died lately, and, through the kindness of Dr. Cooke 
and of one of my students (Mr. Brownless), his skull was given to me. There 
being some very peculiar points about it, I think it fit to include a description 
of it in this work. 



Fig. 286. 

Represents the anterior aspect of the skull, which in the original was even 
more brutal than here represented. The sort of mid-rib running along the 
top of the skull, like the crest of the gorilla, and bounded on each side by a 
temporal ridge, gives the skull a most ape-like appearance. The immense 
orbits and nasal fossae with prognathous upper-jaw complete the picture. 



Fia. 287. — Side Viem of the same Skull. 

The brutal aspect has disappeared ; we have apparently a skull of large 
capacity. We notice the height to which the temporal fossa reaches and its 
backward direction. 



THB CBAinA. O; TEX NATITB8. 



(E.) 



370 



APPENDIX: 



(E.) 



Fio. 288. — Vpper VieWy shomng--^ 

1. The extent to which the temporal ridges rise. 

2. The middle and posterior breadth of the sknll. 

8. The prognathous upper-jaw unhidden by the nasal bones. 



Pig. 289. — Posterior Aspect 

1. The posterior and middle breadths* 

2. The longitudinal central elevation of the skull* 



THE CBANIA OF THE NAUTES. 371 

(B.) 



(E.) 

Fio. 290. — TJ^ same Skull bisected UmgiiudinaUy, ahomng^ — 

1. liSfge frontal and sphenoidal cells. 

2. Respectable capacity, and internal contour, wherel^ it asserts its daima to 

hamaiiity. 



Ailer the foregoing drawings had been completed, I bisected fire of the 
skulls, and, with Major Shepherd, measured with the greatest care the angles, 
base lines, arches, <&c., on the plan recommended by Professor Clelaad in the 
Journal of Anatomy and Pkyaiology, July 1877. I have done this in the hope 
that it may, in however trifling a way, assist the craniologist in "obtaining 
national distinctions of a most exact description." 



SECTION OF THE SKULL OF KDIG JIMMY (E), 

Shming the base lines, radii, chords, armies, fc, referred to in the lists of 
measurements recorded in the following pages. 

(Fig. 291.) 
a~/. Foramen magnom. 
d, Fronto nasal sntore. 
a-d. Base line. 

g. Points corresponding to the centre of the external auditory meatus. 
^1. Mid occipital radios. 
g-Z. Mid parietal radius. 
^-3. Mid frontal radios. 
a-b. ■_,0<*il)ital arch. 
h-c. ii^arietal arch. 
e-d. Frontal arch. 

Or-b. Occipital chord (line not drawn). 
b-e. Parietal chord. 
e-d. Frontal chord. 
d-h. Frontal base. 
k-f. Middle base. 



THB CBAITU. OF THB NATITEa 



(E.) 




374 APPENDIX I 



SKULL (A). 

Breadths — Greatest breadth, close to but a little below the squa- 
mous suture in the part of its course where it 
turns down behind ----- 5'1 inches 

Coronal breadth - - - - - - -4'1„ 

Zygomatic -------- 5*4 „ 

Arch — Occipital ------ 4*4 

Parietal 4-8 

Frontal 5*1 

14-3 „ 

Base line -------- 5*4 „ 

Length from occipital probole to fronto nasal suture - - - 7*05 ,, 
Height from front of foramen magnum - - ... 5* ,, 
Badii from centre of meatus — Mid occipital - - - - 3'7 „ 

Mid parietal - - - - 4*35 „ 

Mid frontal - . - . 4-45 „ 

Portions of base — ^Foramen magnum - - - - - 1*25 ,, 

Middle base 2-05 „ 

Frontal base 2-35 ,, 

Chords — Occipital --------- 3-45 „ 

Parietal --------- 4*4 „ 

Frontal 4-45 „ 

Angles — Between foramen magnum and mid base - 142^ 0' 
Between mid base and frontal base - - US'" 0^ 

Orbito frontal 78' 0' 

Orbitonasal 88** 0' 

Mid parietal 138'' 0' 

Proportion of arch to base line ------- 2*65 

Proportion of height to length ------- 0*71 nearly 

Proportion of breadth to length 0-72 



THE OEANIA OF THE NATIVES. 



376 



SKULL (M). 



Breadths — Close to squamous suture to the part of its course 

where it turns downwards behind - - - 5-45 inches 

Coronal breadth ------- 4-75 ^^ 

Zygomatic -------- 5'2 „ 

Arch — Occipital - - - - - - 4*9 

Parietal ------ 4*55 

Frontal 4-75 

13-39 „ 

Base line -------- 5-8 „ 

Length from fronto nasal suture to occipital probole - - 7*1 ,, 

Height from front of foramen magnum ----- 5-5 ^^ 

Badii from centre of meatus — Mid occipital - - - - 4* „ 

Mid parietal - - - - 4*9 „ 

Mid frontal . - - - 4-3 „ 

Portions of base — ^Foramen magnum - - - - - 1*55 „ 

Middle base ------ 2*2 „ 

Frontal base ------ 2*45 „ 

Chords — Occipital --------- 4-2 „ 

Parietal 4-3 „ 

Frontal 4-35 „ 

Angles — Between foramen magnum and mid base - 133^ 30' 
Between mid base and frontal base . - - 137^ 30' 

Orbito frontal 79** 30' 

Orbitonasal 81* 0' 

Mid parietal 140" 30' 

Proportion of arch to base line ------- 2*3 

Proportion of height to length ------ 0*77 

Proportion of breadth to length ------ o*77 



876 APPENDIX : 



SKULL (B). 

Breadths— Just above and behind the squamons suture in the 

part of its course where it turns down behind - 5*05 inches 

Coronal breadth - - - - - - - 4*2 „ 

Zygomatic -------- 4*7 „ 

Arch — Occipital ------ 4-2 

Parietal 4-7 

Frontal 4-8 

13-7 „ 

Base Ime -------- 5-1 ,^ 

Length from occipital probole to fronto nasal suture - - - 6*75 ,, 

Height from front of foramen magnum ----- 4*85 „ 

Badii from centre of meatus — Mid occipital - - - - 3*7 ,, 

Mid parietal - - - - 4*3 ,, 

Mid frontal - ... 4*3 „ 

Portions of base — Foramen magnum - - - - - 1*4 ^^ 

Middle base ------- 1*8 ,y 

Frontal base ------ 2*1 „ 

Chords — Occipital --------- 8*5 j(. 

Parietal 4*35 „ 

Frontal 4*2 „ 

Angles — Between foramen magnum and mid base - 142*" 0' 
Between mid base and frontal base - - 143^ 0' 

Orbito frontal 82* 30' 

Orbito nasal 93* 30' 

Mid parietal 136^ 30' 

Proportion of arch to base line ------- 2*6 

Proportion of height to length ------- 0*72neaily 

Proportion of breadth to length ------ 0*75 ^ 



THE CEANIA OP THE NATIVEa 877 



SKULL (D). 

Breadths — 3-1 inch below the squamous suture in the part of its 

course where it turns down behind - - - 5*05 inches 
Coronal breadth ------- 4-2 „ 

Zygomatic --------6- ^, 

Arch — Occipital ------ 4-55 

Parietal 5*2 

Frontal - - - - - - 5' 

14-57 „ 

Base line -------- 5«3 ^, 

Length from occipital probole to fronto nasal suture - - - 6*75 ^^ 
Height from front of foramen magnum to the most distant part 

of the vertex --------- 5«3 ^^ 

Badii from centre of meatus — Mid occipital - - - - 3«7 ^, 

Mid parietal - - - - 4*5 „ 

Mid frontal - - - - 4*5 „ 

Portions of base — Foramen magnum - - - - - 1*25 „ 

Middle base 2-05 „ 

Frontal base 2-3 „ 

Chords — Occipital --------- 3-8 „ 

Parietal 4*85 „ 

Frontal ---. 4.45 ^^ 

Angles — Between foramen magnum and mid base - 143° 0' 

Between mid base and frontal base - - 137° 30' 

Orbito frontal 79° 30' 

Orbitonasal 85° 30' 

Mid parietal 140° 30' 

Proportion of arch to base line ------- 2*75 nearly 

Percentage proportion of height to length - - - - 0*78 

Proportion of breadth to length - - - - - - 0*75 nearly 



VOL. n. 3 b 



878 



APPENDIX. 



KING JIMMY (E), 

Base line ----------- 5*65 inches 

Length from fronto nasal suture to external occipital probole - 7*5 „ 
Breadth, 0*25 inch below the squamous suture, in the part of its 
course where it turns down behind, and 1*35 inch above the 
posterior root of the zygoma, in a line drawn downwards to 
the centre of external auditory meatus - - - - 5*5 „ 

Proportion of arch to base line ------ 2*7 „ 

Height from front of foramen magnum ----- 5*75 „ 

Percentage proportion of height to length - - - - 76'5 

Greatest breadth in the course of coronal suture - - - 4«7 ^, 
Greatest breadth between zygomata ------ 5*85 „ 

Proportion of breadth to length - - - - - - 0*73 

Middle base ---------- 2*3 „ 

Frontal base ---------- 2*26 „ 

Arch — Occipital -------- 4*8 

Parietal 5-3 

Frontal 5-3 

15-4 „ 

Angles — Between mid and frontal base - - - 143® 0' 
Between foramen magnum and mid base - 137® 5' 

Orbito frontal 81® 30' 

Orbitonasal 87® 0' 

Mid parietal 139® 30' 

Badii from centre of meatus — Mid occipital - - - - 3'8 „ 

Mid parietal - - - - 4*75 „ 

Mid frontal - - - - 4-8 „ 

Portions of base — Foramen magnum - - - - - 1*4 „ 

Middle base 2-25 „ 

Frontal base 2-25 „ 

Chords — Occipital --------- 3*85 „ 

Parietal ---------5* „ 

Frontal 4-75 „ 



^Jxt %Urtjiinn of ^Hsmanla. 



*<rry' 



Physical Character. 

The natives of Tasmania differed in appearance from the people of the 
continent ; but, as has been remarked of the people of the continent, they were 
not all alike, and there is reason to believe that the members of some tribes 
were scarcely distinguishable from the Australians. 

Cook saw the Tasmanians in 1777. "They were quite naked," he tells us, 
" and wore no ornaments, unless we consider as such, and as a proof of their 
love of finery, some large punctures or ridges raised on different parts of their 
bodies, some in straight and others in curved lines. They were of the common 
stature, but rather slender. Their skin was black, and also their hair, which 
was as woolly as that of any native of Guinea ; but they were not distinguished 
by remarkably thick lips nor flat noses. On the contrary, their features were 
far from being disagreeable. They had pretty good eyes, and their teeth were 
tolerably even, but very diriy. Most of them had their hair and beards smeared 
with a red ointment, and some had their faces also painted with the same 
composition." * 

"The Aborigines of Van Diemen's Land," according to Mr. R. H. Davies, "are 
a ftdl average height, very sinewy and wiry. Stout, muscular men occur but 
rarely; this is in accordance with their habits, in which activity rather than 
strength is called into action. Their color is bluish-black — ^less black than that 
of African negroes, but slightly more so than Lascars. Their hair is black and 
woolly, but apparently not so much so as that of negroes. The hair of the 
female appears more woolly than that of the male ; this is probably owing to 
the femiJe keeping her hair cut extremely close, leaving a narrow circle all 
round, as if a basin had been put over the head and the hair inside of it cut away. 
The men allow their hair to grow very long, matting each lock separately with 
grease and ochre. The eyes are dark, wild, and stro;igly expressive of the 
passions ; forehead high, narrow, running to a peak ; nose flat and nostrils 
wide; the jaw-bones are large, strong, and prominent, and show a great width in 
front ; the mouth is very wide, and the teeth large, strong, and even ; the lips 
are noi/ull^ like those of negroes — at least not generally so. The men grease 
their bodies, and streak them with red-ochre and a variety of plumbago; this is 
partly done for ornament ; but they say that it in a great measure protects them 

m 

* Third Voyage^ B. I., ch. vl. 



880 THE ABOBIGINBS OP TASMANIA: 

from the inclemency of the weather. Unconnected with this besmearing, a 
very .peculiar odour proceeds from their bodies. Their skulls must be very 
thick, judging from the blows which they receive on them with impunity."* 

Lieut. Breton thus describes them : — " They have woolly hair, features flat 
and disagreeable, and a perfectly black complexion, and it struck me that their 
eyes were more deeply seated than I ever observed in any other people. They 
are more strongly formed than the New Hollanders, being neither so slight nor 
so long in the limbs ; their aspect, I consider, if anything, inferior." t 

P6ron has given the following account of the natives he met with : — 
" Sur la terre de Di^men sur 1' ile de Maria qui Pavoisine, il existe une race 
d'hommes tout-i^fait diff^rente de celle qui peuple le continent de la Nouvelle- 
Hollande. Pour la taille les individus se rapprochent assez des Europ^ns^; 
mais ils en different par leur conformation singulifere. Avec une t6te 
volumineuse, remarquable sur-tout par la longueur de celui de ses diam&tres 
qui, du menton, se dirige vers le sinciput, avec des Spaules larges et bien 
d6velopp6es, des reins bien dessin^s, des fesses g^n^ralement volumineuses, 
presque tons les individus pr^sentent en m^me temps des extr^mit^s faibles, 
along^es, pen musculeuses, avec un ventre gros, saillant et comme ballonnS." t 

And comparing the race with the natives of Australia, he says : — 
"En effet, si Ton en excepte la maigreur des membres, qui s'observe 
^galement chez les deux peuples, ils n'ont presque plus rien de commun, ni 
dans leurs moeurs, leurs usages, leurs arts grossiers, ni dans leurs instrumens 
de chasse ou de pdche, leurs habitations, leurs pirogues, leurs armes, ni dans 
leur langue, ni dans I'ensemble de leur constitution physique, la forme du crflne, 
les proportions de la face, &c. Cette dissemblance absolue se reproduit dans la 
couleur; les indigenes de la terre de Diimen sont beaucoup plus bruns que 
ceux de la Nouvelle-HoUande : elle se reproduit m6me dans un caractfere que 
tout le monde s'accorde k regarder comme le plus important de ceux qui servent 
h distinguer les diverses races de I'espfece humaine ; je veux parler de la nature 
des cheveux ; les habitans de la terre de Di^men les ont courts, laineux et 
cr6pus ; ceux de la Nouvelle-HoUande les ont droits, longs et roides."§ 

The following account of the natives of Tasmania, written at the time of 
the first colonization of the island by the whites, contains a description of a 
wild black. His deportment affords grounds for the belief that, if this people 
had been differently treated, their relatione with the English would have 
been peaceful : — 

"In their way up, a human voice saluted them from the hills on which they 
landed, carrying with them one of several swans which they had just shot. 
Having nearly reached the summit, two females, with a short covering hanging 
loose from their shoulders, suddenly appeared at some little distance before 
them ; but, snatching up each a smaU basket, these scampered off. A man 

* Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science, &c., January 1846, pp. 409-10. 

t Excursions in New South Wales, Tasmania, &c., by Lieut. Breton, R.N., p. 398. 

X Voyage de Dieouvertes aux Terres Australit, 1800-4, par M. F. Feron, toL i., p. 448. 

§ Ibid, Tol. n., pp. 163-4. 



PHYSICAL CHABAOTBB, 381 

then presented himself, and snffered them to approach him without any signs of 
fear or distrust. He received the swan joyftdly, appearing to esteem it a trea- 
sure. His language was unintelligible to them, as was theirs to him, although 
they addressed him in several of the dialects of New South Wales, and some 
few of the most common words of the South Sea Islands. With some difficulty 
they made him comprehend their wish to see his place of residence. He pointed 
over the hill, and proceeded onwards ; but his pace was slow and wandering, 
and he often stopped under the pretence of having lost the track, which led 
them to suspect that his only aim was to amuse and tire them out. Judging, 
then, that in persisting to follow him they must lose the remaining part of the 
flood tide, which was much more valuable to them than the sight of his hut 
could be, they parted from him in great friendship. The most probable reason 
of his unwillingness to be their guide seemed to be his fearing that if he* took 
them to his women their charms might induce them to run off with them, a 
jealousy very common with the natives of the continent. 

He was a short slight man, of a middle age, with a countenance more 
expressive of benignity and intelligence than of that ferocity which generally 
characterized the other natives ; and his features were less flattened, or negro- 
like, than theirs. His face was blackened, and the top of his head was plastered 
with red earth. His hair was either naturally short and close, or had been 
rendered so by burning, and, although short and stiffly curled, they did not 
think it woolly. He was armed with two spears, very ill made, of solid wood. 
No part of their dress attracted his attention, except the red silk handkerchiefe 
round their necks. Their fire-arms were to him objects neither of curiosity 
nor fear. 

This was the first man they had spoken with in Van Diemen's Land, and 
his frank and open deportment led them not only to form a favorable opinion 
of the disposition of its inhabitants, bat to coiyectare that, if the country was 
peopled in the nsoal numbers, he would not have been the only one they should 
have met. A circumstance which corroborated this supposition was, that in the 
excursions made by Mr. Bass into the country, having seldom any other society 
than his two dogs, he would have been no great object of dread to a people 
ignorant of the effects of fire-arms, and would certainly have been hailed by 
any one who might have seen him. 

They fell in with many huts along the different shores of the river, of the 
same bad construction as those of Port Dalrymple, but with fewer heaps of 
mussel-shells lying near them. 

The natives of this place probably drew the principal part of their food 
from the woods ; the bones of small animals, such as opossums, squirrels, 
kangaroo-rats, and bandicoots, were numerous round their deserted fire-places ; 
and the two spears which they saw in the hands of the man were similar to 
those used for hunting in other parts. Many trees, also, were observed to be 
notched. No canoes were ever seen, nor any trees so barked as to answer that 
purpose." * 

* An Account of the English Colony in New South WaUs, by Lieut.-CoL Ck>Uiiu, p. 480. 



382 THE ABOBIGINES OF TASMANIA: 

A careful comparison of the photographic portraits of the natives of the 
island with those of the natives of the continent shows that the difference in 
appearance is due chiefly to the character of the hair. In the one it is woolly, 
or inclined to grow in small spirals, and in the other waved or curled. The 
forehead, eyes, nose, and mouth remind one, in all the portraits of the Tas- 
manian females, of the natives of the southern parts of Australia. Yet there 
is a difierence. The Tasmanian has unquestionably — altogether apart firom the 
appearance given to the face by the hair — a certain resemblance to the negro, 
while the Australian not seldom has a European cast of features. 

A photographic portrait of WuTitinyeri, a woman of the Mundoo tribe, 
which appears in the Rev. Mr. Taplin's work, might readily be mistaken for 
that of a Tasmanian woman ; but none of the others in the same work have 
any likeness to them. 

The Tasmanians, like some of the Australians, are said to have had a great 
deal of hair on the body. 

No very accurate measurements have been made of the height of the adult 
Tasmanians ; but, in 1849, Mr. Hugh M. Hull had all the Aboriginal children 
then in the orphan schools at New Town weighed and measured; and the result 
showed that they were shorter than the white race of the same age, but much 
heavier. One young female eleven years of age weighed 102 pounds ; another 
of eight, 86 pounds. The average weight of European children of these ages 
is stated to be 78 pounds and 60 pounds respectively — 60 as compared to 86 ; 
78 as compared to 102.* 

Mental Characteristics. 

The natives that were met with by the early voyagers appear to have mani- 
fested little of that ferocity which subsequently distinguished their intercourse 
with the whites. They appear to have shown no hostility when a ship's com- 
pany visited their coasts. They were indifferent, they exhibited little curiosity, 
and were rather timid than distrustful. 

Cook observed that they received every present made to them without the 
least appearance of satisfaction. When some bread was given, and as soon as 
they understood it was to be eaten, they either returned it or threw it away 
without even tasting it. They refused some elephant-fish, both raw and 
dressed, but they accepted the birds that were offered, and made it understood 
that they liked them. "We had not been long landed," says Cook, "before 
about twenty of them, men and boys, joined us, without expressing the least 
sign of fear or distrust. There was one of this company conspicuously de- 
formed, and who was not more distinguishable by the hump upon his back 
than by the drollery of his gestures and the seeming humour of his speeches, 
which he was very fond of exhibiting, as we supposed, for our entertainment-" f 

The Rev. T. Dove formed a very low estimate of their character. " Every 
idea," he states, "bearing on our origin and destination as rational beings 

* Lecture on the Aborigines of Tasmania^ bj Hagh M. Hull, Esq., 1870. 
t Third Voyage, B. i., chap. tL 



MENTAL GHABAGTEBISTICa 383 

seems to have been erased from their breasts." He adds, however, that, 
looking to "the methods which they devised of procuring shelter and subsist- 
ence in their native wilds, to the skill and precision with which they tracked 
the mazes of the bush, and to the force of invention and of memory which is 
displayed in the copious vocabulary of their several languages, they claim no 
inconsiderable share of mental power and activity." * 

The same writer observes that "their social history was rather characterised 
by the absence of what is venerable and lovely than by the prevalence of 
what is dark and revolting. Harmony and good humour seem generally to 
have reigned among the members of the same tribe. The force of the parental 
instinct was usually strong enough to render the maintenance of their offspring 
a care and a delight. Instances, however, have occurred in which the child has 
been wantonly sacrificed to the dread of famine. When it is borne in mind 
that polygamy prevailed among them, the abject condition of the female sex 
may be easily conceived." t 

From all that can be gathered respecting this now extinct race, it appears 
that the people were originally — ^when they first came into contact with the 
whites — ^mild, diffident, willing to be friendly, and rather afraid of the invaders 
of their territory. But when the convicts were let loose ; when those who had 
tickets of leave and those who had escaped from confinement began to steal 
the wives and daughters of the natives, and to slaughter the warriors ; when 
the settlers began to occupy their lands — ^they evinced stronger feelings, and, 
if not greater courage, certainly a greater ferocity than the inhabitants of the 
continent. They attacked the settlers whenever an opportunity occurred ; and 
their energy and persistence, if they had succeeded in ridding themselves of 
their enemies, would have placed them high in the ranks of patriots. But they 
were beaten, and consequently they are despised. 

A few warriors — ^ten or twelve — overawed, terrified a colony that could send 
out several hundreds of white fighting men ; and if cunning, and something 
very like treachery, had not been employed, a large number of the natives 
would be living in their native forests at the present time. They were 
slaughtered in order that room might be made for the sheep and cattle of the 
settlers ; and when these were in undisturbed occupation of the soil, the few 
men and women remaining were sent to an island in the Straits, where, scantily 
supplied with — what were to them — the necessaries of life, and cut off from all 
the pleasures that it was possible they could enjoy, they lingered awhile and 
died.} 

* Tasmameun Journal of Natural SciencCf &c, 1842, yoL i., p. S60. 

t Ibid, p. 253. 

X The foUowing extracts from a lecture on the Ahorigines of Taonania, by Hngh M. HaU, 
Esq., the Clerk of the House of Asaemblj in Hobart Town, tell sufficient of the melancholy story 
of the extermination of the natiyes. Mr. Hnll says : — ** A friend once described to me a fearful 
scene at which he was present. A number of blacks, with the women and children, were 
congregated in a gully near town, under the shade of some flowering tea-trees, and the men had 
formed themselyes into a ring round a large fire, whilst the women were cooking the eyening meal 
of opossums and bandicoots; they were surprised by a party of soldiers, who, without giying 
warning, flred upon fhem as they sat, and, rushing up to the scene of the slaughter, found there 



884 THB ABOMGINES OF TASMANIA: 

K they had not been men and women, if they had not been human creatures 
— ^if they had been quadrumanous, every detail connected with them would 
undoubtedly have been investigated and recorded. But they were indeed 
human; and they were the enemies of the white man because they wished 
to live in places where cattle and sheep would thrive, and it was deemed 
necessary to exterminate them ; and they have been exterminated. It is said 
that there is not one now living. Some half-castes are living ; and it is nearly 
certain that the blood will mix with that of the whites, and never be lost. But 
the race, the traditions of the race, and the language, are lost for ever. 



NUHBEBS. 

Tasmania, like Australia, was sparsely peopled. Many parts of the island 
are unfitted for the abode of savages. The western districts are in most places 
thickly timbered ; there are dense scrubs ; and the country is damp, cold, and 
inhospitable. The larger animals are scarce, and such tracts never could have 
supported any large number of Aborigines. The central and eastern areas 
were those in which the blacks found food, and where they were comparatively 
numerous. 

The area of the island is approximately 24,000 square miles ; and if it be 
assumed that the number of square miles required to support one native was 
the same as in the more fertile parts of the continent, the population would 
amount to no more than 1,400. Dr. Milligan thinks that the Aboriginal popu- 
lation, at the time the colony was first occupied by Europeans, did not exceed 
2,000; and this estimate he gives apparently with some hesitation, as being 
perhaps excessive. Altogether erroneous ideas were formed of the numbers 
inhabiting Tasmania by the voyagers who visited the island in early times, and 
by the first settlers. Dr. Milligan informs us that '^the open grassy plains and 
thinly-timbered forest ground along the eastern and central portions of the 
island were the most eligible for the purposes of the early settlers, and were 
therefore the portions of the territory first occupied ; but these fine tracts of 

woaaded men and women, and a little black child crawling near its dying mother. The soldier 
droye his bayonet through the body of the child, and pitchforked it into the flames. It was onfy 
a child, he said !" 

** It is stated also/' Mr. HnU adds, " that it was a favorite amusement to hunt the Aborigines ; 
that a day would be selected, and the neighbouring settlers would be inrited, with their families, to 
a pic-nic. Husbands and wires, sons and daughters, would come in to the social gathering, and 
after dinner aU would be gaiety and merriment, whilst the gentlemen of the party would take their 
guns and dogs, and, accompanied by two or three convict senrants, wander through the bush in 
•earch of blackfellows. Sometimes they would return without sport; at others they would 

Bucoeed in killing a woman, or, if lucky, mayhap a man or two As the white settler 

spread his possessions orer the island — orer the natives* favorite camping-grounds, driving away 
their kangaroos, and repUcing them with bullocks and sheep — the natives objected in their own 
way to the inroad. In many cases, no doubt, the blacks were sacrificed to momentary caprice or 
anger, and suJBtered much wrong. Indeed one of the GK)vemor's proclamations states that cruelties 
had been perpetrated repugnant to humanity and disgraceful to the British people." 

It is not strange that the outraged natives sought every opportunity to murder the white 
settlere and to emulato them in cmelty. 



KtTMBElUSL 385 

cotlntrjr wete precisely those which naturally yielded the means of subsistence 
in the greatest profusion to the Aborigines, and they were accordingly the 
districts chiefly frequented by the natives at that time." In these tracts the 
settlers saw occasionally large numbers of natives, and the smoke of numer- 
ous fires were observed along the coast, and they almost unavoidably formed 
erroneous estimates as to the Aboriginal population of the whole island. 

Mr. Hugh M. Hull, the Clerk of the House of Assembly, says that he 
has ^^ records of many of the tribes and their habitats. 

The Eastern Coast tribes spoke a dififerent language from the western. 

The Ben Lomond tribe was a large and savage body of blacks on the 
north-east. 

The Oyster Bay tribe on the south-east. 

The Stony Creek tribe, a murderous lot, in the centre of the island^ 
roving about Campbelltown, Ross, and Saltpan Plains. 

The Western tribe about the Westbury and Deloraine districts; also a 
murderous lot. 

The Circular Head tribe on the north. 

The Eastern Marshes tribe near Oatlands. 

The Bruni Island tribe. 

The Adventure Bay tribe. 

In 1824 we had 180 men and 160 women on the roll — all known by 
name ; in 1844 they were reduced to 60 in all ; and in 1847, when removed 
to Oyster Cove, they were 45 all told, and 10 of these were children." 

In a very short time these perished. 

BiBTH, ETC* 

The Tasmanians seem to have had but little affection for their wives. 
They were treated as slaves, and, whether young or old, had to work hard 
for their masters. Little care was bestowed on the wife at the most 
interesting periods of her existence. "When a woman was taken in labor, 
the tribe did not wait for her, but she was left behind with another woman^ 
and afterwards followed as best she could."* 

As soon as the mother was able to move, which would be probably a 
few hours after the birth of the child, she placed the infant in the kangaroo 
skin which hung at her back, and resumed her journey. When the child 
required nourishment, the breast was thrust over the shoulder, and the 
mammce of the married women were " consequently preposterously long." f 

They suckled the infants for a long period; sometimes, Mr. Davies 
believes, for upwards of two years. 

In their treatment of infants, the blacks of Tasmania did not differ much 
from the natives of the continent. If a child was permitted to live, it was 
tended with some care ; but children were not seldom destroyed. Mr. Davies 

says— and he writes cautiously — " I have no reason to suppose that infanticide 

^i — — ^ , 

* B. H. Dayies, in the Tamanian Journal of Natural Sciince, &c. f ^^^* 

TOL. n. So 



386 THE ABOBiaiNES OF TASMANIA: 

existed amongst the Aborigines in their former wild state. There is little 
doubt, however, that it was common of later years^-nlriyen to it, as they 
in all probability were, by the continued harassing of the whites." 

It is not reasonable to suppose that the natives of Tasmania, with but 
a scanty supply of food — and much of that procured by the labors of the 
females — did not rid themselves 'of their burdens in the same manner as the 
inhabitants of the continent. There is no doubt that the same pressure of 
want was felt everywhere amongst the savages of this part of the world^ 
and that the women had recourse to the same means to alleviate their 
distresses. They killed their in£Emts because it was impossible for them to 
tend them and nourish them. 

The male children that were spared were taught to throw the spear, to 
use the waddy, to climb trees, and to throw stones. They were educated by 
their elders, and made fit to take part in fights and dances. 

Some ceremonies attended the initiation of the young males into the 
rights and privileges of manhood; but if the information afforded by the 
first settlers is correct, these differed altogether fi*om those practised on the 
continent. The young men, it is said, were given over to the old women, 
who cut them on the thighs, shoulders, and muscles of the breast with 
stone-cutting implements, and thus raised cicatrices. Mr. Davies states that 
when he witnessed the operation a female was the performer, and he had 
reason to believe that females in all such cases were chosen for the office. 
" The subject," he says, " was a yoxmg man named Penderoinej brother to 
the celebrated Western chief Weyrnerricke. The instrument was a piece of 
broken bottle ; and although the fat of his shoulder literally rose and turned 
back like a crimped fish, he was during the whole operation in the highest 
glee — ^laughing, and continually interrupting his operatrix by picking up 
chips to fling at our party in play. These scarifications are intended as 
ornaments." 

The women had raised cicatrices on their bodies; but it is not known 
whether they were purposely made and intended ad ornaments, or were the 
result of the cuttings and bleedings to which they were subjected when sick. 

It is said that circumcision was unknown to the natives. 

Mabbiagx. 

There were restrictions on marriage amongst the natives. A man was not 
permitted to marry a woman of his own tribe. Little or nothing beyond this 
is known of the customs which the men followed in selecting wives. A maa 
had usually but one wife ; but there are reasons to believe that polygamy was 
not unknown. Polyandry, or something very like it, existed ; and widows, it is 
affirmed, were, unless given in marriage, the common property of the males of 
the tribes into which they had married. 

Mr. Hugh M. Hull speaks doubtfully on the subject of marriage. He says 
"they usuidly selected wiv^s from other tribes than their own," and that a 
black never had more than one wife at a time. 



MABBIAGE. 387 

It may be said that they had passed ont of the commtinal system nearly, 
out of the endogamons system nearly, and no more can be said. From what is 
known of them, so much is certain. They had not reached the higher and more 
complex system under which women are given in marriage in Australia, but 
the germ of that system was apparently existing. 

The women were seldom accompanied by many children ; but there is no 
reason to suppose that they were less prolific than people of other races. 

The condition of a wife in Tasmania was abject. She was required to labor 
unceasingly. She had to provide food for her master, to keep his fire ready 
for cooking, and to cook his food; and, when marching, to carry whatever 
was deemed necessary for his proper entertainment and pleasure at the new 
encampment. With one or two children, and a heavy load, consisting of 
weapons and utensils, her progress was painful. 

Death and Bubial» 

The practices of the natives of Tasmania when a death occurred, and their 
ordinary mode of disposing of the bodies of the dead, greatly resembled those 
observed in many parts of Australia. 

" During the whole of the first night after the death of one of their tribe," 
says Davies, "they will sit round the body, using rapidly a low continuous 
recitation, to prevent the evil spirit from taking it away. They are extremely 
jealous of this ceremony being witnessed by strangers ; but I had upon one 
occasion an opportunity of being an ear-witness of it the whole night." The 
same writer says "they place the body upright in a hollow tree, and (having 
no fixed habitation) pursue their avocations. When some time has passed, 
say a year or upwards, they return to the place and bum the body, with the 
exception of the skull ; this they carry with them, until they chance (for I do 
not think that they lose time in seeking it) to fall in with a cemetery, in 
which a number of skulls are heaped together, when they add the one with 
them to the number, and cover them up with bark, leaves, Ac. They do not 
bury them in the ground. I have never been able to ascertain that they put 
either weapons or food in the tree with the dead."* 

In some parts of Northern Australia a similar practice prevails. Skulls are 
heaped together until at last a mound is formed ; and these mounds are seen 
mostly in rather conspicuous places. 

The bodies of the dead were not always placed in the hollows of trees. 
They were not seldom buried in natural holes or burnt. It is probable that the 
ceremonies were not the same in all parts of the island, and that greater care 
was taken in disposing of the remains of deceased warriors than in the case 
of women or young natives, whose bodies probably were quickly put out of 
sight. This is the more likely, as P^ron found rather elaborate tombs, which 
he thus describes : — 

"Tandis qu'avec intirfit je me livrois aux sensations pleines de charmes 
qu'un lieu semblable devoit inspirer, et que je portois, avec une douce inquietude, 

* Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science, &0. 



otso THE ABOBIGDJBS OP TASMANIA : 

mes regards aatoar de moi, j'aper^aB, k pea de distance, on monument dont 
la constmctioD me Barprit et rn'mt^ressa : je m'avan^ai prScIpitamment ; et 
voici ce que j'observai. 

Sar ime large pelonse de verdure, & I'ombre de quelques Casuarina antiques 
a'^levoit uu cdne grossiferement formS d'Scoroes d'arbres plantdes en terre par 
lenr partie inftrieure, et rfiuniea k leva sommet par one large bande de la m6me 
substance. Qoatre longues perches fix^s en terre par une de leurs extr^mit^s, 
servoient de sontien et d'appai k toutes les decrees aanlessons desquelles elles 
Be trouvoient places ; ces qoatre perches paroissoient encore avoir &t& destines 
k I'oraement de I'^difice; car, au lieu de ne se r^unir qu' k leur extr£mit£ 
Bup^rieare comme les decrees, et de ne former alors qa'un simple cGae, elles 
s'entre-croisoient k pen de distance de la moitifi de leur longneur, c'est-^ dire, 
pr^cis^ment k I'endroit de lenr sortie de la toiture du monument. De cette 
disposition, il rSsnltoit une esp&ce de pyramide t^traidre, dont le sonmiet se 
troaroit justement opposS k celni da cdne. Ce oontraste de formes et d'opposi- 
tion dans les denz parties de I'^difice, produisoit un efFet assez gracieax, et qai 
le devenoit davaotage eooore par la diBposition suivante. A chacun des quatre 
c6t^s de la pyramide correspondoit une large lani6re d'Scorce, dont lea deux 
extr^mit^a ae trouvoient inf^rieurement embrassges par cette grande bande que 
j'ai dit r^unir toutes les autres k leur sommet : il en resnltoit qae chacnne 
de ces quatre lani^s formoit une esp^ce d'ovale pins aiga vers son extr^mit^ 
inftrieore, plus large et plus arroadie dans aa portion sap^rienre : et comme 
chacun de ces ovales oorreapondoit k chacun des cdt^s de la pyramide, il est 
aiafi de concevoir tout ce qu'une aemblable disposition pouvoit offrir d'^lSgaut 
et de pittoresqae- 

Apr^H avoir doonS quelques inatans k I'obBervation de ce monnment, dont 
je cherchoia vainement h concevoir I'uaage, je me dSterminai k pousser plus 
svant I'examen que je voulois en faire ; j'enlevai pluaieurs grosses ficorces, et 
je p^n^trai facilement jnaqne dans rint6rienr de la toiture. Toute la portion 
sup^rieure en ^toit libre : dans le bas ae trouvoit un large c6ne aplati, form^ 
d'une herbe tine et l^g^re, dispos^e avec beaucoup de soin par couches concen- 

triqnes et tr^s profondes Mon int^rfit s'accroissoit avec mon 

incertitnde. Huit petites baguettes de bois crois^es entre elles au sommet du 
c^ne de verdure, servoient k le contenir ; chacune de ces baguettes avoit sea 
deux extr£mit£s fichus en terre, et consoIidSes elles-mgmes par I'applicatioa 
d'nne grosse pierre de granit aplatie. 

Taut de precautions me donnoient Tespoir de qaelque d^converte impor- 

tante ; je ne me trompois pas A peine j'eos eoulevS qnelques- 

tines dea coaches Bup^rieurea de gazon, que j'aperijua on gros tas de cendres 
blancheB, et qui paroisBoieut avoir 6t6 r^unies avec soin ; je plongeai ma main 
au milieu des ces cendrea ; je aeutis quelque chose qui r^sistait plus fortement ; 
je vouluB le retirer ; c'itoit une m&choire d'homme, k laquelle des lambeaux de 

chair tenoient encore Tin sentiment d'horrenr me pdu^tra. .... 

Cependant, en refl^hissant un pen sur tout ce que je venois d'obaerver dana la 
composition da monument, je ne tardai pas li iprouver' des sensations biea 
diff^rentes de cellea que j'avois cues d'abord ; cette verdnre, ces dears, ces arbrea 



DEATH AND BUBIAL. 3o9 

protectenrs, cette couclte profoude de jetinea herbes qui leconTToieiit lea cen- 
dres ; tout se r^nnissoit pour me convamcre qae je venoia de d^nviir on 

tombean 

A mesnTe qm j'enleroiB lea cendrea j'apercevoia on chaTbon tr^ nolr bonr- 
aotrflS, fiiable et I6gei ; je recoDnoa an cbarbon animal ; dans le mgme inatant je 
retirois mie portion de iSmor ayec qnelqaes lambeaux de chair; on y distingaoit 
encore des tron^ona de groa vaiaseaux remplis d'on aang calcind r^duit k I'^tat 
oil ce flnide rapproche d'one aubatance r^aineose. A ces premiers oasemens en 
BQcc^^rent d'antrea non moina reconnoiasablea ; dea vert^brea, des fragmens 
d'humeme, de tibia, des os da tarse, dn carpe, &a. ; tons gtoient profond^ment 
alt^r^a par le feu, et se reduiaoient facilement en pondre : j'en posa^de tontefoia 
quelqnes debris, avec dea portiona de la chair grillfe qui lenr fitoit adb^rente. 
Ces osaemena ne se troavoient paa, ainai qqe je I'avois cm d'abord, appliques 
simplement & la aar&ce de la terre ; ils Stoient tons rdonis an fond d'un troa 
circulaire de 40 & 48 centim&trea de diam^tre (15 & 18 poacos) ear 31 b 27 
centimetres de profondenr (8 k 10 ponces)."* 



Encampments, etc. 

Dove saya that the encampnients of the natives vere always formed on the 
margin of a stream or lagoon, ao that they might have at all times a plentifnl 
supply of water. They did not dig wella, it ia said; and their veaaela for 
containing water, whether large shells or baga of bark, did not contain anfBcient 
to admit of their staying in any apot remote from rivers or lakes. They 
erected break-winds in the more open parts of the country. These conaiated of 
large branches of trees, faBt«ned together and supported by stipes, uid arranged 
in the form of a crescent, the convex aide of which was so placed as to expose 
itself to the wind. A fire waa kept burning in the open apace to leeward. 
Near the aea-shore and in the monntainoos parts of the oonntiy they sought 
shelter in cavea and natural hoUowa. f 

It is stated by Davies that near " Pieman's Hiver, on the west coast, one 
tribe was discovered living in a village, if it may be so termed, of bark hntg 
or break-winds, of a better description than usual, and having somewhat the 
appearance of a fixed residence. It is probable, however, that being good 
hunting-ground, they merely intended making a lengthened stay there." J 

The natives had no domestic animals. It ia believed that it was only alter 
the colonization of the island by the whites that they adopted the practice of 
keeping aa peta the young of the kangaroo. They did not have doga antil they 
were introduced by the coloniats. Aiter they became poasessed of them, they 
kept numbers aroond their encampments, and the women very often snckled 
the pnppiee. 

There was no chief of any tribe, though the name was often applied by the 
whites to some man whoae skill and valor raised him somewhat above his 

* Vayage de Dtcouvtrta aux Temt Atutratta, ISOO-4, toI. I., pp. 36B-4. 
f Tatnutnian Joitmai 0/ Natural Scttnce. } Ibid, p. 418. 



890 THE ABOMGINXS OP TASMANIA: 

fellows, and who exercised anthority. Hie men were lazy and selfisb. The 
women had to carry sach goods as they possessed from camp to camp, while 
the men would pace slowly in trout; and, if the natore of the ground admitted 
of it, they would cunningly trail their spears after them, the point being held 
between the toes. They could abnost instantaneously transfer the S}>ear to the 
hand* Davies, in mentioning these fisM^ts, remarks that the spears were trailed 
by the toes in order that their hands might be free to throw the waddy at any 
small object that might appear. 

The same writer observed that the blacks could not stand continued fieitigue, 
and that in respect to endurance they were inferior to a hearty European — 
^^ nor,'' says he ^^ what will appear singular, can they, like him, bear constant 
exposure to bad weather ; when such sets in, they will cower round their fires, 
under the lee of their break-winds, in a sheltered situation, until a change takes 
place." 

The natives were superstitious, and did not like to move about after dark. 
They believed that their deceased relatives would appear again on earth. 
Lieut. Jeffery says that when the women were left by their husbands — ^who, 
as sealers, had often, in pursuit of their occupation, to be absent for several days 
— ^these a£fectionate creatures would sing or chant a hymn or song, addressing 
themselves to a deity who, they said, presides over the day. An evil spirit or 
demon rules the night ^^ The hymn or song," this writer says, ^' they address to 
him during the absence of their husbands or protectors is intended to secure 
his divine care over them, and especially to bring them back with speed and 
safety. The song is accompanied with gracefulness of action, and is poured 
forth in strains by no means inharmonious ; on the oontraiy, the voice of the 
singer, and in many parts the sweetness of the notes, which are delivered in 
pretty just cadence and excellent time, afford a species of harmony to which the 
most refined ear might listen with pleasure." 

This statement is in accordance with the experience of Mr. Geo. Hull, who, 
on the 24th March 1871, wrote a letter to his son, Mr. Hugh M. Hull, of 
Hobart Town, containing some information relating to the natives, which he had 
arranged expressly for this work. Mr. Hull's letter is as clearly written and as 
well composed as if he had been a young man; but at that time (1871) he was 
eighty-four years old, having taken charge of the Commissariat in Tasmania as 
Deputy Assistant Conmiissary-Greneral in 1819. Bespecting their singing 
he says — '^ It was, I think, in the year 1824 or 1825 that some ten or twelve 
natives appeared on the west bank of the Tamar, opposite Launceston. They 
coo-ed and made signs to be taken across, which was instantly complied with. 
There was not a man or a boy among them. It was a most singular occurrence. 
They were from sixteen to thirty years of age — all disgustingly dirty. I 
ordered my storekeeper to give them food. We made signs for them to sing 
and dance. The former they did in a manner which led me to think that they 
were at least one remove from the monkey tribe. They sang, all joining in 
concert, and with the sweetest harmony ; the notes not more than thirds. They 
began say in D and E, but swelling sweetly from note to note, and so gradually 
that it was a mere continuation of harmony — ^very melancholy, it is true. It 



ENOAUPHENTS, ETC. S91 

was like what it would be if you began one chord on the organ before 70Q took 
your fingera from the keys of the other. Their dances are a mere wriggling 
motion of the hipa and loinB, obBcene in the extreme." 

The dancea of the men are thas described by Bavies : — " Their principal 
amusement consists in their corrohborees or dances. These are sometimes held 
in the day-time, but &r more generally at night They light a large fire, romid 
which, qoite naked, they dance, run, and jump, keeping time to their own 
singing, which is &r &om nnmasical. These songs are various, each having 
its own peculiar dance, intended to illustrate some action or effect from causes. 
One is odled t^e kangaroo-dance, and is, along with some others, most -violent. 
In this the party (I have seen as many as ninety joined in one corrobboree) 
commence walking round the fire slowly, singing in a low monotonous tone. 
After this has continued for some time, they begin to get excited, singing in a 
. higher key, walking &ster, striking their hands upon the ground, and springing 
high in the air. By degrees their walk becomes a run ; their solitary leaps, A 
series ; their singing, perfect shrieking : they close upon the fire, the women 
piling fresh branches upon it. Still leaping in a circle, aad striking the ground 
with their hands at every bound, they wiU spring a clear five feet high, so near 
to the fire, so completely in the flames, that you &ncy they must be burnt. 
Excited to frenzy, they sing, shriek, and jump until their frames can stand it 
no longer, and they give up in the uttermost state of exhaustion. Some of 
their dancea are evidently lascivious ; some are medicine, &c.; though, had I 
not been told by themselves that they intended to represent making bread — 
taking such was the case — I never should have perceived any analogy." 

The following is a song, Davies says, of the Ben Lomond tribe. It ia not 
fit for translation, the subject not being very select. — 

Ne popila raina pc^na 
Ne popila raina pogana 
Ne popila raina pogana 

Thu me gunnea 
Thn me gunuea 
Thu me gunnea 

Thoga me gnnnea 
Thoga me gnnnea 
Thoga me gxmnea 

Naina thaipa raina pogana 
Naina thaipa raina pogana 
Naina thaipa raina pogana 
Kaara paaia powella paara 
Kaara paara powella paara 
Naara paara powella paara 

Ballahoo, Ballahoo, Hoo, hoo I 

(Their war-whoop, very gutteraL) 



392 THE ABORIGINBS 01 TASMANIA: 

Dr. Milligan hiui given an acconnt of the manner in wliich the natives of 
Tasmania believed that fire was bronght to them (see Vocahulary)^ and has 
added two or three songs. There were, no donbt, many stories, legends, and 
myths that afforded amusement to the natives when told by the old men over 
the camp-fires at night, and it is much to be regretted that so little has been 
preserved. That in Dr. Milligan^s paper reminds one of some of the stories 
told by the natives of the continent. 

Food. 

The food of the natives of Tasmania, like that of savages in other parts of 
the world, was yielded spontaneously by the land and the sea. 

There was scarcely an animal of any kind that was not deemed fit to be 
eaten; and in the central and eastern parts of Tasmania the blacks conld find 
kangaroos, bandicoots, wombats, and opossums, as well as snakes, lizards, 
grabs, and worms. Birds, too, were nnmerous ; and they had feasts, like the 
natives of the continent, at the season when the pupaa of ants were to be 
obtained. 

The opossum, however, afforded them food at all times. This animal was 
Qsually caught by the women. Provided with a rope made of kangaroo sinews 
or of grass, twisted, and with wooden handles &stened to the ends, they rapidly 
ascended even tall trees. "They first, as high as they could conveniently 
reach, cut a notch with a sharp stone in the side of the tree; then, throwing the 
bight of the rope up, and leaning back, it held against the tree by their weight, 
until with its assistance the climber got her right toe into the notch that had 
been cut ; then, grasping the tree with her left arm, the rope by a sudden jerk 
is thrown higher up the tree, a fresh notch is cut for the left toe ; and so the 
climber proceeds. If branches interfere, they are a hindrance to the climber ; 
but she then throws the end of the rope over it, and, holding both ends, raises 
herself up." * 

They climbed trees in the same way to procure honey, the women carrying 
with them grass baskets in which they placed the